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1919 VOL. XXXIII 1920 

The Canadian 
Field -Naturalist 

Being Volume XXXV 
of the Transactions of 
the Ottawa Field- 
Naturalists Club 

Organized March, 1 879 Incorporated March 1 884 





APRIL. 1919. 

No. 1. 


With the March, 1919, issue. The OTTAWA 
Naturalist, the official organ of the Ottawa Field- 
Naturalists' Club, ceased to exist under that name. 
The Ottawa Naturaust had a long and honour- 
able career. Like all similar publications it had its 
trials, its ups and downs, financial troubles, etc., but 
it weathered all storms and appeared fairly regularly 
during its thirty-two years of existence. In its 
pages are to be found many articles of great scientific 
value and we would like to have space to remind 
our readers of at least some of the more important 
of the contributions which it presented. With the 
increase in its size, improvement of paper, specially 
prepared articles, etc.. Vol. XXXII, certainly may 
be regarded as an excellent production and one 
which has brought forth many words of encourage- 
ment from its readers. 

This, the April issue of the organ of the club 
appears under a new name The CANADIAN FlELD- 
Naturalist. Such a change was intimated in the 
April, 1918, issue of The Ottawa Naturalist, 
and at the recent annual meeting of the Club, held 

on March 18, 1919, the same was duly approved. 
This change in name will not, of course, affect in 
any way the spirit of the publication. Such change 
only reflects its widened sphere of influence. We 
hope it will develop along improved lines and 
ultimately be accepted as the organ not only of The 
Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, but of similar 
organizations throughout Canada. There is an ex- 
cellent opportunity for the naturalists of Canada to 
assist in building up this publication and making it 
truly representative of Canadian scientific research. 
The popular side will, of course, not be overlooked. 
Special efforts will be made to make it useful to 
amateur naturalists, teachers and the public gen- 

The subscription price for the present volume 
which will contain six issues, namely for the months 
of April, May, September, October, November 
and December will be $1.00. Thereafter the volumes 
will consist of nine issues each volume beginning 
with the January number; the subscription price of 
each volume will be increased proportionately. 


By Professor Chas. H. O'Dongghue, D.Sc, and J. Nelson Gowanlock, B.A., 

Fellow in Zoology, Zoological Department, 

University of Manitoba. 

Island faunae, ever an interesting field in orni- 
thology, become particularly attractive in contin- 
ental areas where lake islands afford the only suit- 
able breeding grounds for certain water birds. 

The following observations refer to a small but 
interesting island in the northern part of Lake 
Winnipeg visited on July the 9th and 1 3th, 1918, 
whereon a colony of Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) 
was found. No record of this species breeding in 
Manitoba has hitherto been published. A specimen 
of Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus) was 
also secured and constitutes the first inland record 
for this province. 

Through the courtesy of the Riverton Fish 
Company, of Riverton, Man., the authors were 
enabled to make the journey a round trip of some 
500 miles from Hnausa to Berens Island. The 
objects of the trip were first to study if possible, 
breeding colonies of White Pelicans (Pelecanus 
erythrorhynchos) and second, to gather some idea 
of the biological conditions on the northern portion 
of the lake. The original intention to make Rein- 
deer Island the base proved impracticable and a 
camp was established at Swampy Bay, Berens 
Island, where the Riverton Fish Company main- 
tained a large fishing station. We desire to express 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

our warm appreciation of the sympathetic assistance 
afforded by the men at the stations, particularly by 
Mr. Johnny Jonasson. Berens Island was chosen 
mainly because of the possibility that White Pelicans 
would be found breeding on Pelican Island which 
lies some four or five miles west of Berens Island. 

Pelican Island lies approximately in longitude 
951/2 and latitude 52!/2 and is a typical, rocky lake 
island, some ten to fifteen acres in extent. Between 
Pelican Island and the northern shore of the lake, 
there are no islands and so its north coast meets the 
full force of the waves raised by the winds sweeping 
across this 100 miles of open water. Lake Win- 
nipeg with its area of over 8,000 square miles, is 
very dangerous owing to its quick changes from calm 
to storm and fishermen familiar with the whole lake, 
declare this region between Pelican and Berens 
Islands to be the worst. The shores of Pelican 
Island are extremely rocky ^there are no sand 
beaches and a landing from a rowboat requires 
cautious management even in calm weather. The 
island is partly wooded with birch, ash, etc., but 
inland the ground is depressed in a basin-like central 
hollow, overgrown with marsh vegetation. A 
barren tongue of land juts out from the east side 
of the island forming a shingle spit. 

The first time the authors approached the island 
in a skiff, flocks of birds were observed resting on 
the eastern point, while with prism binoculars. 
Herring Gulls and Terns could be distinguished 
everywhere along the shingle spit and adjacent shore. 
Two young Herring Gulls, still in natal down, ran 
down the beach to the water as the boat reached 
land. One of these was captured. The uproar 
among the birds caused by the landing increased 
when the shingle spit was reached. Numerous de- 
serted Herring Gulls' nests, substantially built of 
vegetable debris, lined the edge of the grass zone 
or were scattered over the bare pebbles and every- 
where were the remains of pellets disgorged by the 
gulls. No eggs were found until the zone of 
vegetation had ended, when, passing out onto the 
bare eastern spit, a densely populated ternery was 
discovered. Over this space were between 200 and 
300 occupied nests, frequently almost touching, each 
containing one or two eggs. After a brief survey 
of the ternery, a low hiding blind was erected and 
left for the birds to return to the colony. 

On returning later, the whole colony was seen 
to be still on the wing, shrieking and screaming above 
the breeding ground. The cause was soon revealed. 
In the midst of the colony was a fisherman method- 
ically gathering the eggs from the nests. The old 
fellow could scarcely understand English and after 
much difficulty, it was explained that some of the 

nests were to remain undisturbed. The birds were 
now so thoroughly alarmed that an hour spent in 
the hiding-tent in the hope of photographing them 
proved vain and the remaining hour or so of light 
was expended in examining and photographing the 
nests and eggs. An adult Caspian Tern was col- 
lected together with some clutches of eggs. A fair 
portion of the colony had not been disturbed. It 
was hoped that the next visit would find the owners 
of these nests back at the task of incubation and so 
the hiding-tent was left in position, as carefully 
concealed as possible. 

On July 13, Pelican Island was re-visited. The 
birds were observed as before, resting on the rocks 
and along the shore. On approaching the breeding 
ground, the usual alarm of the parent birds was not 
in evidence and closer examination showed that 
every remaining egg had been destroyed evidently 
by crows (vide infra) and on the whole spot not a 
single occupied nest remained. A specimen of 
Parasitic Jaeger and two still occupied Herring Gull 
nests were also discovered during this visit. 

Reference to the published records of Manitoban 
birds yielded only an isolated record of the Caspian 
Tern. It is not mentioned by Bell (3) nor by E. 
Thompson Seton (II and 12) and is recorded only 
by Nutting (6) whose record is cited by Preble (7). 
Nutting collected a single Caspian Tern on Lake 
Winnipeg at the mouth of the Saskatchewan river 
in 1892. The A.O.U. Check List (I) says of the 
Caspian Tern: "Range nearly cosmopolitan" but 
gives few North American breeding records, viz: 
"Great Slave Lake, Klamath Lake, Oregon, on 
islands of northern Lake Michigan, on coast of 
Southern Labrador, and also on coasts of Texas, 
Louisiana, Mississippi and (formerly) Virginia". 
The discovery of such a colony in Lake Winnipeg 
is, therefore, of unusual interest. 

Although there are no published records of the 
species breeding in Manitoba, we have reason to 
believe that it was previously recognized by Mr. 
Eric Dunlop, since killed in action in France, a 
naturalist who in 1914 and 1915 collected in 
northern Lake Winnipeg for the Carlisle Museum, 
Carlisle, England. Dunlop is said to have found 
the Caspian Tern breeding on the west coast of 
Reindeer Island, but, unfortunately, his records are 
not available. While in the north, the authors met 
with Dunlop's chief guide, Capt. Goodman, who 
through his work with Dunlop had become 
acquainted with many of the birds. Capt. Good- 
man stated that in 1914 the Caspian Terns were 
found breeding only on the west shore of Reindeer 
Island and had not been noted anywhere else 
although numerous islands, including Pelican Island, 
were then visited. 

April. 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 




k" * 

r.- '* 



1. Pelican Island. The shingle spit upon which the ternery was situated is visible in the 
foreground of the island. 

2. Young Herring Gull. The rocky character of shore adjacent to the ternery is here 
shown. July 8, 1918. 

3. Caspian Tern's nest showing remarkable variation in eggs of single clutch. Also 
exceptional in its employment of drift to form a "nest". 

4. Typical nest of Caspian Tern. Note entire absence of vegetable nesting materials. 

The Canadian Field-Naturallst 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

The Caspian Terns' nesting ground was a com- 
pact area situated on a slope of the shingle spit and 
measured only some 20 yards by 30 yards. The 
ternery sloped from some 10 to 12 feet above lake 
level at the highest point down to some four feet 
above lake level at the lowest point. In this space 
were well over 200 nests. Somewhat over 400 eggs 
were noted and exact measurements taken of 46 of 
them. A small, peculiar pond to the west of, and 
some 10 yards from the boundary of the ternery, 
contained a few water plants and algae and was 
well populated with large frogs (Rana pipiens). 
This pond showed every evidence of being much 
visited by the birds. Between 600 and 800 adult 
Caspian Terns must have been observed on the first 
visit, the birds resting on the stones along the shore, 
fishing cff-shore or flying together with Herring 
Gulls and Common and Forster Terns above the 
island. The stomach of the individual shot con- 
tained remains of small fish. The identity of the 
species was first suspected from the size and shape 
of the eggs, later determined by close range observa- 
tion from '.he hiding-tent and finally confirmed by 
the finding of dead specimens and the shooting of an 
adult female. 

The nest frequently consisted of mere depressions 
in the shingle, absolutely no vegetable or other 
materials being utilized. In some other instances, 
grass bents, dead rushes, bits of drift, etc., were 
gathered together forming a rude, basin-shaped 
structure. Thus the type of nest appears to re- 
semble most closely that of Lesser Tern (Sterna 
m'lnuta) (9) and not that of the Common Tern 
(Sterna hirundo) (10) which most frequently builds 
quite a noticeable nest of gathered materials. The 
deserted and much better constructed nests of 
Herring Gulls were occasionally used by the Cas- 
pian Terns, apparently no additions or alteration 
being made by the new tenants. In no case did the 
number of eggs in a nest exceed two. Frequently, 
there was only one egg, usually fresh, in a nest. It 
is of interest that Van Winkle (5) records three as 
the usual number of eggs per nest on the Gravel 
Gull Islands, Lake Michigan, whereas we found 
that in some cases where there were two eggs m the 
nest, they were both in such an advanced stage that 
there would have been ample time for the third egg 
to have been laid had three been the normal number 
of the clutch. 

The eggs exhibited a considerable range of varia- 
tion in color, size and type of marking, but destruc- 
tion by the fishermen and the crows prevented the 
taking of a series of measurements similar to those 
made by Rowan, Parker and Bell (10) as was 
originally intended. The measurement of a char- 

acteristic series of 46 eggs was fortunately secured, 
from which the following data were obtained: 

Average length, 63.59 m.m. ; average breadth, 
43.84 m.m.; greatest length, 72.00 m.m.; shortest 
length, 56.00 m.m. ; greatest breadth, 46 m.m. ; least 
breadth, 41.00 m.m. 

The two eggs of a clutch sometimes differed con- 
siderably, though a sufficient number were not ex- 
amined to allow of satisfactory statistical treatment. 
Thus: in clutch No. 33 the two eggs were 70 x 46 
and 67 X 45 m.m.; in clutch No. 23 the two eggs 
Avere 66 X 45 and 63 x 43 m.m. 

Like differences were found also in color, for in 
one nest one egg was of a pale blue background 
with a few very faint spots, while the second was 
he-^vily spotted and blotched wi;h black upon a 
brown background. The eggs that were opened 
and examined exhibited every stage of development 
from practically no incubation, the primitive streak 
stage, through to large embryos. The majority, how- 
ever, were fresh. None seemed less than a week 
from hatching. 


The Parasitic Jaeger (Stercorarius parasiticus) 
of which a specimen was found on July 23 on the 
north end of Pelican Island, is also a bird of some 
interest as it is the first record for this area. The 
Canadian Catalogue of Birds (Macoun, 5) gives 
the following record for Hudson Bay: "a specimen 
of the melanistic form (of Stercorarius parasiticus) 
taken at Fort Churchill, Hudson Bay, 1845 (Dr. 
Gillespie, Jr.)" Preble (7), however, records the 
species as occurring on the coast of Hudson Bay, 
below Cape Eskimo in 1900. Both of these, how- 
ever, are on the sea-coast and at least 500 miles 
north of Pelican Island. The two other members 
of this strange genus, the Pomarine Jaeger (Stercor- 
arius pomarinus) and the Long-tailed Jaeger ^5. 
longicaudus) have been recorded for Manitoba, the 
former on Hudson Bay (Preble, 7) and the latter 
once from Aweme, Man., May, 1903, by Mr. 
Norman Criddle (Macoun, 1909) and also once 
from Clandeboye, Man., October, 1902, by Atkin- 
son (2). 

The specimen of Parasitic Jaeger which the 
authors discovered was lying dead on the rocky 
ground above the drift line in the midst of a de- 
serted Herring Gull colony. The individual was an 
example of the white phase. From the situation and 
appearance of the bird it is possible that it had been 
killed by Herring Gulls while poaching on the 
colony, a fate several times recorded for this species. 

The following observations were made concern- 
ing other species of birds noted on Pelican Island: 

HERRING GULL (Larus argentatus). This species 

April, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

had practically completed breeding. Over 300 de- 
serted nests and but four occupied nests were dis- 
covered three with well-grown young and one with 

RING-BILLED GULLS ( LaTus delaTvarensis) were 
noted in company with the last species. 

forester's terns (Sterna forsteri) and COMMON 
TERNS (Sterna hirundo) were numerous, almost 
equalling the Caspian Terns in numbers. The gulls 
and terns all consorted together freely. 

BLACK TERNS ( Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis) 
were entirely absent although they are quite numer- 
ous in the south end of Lake Winnipeg. 

WHITE PELICAN (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) 
were not noted, although excreta and two humeri 
were found. However, the species was regularly 
observed fishing in Swampy Bay, five miles from 
Pelican Island, so it probably is a frequent visitor 
here also. 

SCAUP DUCKS (Marila mar'da or M. affinis) were 
observed, five or si.x individuals together, resting on 
the water not far offshore from the ternery. 

MALLARD (Anas boschas) were observed and 
one adult female collected. 

WHITE-WINGED SCOTERS (Oidemia deglandi) are 
frequently caught and drowned in the fishermen's 
nets. They probably visit Pelican Island frequently. 

Two or three LEAST SANDPIPERS (P'uob'.a minu- 
tilla) were observed on the beach. 

LESSER YELLOW-LEGS (Totanus flavipes) were 
seen feeding along the water-edge. 

A PECTORAL SANDPIPER (Phobia maculaia) was 
shot out of a flock of five feeding near the ternery. 

Several SPOTTED SANDPIPERS (Aciitis maculaia) 
were found feeding along the shore. 

Night hawks (Cbordedes virginianus) were 
noted at Swampy Bay and very probably inhabit 
Pelican Island. None was observed probab'.y 
because both visits were made during daylight 

CROWS (Corvus brachyrhynchos) were common 
on the island. When the ternery was first visited, the 
crows gathered near at hand to watch the pro- 
ceedings. When the second visit was paid, the 
crows were disturbed from the area of the ternery 
itself, where they were engaged in eating the 
Caspian Terns' eggs. The crows appear to feed 
largely upon the dead fish cast up by the water 
and they were constantly observed patrolling the 
shores in search of such food. Nests were found 
in considerable numbers. 

SAVANAH SPARROWS (Passerculus sandivichcnsis 
savanna) were in song and apparently breeding near 
the ternery. 

CEDAR WAXWINGS (Bombyc'dla cedrorum) wers 
common in the trees on Pelican Island. They were 

still in flocks and had not yet, apparently, begun 

RED-EYED N'IREOS (Vireosylva olivacea) were 
noted here as they were on every island and bit 
of the wooded shore the authors visited during the 
whole trip. 

YELLOW WARBLERS (Dendroiza aestiva aesliva) 
were common and breeding. 

burniae) were noted and were in full song. 

The discovery of the Caspian Tern Colony on 
Pelican Island is especially interesting in the light 
of our knowledge of the distribution of this bird. 
The A. O. U. Check list (1) gives the winter range 
of this species as "South Atlantic and Gulf Coasts". 
To and from this region, logically, the Pelican 
Island terns must each year journey; yet there is not 
a single record of a Caspian Tern being collected in 
Central or Southern Manitoba. The route of migra- 
tion that would seem most reasonable is that down 
the Red- River-Mississippi Valley chain, yet this ab- 
sence of records proves fairly conclusively that the 
Caspian Terns do not regularly or in numbers, tra- 
verse this path. The alternative suggestion is a 
migration route by way of Hudson Bay, thence to 
the Atlantic coast and thence southward. The 
Pelican Island and Reindeer Island colonies might 
thus possibly be explained as an invasion of this 
species from Hudson Bay, these islands the out- 
liers of the numerous islands including Berens Island 
being the' first of the group upon which the species 
has established itself. The birds in going to their 
winter range, still probably use the old route of 
invasion and travel circuitcusly out by way of 
Hudson's Bay and the Atlantic coast. Analagous 
to this might be cited the case of the Bobolink 
y'Dolichonyx oryzivorus) which, according to Ccoke 
(4) has invaded Utah by extending its range far 
westward, then southward yet in returning to its 
winter home in southern Brazil, the Utah bobolinks 
do not go directly, but move along their old invasion 
route. I.e., they first journey northward, then east- 
ward, then they turn south to their distant winter 
range. It is conceivable that in the case of the 
bobolink, a frequenter of damp meadows, its choice 
of route is partly, perhaps largely, determined by 
following such suitable localities and therefore it 
does not cross the arid regions to the south and 
southeast of the points reached in its new advance. 
Indeed it is only since the extension of irrigation 
in certain parts of Utah that it has made its appear- 
ance there. Whereas the Caspian Tern, having 
once got into the lake region has practically an 
unbroken inland water system over which it could 
return to the south. 

The Pelican Island colony is declared by the 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIU 

fishermen, who recognize the Caspian Tern to be a 
new bird on the lake, to date within the last few 
years. Indeed the earliest definite information re- 
garding it was their report that three years previous 
to our visit, a wolf crossed to Pelican Island from 
Swampy Bay and destroyed all eggs and young 
birds in the colony. The species was not found by 
Dunlop when he visited the island in 1914 and it is 
hardly possible that he could have missed it had it 
been there. Capt. Goodman stated that, on Rein- 
deer Island, Dunlop found the Caspian Terns breed- 
ing as late as mid-August. 


1. American Ornithologists' Union, 1910, Checlt 
List of Nortli American Birds, Tliird Edition, New 

2. Atkinson, George E.. 1904. Rare Bird Re- 
cords of Manitoba. Transaction 6.5, The Historical 
and Scientific Society of Manitoba, Winnipeg. 

3. Bell, Robert, 1879. Report on Expeditions on 
the Churchill and Nelson rivers, etc. Report Prog. 

Can. Geo!. Society, 1878-79. Ottawa. Birds, pp. 67c 
to 70c. 

4. Cooke, Wells W., 1913. Bird Migration. U. 
S. Dept. Agricul. Bulletin No. 18.5. Washington. 

Ti. Macoun, John, and Macoun, James M., 1909. 
Catalogue of Canadian Birds. Department of Mines, 

6. Nutting, C. C, 1893. Rep. on Zoological Ex- 
plorations on tlie Lower Saskatchewan river. Bui. 
from the Laboratories of the State University of 
Iowa, Vol. IT, No. 3. Article IV, pp. 235-293. 
January, 1893. 

7. Preble. E. A., 1902. A Biological Investiga- 
tion of the Hudson Bay Region, N.A. Fauna. No. 
22, Wash. Birds, pp. 75-131. 

8. Rowan, William, 1915. The Blakeney Point 
Ternery, Blakeney Point Publication No. 13. 

9. Rowan, William, no date. The Little Tern, 
Blakeney Point Publication No. 17. 

10. Rowan, William, Parker, K. M.. and Bell, 
Jul'a, 1914. On Homotyposis and allied characters 
in the egg of the Common Tern. Biometrika, Vol. 
X, No. 1. 

11. Seton, E. T., 1909. The Birds of Manitoba. 
A Handbook to Winnipeg. Pub. by the local com- 
mittee Frit. Ass. Adv. Sci., Winnipeg. 

12. Thompson, E. E. ( E. T. Seton). 1891. The 
Birds of Manitoba. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 
xiii, pp. 457-643. Wash. 


By J. Davidson, F.L.S., F.B.S.F., Instructor in Botany, 
University of British Columbia. 

Much interest has recently been aroused over what 
appears to be phenomenal deposits of sugar on the 
leaves of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga laxifolia) in cer- 
tain areas of British Columbia. Although Douglas 
fir sugar has been known to the Indians of the dry- 
belt for many years, its occurrence seems to have 
been overlooked by the numerous surveyors and 
others who have travelled in the province; at least, 
in-so-far as the writer is aware, no record has been 
made of its occurrence previous to 1915, when an 
illustration appeared in the British Columbia Botan- 
ical Office Report for the year 1914, showing a 
branch of Douglas fir laden with white masses of 
sugar. This photograph was prepared from speci- 
mens received from Mr. Jas. Teit, of Spence's 
Bridge, B.C., who, in connection with his ethnol- 
ogical work on the plants used as food by the 
British Columbia Indians, wished to have an ex- 
planation of the deposits; Mr. Teit also forwarded 
samples of Douglas fir sugar to Dr. E. Sapir of the 
Geological Survey of Canada, who had the samples 

During the summer of 1917, when the European 
conflict caused an increase in the cost of living and 
the introduction of measures to economize sugar, in- 
terest in this phenomenon was renewed and in- 
tensified by the appearance of a glowing account 
supplied to one of the Vancouver newspapers by 
some irresponsible contributor. As a result, a num- 
ber of people became quite enthusiastic regarding 

this "new" discovery and hastened to ascertain its 
commercial possibilities. 

In view of the fact that many people in Canada 
are interested in the phenomenon, and at the request 
of Mr. Teit, the writer consented to give a summary 
of what is known regarding Douglas fir sugar and 
the factors influencing its exudation as deposits on 
the leaves. All the information relating to the dis- 
tribution and habitats of sugar-bearing Douglas firs 
was supplied by Mr. Teit who, being resident in 
the heart of the dry-belt and having an intimate 
knowledge of the Indians of the interior, was best 
able to secure the necessary data. 

It appears that Douglas fir sugar cannot be relied 
on as an annual crop. Some years it is abundant, 
other years little or none is found. It is therefore 
regarded by Indians as an extra, rather than a 
necessary part of their food supplies, but when avail- 
able in quantity it is collected and may be kept for 
future use. 

Previous to having seen the specimens, the writer 
suspected that the sugar had been produced as an 
exudation on the leaves through punctures made by 
insects possibly aphides; such as is said to occur on 
Tamarix mannifera which, when attacked by a 
Coccus, yields a kind of mucilaginous sugar the 
manna of Mt. Sinai; but information to the effect 
that only healthy trees produced the sugar and 
that such trees were practically free from insec's. 

April, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

with the exception of such as were feeding on the 
sugar, led one to suspect that the sugar might be 
related to the manna of commerce, obtained from 
several species of ash (Fraxinus) as an exudate 
wh]ch assumes the form of flakes or fragments. 

When specimens were received, however, in the 
summer of 1914, it was seen that none of the pre- 
viously recorded sugars corresponded with the pe- 

and pending the results of the analysis which was 
then being carried out by Dr. F. T. Shutt, Dominion 
Chemisi:, at Ottawa. 

The sugar appears as white masses varying in 
size from '/4 of an inch to I J/2 or 2 inches in diam- 
eter. The smaller masses are formed like white drops 
at the tips of single leaves, occasionally two or three 

Brancli of Douglas fir laden with white masses of .sugar. 
(From B. C. Hot. Office Rep., 1914). 

culiar masses formed by Douglas fir. A careful 
search for information as to its chemical analysis 
revealed nothing to show that even its occurrence 
was known. On account of its interest and novelty 
at the time, the photograph in the Botanical Office 
Report was supplied to record its occurrence and 
illustrate the phenomenon, pending an investigation 
into the circumstances under which it was formed. 

leaf-tips are inbedded in larger drops, while the 
largest masses are usually scattered irregularly over 
the leaves and branchlets. 

The sugar tastes decidedly sweet, passing tempor- 
arily into a pasty consistency during dissolution in 
one's m.ou'h; it is completely soluble. When col- 
lected it IS quite hard and dry, with no tendency to 
be sticky. A slight rain is sufficient to dissolve the 


The Canadian Fik'.d-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

sugar ofl the trees, and patches of recrystalized sugar 
may then be found at the base of trees or on the 
ground. Frequently, however, in this situation it 
daes not recrystalize but may be found in a fluid 
or semi-fluid condition which is attractive to flies 
and other insects. Sometimes, as above mentioned, 
insects feed on the sugar while still on the trees, and 
it is reported that bears go af^cr it, causing the 
breakage of many branches. 


A.s is well known, many plants have structures 
known as walerpores,, situated usually at the tip 
or apex of the leaves, and, in the case of lobed 
leaves, often at the tips of the lobes or teeth along 
the margin. Occasionally when the root-pressure is 
very active, so much water is forced up into the 
plant that the leaves become gorged witli water 
which escapes through these water-pores compar- 
able to a kind of safety valve. Most people are 
familiar with the drops of water at the tips of 
grass leaves in the morning after a hot dry summer 
day and a cool, clear night, giving origin to the 
Scotch saying, "Ilka blade o' grass keeps its ain drap 
o dew . 

In some localities, where the soil is calcareous, 
minute white incrustations of lime are found around 
the water-pores; ihese incrustations may be found on 
grasses, and are of common occurrence on certain 
species of Saxifrages which show them on every 
tooth along the margin of the leaves, such incrusta- 
tions are small, and are only formed under certain 
ecological cond tions, in which temperature of the 
soil and atmosphere, and water content of the soil 
are important factors. 


A review of the disfributicn, and various factors 
influencing the prcduction of sugar by Douglas fir, 
will prove of especial interest to physiological and 
ecological botanists, to whom the phenomenon will 
serve as a splendid illustration of the influence of 
environment en a plant which under ordinary con- 
ditions in Bntish Columbia does not exude sugar. 

The region in which sugar-bearing Douglas firs 
are most abundant, lies between the 50th and 51st 
parallels and between 12l-122 long. This in- 
cludes the driest and hottest part of the dry-belt of 
British Columbia. Within this area they are rather 
common in the Thompscn valley west of the mouth 
of the Nicola river, also near the junction of the 
Thompson and Fraser rivers at Lytton ; they have 
been found a little above Lilloet in the Fraser 
valley, but according to present information are not 
known to occur north of Clinton in this region. 

About 10 miles north of the apex of the angle 
formed by the junction of the Thompson and 

Fraser rivers, lies Betani valley, at an altitude of 
between 3,500 and 4,000 feet, some years sugar is 
comparatively abundant on trees in this region; the 
geology and flora is very different from that of 
the adjacent Thompson or Fraser valleys; here one 
may find sugar-bearing Douglas firs growing on the 
southern and south-western slopes having the great- 
est sun exposure. The soil produces a thick cover- 
ing of grass and other vegetation, indicating a plenti- 
ful supply of available soil moisture; differing in 
this respect from the dry gravelly southern and 
south-western slopes of the main valleys of the 
Fraser and Thompson. 

Suitable habitats are found at intervals over a 
considerable area of the dry-belt regions, in ad- 
dition to samples received from the north and south 
sides of the Thompson river near Spence's Bridge, 
Douglas fir sugar has been reported from around 
Kamloops and Savona, also from the Nicola and 
Similkameen valleys, and is said to be found in the 
southern part of Okanagan valley. In-so-far as the 
chief of the Kootenay Indians is aware, it is not 
known in the Kootenay country although it is re- 
ported by an Indian as being found in eastern part 
of Washington state. United States. 

The habitats in which sugar-bearing firs are 
found, are usually on gentle slopes facing east or 
north in that region of the dry-belt where the Doug- 
las fir is encroaching on the dry-belt flora. The 
trees are in comparatively open areas with abund- 
ant exposure to the sun. 


As a rule, sugar is not found on trees situated 
on fully exposed southern or western slopes, nor on 
areas where Douglas fir forms a dense forest. 
Southern and western slopes, exposed to the full heat 
of the sun, dry cut much sooner than ground gently 
sloping to the east or north; the greater abundance 
of soil mcisture in the latter is a point to be kept 
in mind. 


In the region above mentioned the descending zone 
of the Douglas fir and the ascending zone of yellow 
pine overlap, so that the trees are well exposed to 
the sun, not being so crowded as to limit the foliage 
to a narrow crown, as happens in dense forests. An 
abundance of leaves exposed to the sun will result 
in an abundant formation of carbohydrates during 
the day; under ordinary conditions these carbohy- 
drates would be removed from the leaves and trans- 
ported to growing tissues or storage tissues during 
the night. This normally takes place in most plants, 
including Douglas fir in its natural habitat in the 
coast area where it forms dense forests of gigantic 

April. 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


In the dry-belt area it is evident that Douglas fir 
trees are exposed to the sun for a greater number 
of hours per day, the soil and atmosphere is warmer, 
the forests are more open, with freer circulation of 
air, than Douglas fir forests in the coast area. 

It appears then that in years when Douglas firs 
are fully exposed to a long succession of hot, cloud- 
less days in midsummer, and provided with the re- 
quisite soil conditions (i.e., temperature and available 
water) the trees gradually accumulate an excess of 
carbohydrates during the many hours daily ex- 
posure to sun, the increasing temperature of the soil 
enables the cells of the roots to maintain or increase 
their activity during the night, which in dry-belt 
regions in midsummer is very short, and during 
which root-pressure is at its maximum. 


When night comes on, the chlorophyll-containing 
guard-cells have ceased photosynthesis, the guard- 
cells become isotonic (i.e., of equal concentration) 
with the surrounding cells, and the stomata close; so 
that even during warm nights little evaporation can 
take place from leaves so well protected with cutin. 
As a result of the increased root-pressure and ces- 
sation of transpiration the leaves become gorged 
with water in which the sugar formed by the re- 
conversion of starch into sugar is dissolved and 
exuded as drops at the tips of the leaves. The warm 
dry atmosphere at that time of the year causes the 
rapid evaporation of the water, leaving the sugar in 
the form of drops of various sizes as a deposit at the 
tip. Occasionally two or three such drops come 
in contact with each other and fuse to form one 
large drop, frequently they become so large that 
they fall from the leaf tips onto the leaves or 
branches below; a succession of these large drops 
cause the formation of the larger irregular deposits 
referred to above. 

There is no doubt about the exudation of the 
sugar from the leaf-tips; deposits may be found in 
all stages, from mere traces up to large drops, in 
some cases just dried as they were about to fall. 

With a knowledge of the ecological conditions 
under which Douglas fir exudes sugar, one can 
understand why it may be rare or absent in some 
years; one or two dull, cool, or wet days would 
suffice to alter one or more of the factors which 
play a necessary part in promoting its exudation. 
A dull day would enable the tree to utilize much 

of the excess sugar or store it as starch or other 
reserve food. A cool day would diminish the activ- 
ity of the sugar forming cells in the leaves, and by 
lowering the temperature of the soil would lessen 
the activity of the roots, thus diminishing the root- 
pressure and exudation of water, while a wet day 
and subsequent evaporation from the soil would 
more effectually lower both the soil and atmospheric 
temperatures. Other factors would be affected, bui 
the above summarizes the main points. 
The results of Dr. Shutt's analysis of two sam- 
ples one supplied in 1914, the other in 1917 in- 
dicate a high degree of constancy of composition of 
Douglas fir sugar. 

The preliminary analysis made in 1914 gave the 
following results: 

Total sugars after hydrolysis 96.25% 

Reducing sugars 23.3 

The analysis of the 1917 sample furnished the 
following data: 

Total sugars after hydrolysis 91.91 

Reducing sugars 24.86 

Foreign matter, etc., insoluble in water .64 

Moisture 7.00 

Subsequent to the analysis, a contribution* from 
the Carbohydrate Laboratory of the Bureau of 
Chemistry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wash- 
ington, D.C. a laboratory especially equipped for 
the examination of saccharine substances, reports a 
complete analysis of the same product. 

A summary of their findings is as follows: 
"The sample of Douglas Fir manna yielded 
abcul 50% of pure crystalline melezitose, and there 
IS evidence that the manna contains sucrose and 
some reducing sugar probably a mixture of glucose 
with a smaller quantity of fruc"^ose. The percentage 
composition of the sample of dry manna that we 
examined was approximately: 

Melezitose 75-83% 

Sucrose 2.9% 

Reducing Sugars 11.5%" 

Melezitose is an extremely rare trisaccharide of 

the formula C H O which on hydrolysis yields 

IS n2 16 ^ J J 

plucose and turanose, the latter is very difficultly 
hydrclyscd to glucose and fructose but in the con- 
ventional methods of sugar analysis, the only pro- 
duct of hydrolysis having direct reducing action is 

*The Occurrence of Melezitose in a Manna 
from the Douglas Fir, by C. S. Hudson and S. F. 
Sherwood fjoiirnfil of the American Chemical 
Societv, Vol. XL,, No. 9, 1918). 




By M. Y. Williams. 

Ask the average Canadian to name our educa- 
tional institutions and it is scarcely likely that 
"Museums" would be included in the list. Ask 
a dweller in New York City the same question, 
and if he omitted "Museums" he would show that 
he failed to appreciate the advantages at his very 

Modern pedagogy recognizes the importance of 
studying objects rather than the description of ob- 
jects; the modern museums display, in instructive 
and attractive manner, things gathered from the 
great and wonderful world around us. We have 
primary and secondary schools, and higher up are 
the colleges and universities, but museums include 
among their attending students the toddling infant, 
and the grey-haired patriarch. 

Let us consider some few of the things which 
great museums have to teach us. One of the newest 
as well as one of the greatest of the museums on this 
continent, is the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, situated in New York City. Its exhibits are 
multitudinous and truly impressive. Who can view 
understandingly the wonderful mounted specimens 
of the reptilean monsters of the dim geologic past, 
without having a broader, more profound, more 
accurate view of the brief moment of time in which 
we live? Who can stand before those creations of 
art, the background bird groups, without having a 
better understanding and appreciation of the beauties 
of our b;rd life in its natural setting? Such work is 
as truly the work of the artist, as are paintings and 
statues! The wonderful array of minerals and the 
priceless collections of gems and precious stones il- 
lustrate the best that the rocks have to reveal. As 
wanderers from outer space, there are to be seen 
some of the largest meteorites known. Among them 
are included Peary's wonderful specimens from 
Greenland, one of which is as large as an ex- 
plorer's tent. 

And what of the National Museum at Washing- 
ton? Few will fail to recall the wonderful groups 
of American aboriginies, transfixed as it were near 
their habitations in the midst of their daily tasks, 
with their implements, and food supplies nearby ; 
nor can the fine groups of African game animals be 
forgotten, including rhinoceros, buffaloes and lions, 
collected by Colonel Theodore Roosevelt. 

From the Field Museum of Natural History, 
Chicago, the visitor carries away a better under- 
standing and clearer picture of African antelope, 
hyenas, zebras and leopards in their natural habitat 
than pages of descriptive writing could have given. 

The Milwaukee Public Museum takes the visitor 
back to the days of early colonial life in America, 
and depicts a street scene, say in Massachusetts, with 
small frame houses, homemade furniture, dove cotes, 
and people dressed in simple homespun. Fine 
groups of mammals and birds and many other ex- 
hibits are there, but the colonial village is unique. 

The New York State Museum at Albany illus- 
trates in wonderfully realistic form, the early fish- 
like creatures of the geologic past, and one of the 
earliest trees known from fossil remains. The 
Iroquois indian groups, prepared from indian 
models, under the direction of a Mohawk Indian, 
perpetuate the memories of Indian life as it was 
when Champlain was founding Canada. 

And there are other great museums at Pittsburg, 
Brooklyn, Boston, Philadelphia, and elsewhere, all 
teaching their lessons to the visitor. Volumes could 
be written descriptive of them, each writer depicting 
those exhibits which appeal to him most. 

It must not, however, be supposed that the public 
exhibits make up the entire museum, nor that all 
specimens are placed on exhibit. Great as is the 
popular educative value of exhibits, many specimens 
must also be preserved for comparison and study by 
specialists and research students. Zoological speci- 
mens generally fade when placed on exhibit, and 
groups of mammals, birds and insects have to be 
replaced by new material from time to time. So 
it happens that for every specimen on exhibit hun- 
dreds or in many cases thousands of valuable speci- 
mens may be carefully stored away, where they are 
available for study, or to replace other exhibits. 

Besides the exhibitions and the special researches 
carried on by modern museums, lecture halls are pro- 
vided, where members of the staff lecture to students 
from schools and colleges and to the public in 

So far reference has been made to the museums of 
the United States only; let us now turn to the 
museums of Canada. Among these are the pro- 
vincial Museum of British Columbia, at Victoria, 
the Banff Park Museum, the Redpath Museum of 
Natural History at McGill University, Montreal, 
the Museum of the Natural History Society of New 
Brunswick at St. John, the Royal Ontario Museum 
at Toronto, and the Geological Survey Museum 
housed in the Victoria Memorial Museum at Ottawa. 

The British Columbia Museum is particularly 
mentioned by visitors because it contains a complete 
collection of the game animals of the province. The 
Banff Museum appeals to tourists because of its 

April, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


game exhibits. The Redpath Museum contains a 
variety of collections, dating back over many years, 
and is a storehouse of valuable study material for 
McGill University. The Museum of the Natural 
History Society of New Brunswick, at St. John, 
emphasizes the direct instruction side of museum 
work, and, although possessed of limited resources, 
with the co-operation of the railways, places timely 
exhibits before the people by means of museum cars. 

The Royal Ontario Museum at Toronto has, 
within the last six or seven years, assumed the lead- 
ing position in Canada on account of its exhibits. It 
contains a number of very interesting features, among 
which are its collections of oriental arms and armor, 
its antique furniture and musical instruments and its 
well arranged collections of minerals and inverte- 
brate fossils. 

Our national institution, the Geological Survey 
Museum housed in the Victoria Memorial Museum 
at Ottawa, contains the exhibits long housed on 
Sussex street, including all the collections made by 
the Geological Survey since its founding by Sir 
William Logan in 1842. The collections of indian 
clothing, weapons, works of art, and utensils are 
very complete and fine, and could not be replaced. 
The herbarium represents collections from all parts 
of the country. The zoological collections contain 
specimens of most of the species of the vertebrate 
fauna of Canada and in some lines it is very com- 
plete. About 13,000 bird skins are catalogued and 
carefully stored for study, and the game and fur- 
bearing mammals are represented by many specimens. 

It is in palaeontology, hcwever, that the Geological 
Survey Museum ranks especially high. All the 
type specimens described by the noted Canadian 
palaeontologists, Elkanah Billings and J. F. 
Whiteaves (that is the specimens which were first 
studied and upon which the species were founded) 
are contained in the invertebrate collection, along 
with the types cf more recent workers, and thou- 
sands of valuable specimens gathered from all parts 
of Canada during 75 years of exploration. In 
vertebrate palaeontology, many line specimens re- 
present the huge creatures of past geologic ages, and 
the Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Red Deer Valley 
of Alberta form a collection second only to that of 
the American Museum of Natural History, New 
York. These were obtained during the past six 
years by the veteran collector, Charles H. Sternberg 
and his sons, and were being described by the late 
Lawrence M. Lambe. 

There are also the ores and minerals of Canada, 
of which we may be justly proud. Specimens have 
been collected from all parts of the country and a 
very good display of these is now being placed on 
exhibit in the economic museum of the Geological 
Survey, at 227 Sparks street. 

It IS not to be supposed, however, that because of 
the collections already made, that nothing is left to 
be done. A museum must be a growing concern 
like all other institutions that possess life and a 
future. Dr. W. T. Hornaday has said that the 
British Museum surpasses all other museums because 
a devoted nation has for generations collected tro- 
phies and specimens for it from all corners of the 
earth. It remains for Canadians to give their 
Museum such support that it may be made and kept, 
an object of sustained national pride. 

Specialists have been appointed to take charge of 
the various divisions cf natural history and a fair 
start had been made in arranging public exhibits 
when the Parliament Buildings were burned. The 
Museum building was needed for Parliament and 
all museum material had to be hurriedly packed and 
stored. Thus, so far as the public is concerned 
there has been no National Museum for the past 
three years. The preparation of exhibits has con- 
tinued but has been much curtailed by lack of 
space. Plans are ready however for placing many 
fine exhibits in the halls as soon as the building is 
once more made available for museum purposes. 

Let us picture to ourselves what the museum may 
some day be like. The Ethnological hall is intact 
and with its wealth of aboriginal material may be 
reopened on short notice. The hall of fos-^il verte- 
brates may be quickly rearranged, so as to display 
its huge reptilian monsters, early mammals, birds, 
and fishes altogether a suggestive chapter of the 
geologic past. The wonderful collection of fossil 
shell fish and other inhabitants cf the early seas 
when arranged according to formations and biologic 
groups will be one of the best assemblages of its kind 
in America. The contemplated bird group, repre- 
senting the avifauna of southwestern Ontario (the 
extreme southern tip of Canada), should fascinate 
all bird lovers. Musk ox, moose, polar bear, beaver 
and other groups of cur big game and fur bearing 
mammals are planned and some are partly executed. 
These with scenic backgrounds and natural acces- 
sories, should be a source of education and delight to 
all lovers cf nature, and to sportsmen especially. For 
the miner and mineralogist there will be systematic 
collections of minerals and rocks, models of mining 
camps, and maps and plans of mines. For the 
botanist there is the herbarium, for the entomologist 
the insect collections and so on. 

In short, with the specialists who are in charge 
and with the nucleus of a great collection already 
on hand, effective, popular support expressed through 
Parliament is all that is needed to make our museum 
in the near future something to be proud of, an 
educational institution, teaching effectively all 
branches of the natural history of Canada. 



By p. a. Taverner. 

(Continued from page 164 of The Ottawa Naturalist, Vol. XXXII.) 

103. *BLACK-BILLED CUCKOO, Cocc^zus eryhro- 

Job reports seeing this species on the western side 
of the lake on June 27 to 30, 1912. We saw none 
in 1917 though we heard rumors of cuckoos having 
nested in the vicinity. In 1918 the Black-bill 
appeared on June 14, after which Young noted a 
few birds almost daily to August 1. 

104. BELTED KINGFISHER, CeT^le alcyon. 
Strangely enough, on the borders of such a fine 

lake we saw no kingfishers in 1917, though Young 
reports one on May 2, 1918. The Ward brothers 
say that in previous years there were always a few 
about, and Seton reports a specimen taken by 
Miller Christy on May 15, 1887. The only ex- 
planation of their present absence seems to be the 
lack of fish caused by the extreme akalinity of the 
lake at its present level. 

105. ^HAIRY WOODPECKER, Dryohates villosus. 
Rather rare. Only two seen during the spring 

visit and one in September of 1917. Young noted 
the species, in 1918, in limited numbers, from June 
3 to Sept. 26, taking juveniles but recently from 
nest, so it doubtless breeds in the vicinity. Five of 
our specimens are c learly referable to D. v. 
leucomelas though one, Sept. 22, 1917, falls slightly 
short of leucomelas measurements. 

106. *DOWNY WOODPECKER, Dryohales pubescens. 
Several seen during the spring of 1917, but none 

in the autumn. Observed by Young in 1918 in 
small numbers from May 3 to Sept. 12. 


Next to the Flicker the commonest woodpecker. 
Several nests were found and the species was still 
present during the fall visit in 1917 and to the end 
of September, 1918. 


Though we have no substantiating evidence, the 
Ward brothers declare that they have seen one or 
two individuals. There should be but little mis- 
take with such a showy and strongly marked species. 

109. "^FLICKER, Colapies auratus. 

Very common and breeding. Still present in 1918 
to date of leaving Oct. 2. Young says that through 
September they were very busy feeding on ant hills. 

110. ^NIGHTHAWK, Chordeiles yirginianus. 
Very common in 1917. First arrival May 18. 

One seen on Sept. 17, but none thereafter that year. 

The specimens taken seem to be virginianus. One is 
near!y light enough to be regarded as hesperis but as 
it can be matched by individuals from New Bruns- 
wick and central Ontario, I hesitate to so identify 

lochus colubris. 
Quite common throughout the spring visit of 1918 
?nd noted bv Young occasionally in 1918 from 
June 1 to end of August. 

1 12. """whip-poor-will, Anirosiomus vociferous. 

Heard in 1917 nearly every night during the 
spring visit and once in the autumn, on Sept. 17. 
Young only observed it once on June 6 in 1918, 
but his difficulty in hearing would prevent his noting 
it very often. 

113. ^KINGBIRD, Tyrarmus tyrannus. 

First seen in 1918 on May 18; very common by 
the 29th. On Sept. 18 a flock of six were seen. 
Common in 1918 from May 17 to Sept. 10. 
1 14. ^PHOEBE, Sayornis phoebe. 

One taken by Young, on Aug. 30, 1918, is our 
only record. 

1 1 5. ^CRESTED FLYCATCHER, MyiaTchus crinitus. 
In 1917 only one was seen, June 1. In 1918, 

Young noted it twice in early June, three times in 
July, and once in September. The Ward brothers 
say that in 1916 Frank McGiifon took a set of eggs 



In 1917 one reported on June 5 and one taken on 
ihe 14th. In 1918 Young noted several on June 4 
to 9, and again a single bird on Aug. 17. 
1 1 7. "^WOOD PEWEE, Myiochanes yirens. 

Our only record for this species consists of two 
specim.ens taken by Young on June 18 and July 2, 
1918. The former is a female and had an egg 
ready to lay, thus verifying the species as a breeder 
in the locality. 

118. "'"yellow-bellied FLYCATCHER, Empidonax 
One taken on Maple Island above the Narrows 
on May 30, 1917. As sight records unsupported by 
the ear are unsatisfactory in regard to the smaller 
flycatchers, citing the specimens taken by Young 
in 1918 is probably the better way of reporting his 
experience. He took specimens of this species on 
June 4 and Aug. 1 5. 

April, 19i9] 

The Canadian Fielx)-Naturalist 


119. *TRAILl's flycatcher, Empidonax trailli. 
First seen on May 9, becoming almost common by 

the 1 4th. In 1918 Young took one on June 8. 
All specimens are referable to the Alder Flycatcher, 
E. t. alnorum. 

120. ^LEAST FLYCATCHER, Empidonax minimus. 

In 1917 first seen on May 23. By the 30th they 
were common in all the bluffs. Young's experience 
in 1918 seems about similar. He took specimens 
from May 30 to July 31. 

121. ^HORNED LARK, Oiocoris alpesiris. 

In 1917 very common during the spring visit, but 
only a few present in the autumn. In 1918, Young 
found them consistently common throughout his stay 
from late April to early October. On April 24 he 
found a large flock (100) in company with Lap- 
land Longspurs. He obtained one specimen from 
it, a well-marked O. a. alpestris. All other birds 
taken are O. a. praticola. It is worth while noting, 
as a caution against taking assumed breeding dates 
as evidence of nesting, that only six days after 
the taking of the above evident migrant alpesiris 
nearly fully fledged young of praticola were col- 
lected. Thus local biids had young out of the nest 
before more northern nesters had left for their 
breeding grounds. 

122 MAGPIE, Pica pica. 

The Ward brothers say that the Magpie occas- 
ionally occurs about Shoal Lake. They recall one 
seen in July and two in June, 1904. May 21, 1918, 
William Ward reported seeing one near camp, and 
a few days later Frank Ward had exceptional op- 
portunities of watching another at Gimli on the 
shores of Lake Winnipeg, some forty miles east of 

123. BLUE JAY, C\^anocilta cristata. 

In 1917 fairly common in spring but not noted 
during the autumn visit. In 1918 Young noted the 
species until Sept. 28. 

124. CANADA JAY, Perisoreus canadensis. 

Said by the Ward brothers to be a winter visitor, 
coming sometimes as early as September, but less 
numerous of late years. 

125. RAVEN, Corvus corax. 

Said by the Ward brothers to be fairly common 
during hard winters. 

126. ^AMERICAN CROW, Corvus hrachyrhynchos. 
Very abundant. Residents do not complain much 

of its destructiveness to crops but it is certainly a 
great nest robber and its effects upon the ducks must 
be marked and serious. Amongst Young's speci- 
mens are two that he concluded from their actions 
to be mated, but, while the male is large even for 
C. h. brachyrh\)nchos, the female falls well within 
the measurements for C. b. hespris. Considering 
other Canadian prairie specimens with these, I do 

not consider the two races satisfactorily differentiated. 

127. ^BOBOLINK, Dolichonyx oryzivorus. 

In 1917 a few were seen on wet meadows in the 
spring, none in the autumn. In 1918 Young noted 
them from June 8 to Aug. 22. The residents say 
that occasionally they do some damage to grain. 

128. *COWBIRD, Moloihurus ater. 

Very abundant. Noted by Young in 1918 to 
Sept. 7. 


phalus xanthocephalus. 

The least common of the resident blackbirds. Oc- 
casional small flocks were found foraging here and 
there on the uplands, cultivated fields and dry 
marshes. In 1918 still scarcer than during the pre- 
ceding season. It seems that this bird requires more 
extensive marshes than the Red-wing. In 1917 we 
found resident colonies in a few places while the 
Red-wings occupied every reedy slough. Young 
reports no breeding birds in 1918. His latest re- 
cord for the species is Aug. 26. The juveniles in 
first winter plumage are quite similar to the adults 
but the white primary coverts are reduced to traces 
and the crown and hind neck concolorous with the 
back. In one specimen, a stripped plumage, similar to 
that of the juvenile Red-wing is just disappearing on 
the breast where it is being replaced with yellow 
of rather a deeper orange than that of the adult. 
130. *RED-WINGED BLACKBIRD, Agelanius 

Very abundant, breeding in every suitable locality. 

The A. O. U. Check List recognizes the Red- 
winged Blackbird of central North America as the 
Thick-billed Red-wing, A. p. fortis. This race Mr. 
H. C. Oberholser (Auk XXIV, 1907, pp. 332- 
336) further divides into northern and southern 
forms, calling the Canadian race A. p. arctolegus, 
extending its range east to Isle Royal, Lake Super- 
ior, and restricting fortis to the United States, south 
from Nebraska. As the A.O.U. Committee has 
not as yet recognized arctolegus, from the standpoint 
of the Check List, it can be regarded as a synonym 
of fortis. The diagnosis for fortis calls for a larger 
bird than phoenicus, the eastern race, with a com- 
paratively shorter, thicker bill. Arctolegus is char- 
acterized by its describer as a large phoeniceus with 
slight color differences in the female. 

To obtain easily compared factors of shape and 
size, I have divided the length of the bill by the 
depth for an index of shape and multiplied them 
together for an index of size. The former gives 
the length in units of depth, and the latter a pro- 
duct that whilst more or less arbitrary in itself, 
when derived from specimens of the same species, 
should be strictly comparable with each other and 
representative of relative size, irrespective of the 
disturbing element of shape. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

Comparing Shoal Lake birds with other material, 
I have made use of the following adult male mater- 
ial: 9 from Mass., southern Ont. and southern 
Mich. ; 7 from Shoal Lake and two from Douglas, 
Man.; and 7 from Sask., Alta., and Mack. The 
measurements of these birds together with those sim- 
ilarly derived from Mr. Oberholser's paper above 
cited, tabulate as follows: 

Index Index Wing Wing 

shape, size, average. Min. & Max. 

9. Eastern Canada. 1.9 24.5.1 121.7 (116.0-128.0) 

7. Manitoba 1.96 264.1 124.4 (120.5-128.0) 

7. Sasic.. Alta., 

Mack 1.8 229.2 127.2 (111. .5-132. .5 ) 

10. plioeniceus 

(H.C.O.) 1.8 269.2 118.8 (114.0-122.0) 

12. arctolegus 

(H.C.O.) 1.88 304.8 125.4 (121.5-130.0) 

11. fortis (H.C.O. )_- 1.88 254.04 129.7 (125.0-134.0) 

In color, I find Shoal Lake females showing a 
slightly greater amount of white below, most dis- 
tinctly on the throat and upper breast, but the dis- 
tinction is too slight and inconsistent for certain or 
individual recognition. 

It will be seen that the difference in shape of the 
bills of these various strains is very slight, and in 
no case marked enough to warrant the title "Thick- 
billed", in fact Oberholser's arctolegus and fortis 
have more slender bills than phoeniceus, and the 
Shoal Lake specimens considerably exceed all others 
in this direction having minimum and maximum in- 
dices of 1.72 and 2.22. 

It is also evident that whilst there is a slight in- 
crease in size of both bill and wing of this species 
westward over the prairie provinces, the difference 
is not so marked in the new material as in Ober- 
holser's measurements: also that individual variation 
is almost as great as the racial distinction and is one 
of averages, leaving the bulk of individual specimens 
subspecifically unrecognizable by character. Such 
distinctions do not in the view of the writer form 
criteria sufficient for systematic separation and 
nomenclature. Irrespective of such judgment on 
the races concerned it is evident that these Shoal 
Lake birds are just about intermediate between east- 
ern and v/est plains birds though personally I do not 
care to separate them from phoeniceus. 
131. '%ESTERN MEADOW LARK, Sternella neglecia. 

Very common during all visits. The song of the 
Western Meadow Lark is justly noted. It is one 
of the most wonderful prairie sounds and its con- 
stant repetition and infinite variety is characteristic 
of the west. However, eastern ears may be par- 
doned for a little disappointment on first hearing it. 
If they expect to hear a glorified eastern Meadow 
Lark song they certainly will be disappointed. While 
it is a beautiful production it is not the song they 
have been accustomed to associate with the coming 
of spring. It has many charms of its own, but they 
are not familiar; in fact hardly a note suggests the 

well remembered voice of the old eastern friend and 
until its source is traced, even an experienced orn- 
ithologist is apt to wonder as to the identity of the 
singer. It will, I think, take several seasons' exper- 
ience with this species to build up a new set of 
associations and take it to the heart in place of the 
well beloved eastern harbinger of spring. 

132. ^BALTIMORE ORIOLE, Icterus galbula. 

In 1917, arrived on May 23, common on June 
2; not seen in the autumn. In 1918, arrived on 
May 16, the bulk disappeared on July 23, and the 
last one was seen on Aug. 6. 

133. ''^RUSTY BLACKBIRD, Euphagus carolinus. 
Not recognized in spring, but one was noted on 

Sept. 21, 1917; not recorded by Young in 1918. 

134. ^brewer's blackbird, Euphagus cyanoce- 

Very amundant and nesting in nearly every open 
bluff. They follow the ploughman about his work 
gleaning from the newly turned furrow, and as- 
sociate commonly with the sheep perching upon 
their backs and scrutinizing the fleece, probably for 
ticks. On Sept. 25, 1917, three were taken from 
a flock. Of these one female, seemingly an adult 
by its completely granulated skull, had the iris red- 
dish-brown just flecked with straw. All other 
specimens taken had the usual straw-colored iris. 

135. ^BRONZE crackle, Quisculus quiscula. 

In 1917 there was a thriving colony of Bronzed 
Crackles nesting in the willows just behind the 
Ward house until persevering work with a shot gun 
removed them, after which many more attractive 
birds of less questionable character were able to 
appropriate the premises. The Wards accuse them 
of domg considerable damage by killing young 
chicks. While I cannot substantiate this charge I 
have little doubt as to its truth. None were seen in 
the autumn of 1917, but Young noted the species 
as late as Sept. 27, in 1918. 

136. ^'EVENING GROSBEAK, Hecperiphona vespcr- 

In 1917 we saw two to four individuals. May 
20, 24 and 25, and secured several specimens. I 
noted that the bills of these were as green as those 
of summer birds from British Columbia and quite 
different from the yellow mandibles of eastern mid- 
winter specimens. The difference is probably sea- 
sonal rather than subspecific. Unfortunately these 
are amongst the birds that were lost. In 1918, 
Young noted three and two Sept. 25 and 30. 

137. '^PURPLE FINCH, Carpodacus purpureus. 
None noted during either spring. Two or three 

were seen on several days in a small growth of 
hawthorn in September. In 1918, Young noted 
small numbers from July 1 1 to Aug. 26, and a 
single individual on Sept. 25. 

April, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


138. ^GOLDFINCH, Asiragalinus Irisiis. 

None seen in spring until May 27, 1917, after 
which they became common and were still num- 
erous in September. Young noted them in 1917 
from April 29 to his departure on Oct. 2. 

139. *PINE SISKIN, Spirtus p'nus. 

In 1918 Young noted 5 on June 5, 2 on the 21st, 
and one Sept. 24, taking specimens on the first two 

140. *SNOW BUNTING, Plectrophenax nivalis. 

In 1918, Young found large flocks on his arrival 
on April 24, and saw them almost daily until May 
24. After this, 5 were noted on the 22nd and one 
on the 28th. Specimens taken on April 21 and 
May 2 are in high breeding plumage. 

141. ^LAPLAND LONGSPUR, Calcarius lapponicus. 
A few seen between May 22 and 25. Very 

abundant in the autumn, occurring in large flocks 
in the long grass of the old marshes and on the lake 
shore. In 1918, Young found large flocks on April 
24, but the bulk of the species left after the 30th. 
One straggler was taken on June 4, In the autumn 
the flocks of the previous year were absent and he 
noted but one individual on Sept. 23. 


A single bird secured on June 6, 1917, and a 
flock of seven noted on the 9th. It was not seen 
by Young in 1918. Seton has a specimen taken by 
Miller Christy in May, 1887, but the Ward brothers 
are not familiar with it, and it is doubtless rather 
rare in the locality or very local in distribution. 

143. ^VESPER SPARROW, Poocaetes gramineus. 
Strangely absent both springs in the vicinity of the 

lake though from the train one was seen a few miles 
south of Erinview. In the autumn of both years 
they were seen about the Ward house in limited 
numbers between Aug. 23 and Sept. 28. These 
birds are rather large for the eastern race, and 
though in rather indeterminate juvenile plumage can 
probably be referred to the western race P. g. 

144. ^SAVANNA SPARROW, Passerculus sand- 

Very common indeed during all visits. The local 
breeding birds show the bright yellow eye-brow 
common to the birds of the prairie provinces, and 
certainly do not agree with the described characters 
of P. s. alaudinus and at present seem without a 
name. The autumn birds are slightly darker than 
savanna and are both with and without the yellow 
loral spot. I suspect that both a resident and a 
migrant form are represented, but I do not care to 
refer them to any sub-species generally accepted at 

145. baird's SPARROW, Ammodramus bairdii. 
Though reported by Chapman as very common 

at Shoal Lake and by Seton as common and breed- 
ing, the species was carefully searched for both 
seasons without success. Undoubtedly it has de- 
parted from the country with the lowering of the 
lake level and the disappearance of the broad 

146. ^LECONTe's SPARROW, Passerberbulus lecontei. 
Scattered individuals were met with both seasons 

in widely separated localities both in spring and in 

147. ^nelson's SPARROW, Passerberbulus nelsoni. 
The western form, the Prairie Sharp-tailed 

Sparrow, P. n. nelsoni was met with in scattered 
individuals in various parts of the surrounding coun- 
try as late as September 25. The juvenile 
plumage is quite different from that of the 
adu't and might well be taken for a different 
species. All strong ochre, slightly paler below and 
only broken by restricted fuscous centres of second- 
aries and wing coverts which become fainter and 
almost concealed across the back, a double crown 
stripe and a faint bar back from the eye. The outer 
web cf the first primary is edged with clear cream 
and the tail is ochracecus-fuscous with dark shaft. 
One specimen shows adult plumage appearing in 
the juvenile dress indicating that full plumage is 
assumed the first winter. 

148. ^Harris's sparrow, Zonolrichia querula. 
Very common on our first arrival in 1917. Most 

of them left about May 28, though a couple of 
individuals remained to the end of our stay. Frank 
Ward reported seeing one carrying nesting material 
from his chip-yard towards the nearby bluff and 
suspected that they were nesting in the locality. 
The same authority tells us that some years ago 
he found a nest of this species on the ground in 
the shelter of an old log. On the return visit the 
same autumn they were common again in their old 
spring haunts and I was informed that individuals 
had been noted regularly through the summer. With 
this possibility of finding breeding birds. Young 
watched carefully for them during the summer of 
1918, but between May 28 and Sept. 14 none 
were noted. They returned on Sept. 14 and were 
still present when he left on Oct. 2. The most 
peculiar thing about these autumn birds was the 
unusual abundance of adults in comparison to juven- 
iles. Of perhaps fifty birds seen but three or four 
were juvenile either by plumage or cranial char- 
acters. This is unusual enough amongst autumn 
birds to justify special mention, as usually juveniles 
greatly outnumber adults. 

149. *WHITE-crowned sparrow, Zonolrichia 

In 1917, single individuals seen on May 15 but 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIIi. 

common throughout the autumn stay. In 1918, 
present in limited numbers from May 6 to May 23 
and rather more numerous Sept. 1 7 to 30. Of those 
in adult plumage, two males (May 13, 1918 and 
Sept. 20, 1917) have the white loral line continuous 
to bill and can therefore be ascribed to Z. I. gambeli. 
The other has it faintly interrupted across the lores 
and must therefore be regarded as intermediate be- 
tween Z. I. leucophrys and gambeli. 

150. white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia 

Common both spring and autumn. In 1918, 
absent from May 27 to Sept. 8, except four in- 
dividuals seen on July 24. Great numbers seen 
Sept. 19-27, but still present when Young de- 
parted on Oct. 2. 

151. *TREE SPARROW, Spizella monticola. 

Not noted in 1917. In 1918 observed Iron: April 
26 to May 4, and again on Oct. 1 and 2. One 
specimen, female, April 30, I refer to 5. m. 
1 52. ^CHIPPING SPARROW, Spizella passehna. 

Very common in the spring of 1917. To the 
end of May flocks of a hundred or more were met. 
In the autumn the species was not certainly identi- 
fied though the first day of arrival I thought I 
recognized them amongst the hordes of clay-colored 
sparrows. In 1918, Young noted a few on May 
4 and 8. From the 16th to 27th it was present 
in flocks of from 50 to 100. The species departed 
on June 8 and no more were seen except 3 on July 


153. ^CLAY-COLORED SPARROW, Spizella pallida. 
Very common in spring and autumn. In 1917, 

they seemed to leave on Sept. 21, but in 1918, 
Young noted them to the date of leaving on Oct. 2. 

154. ^SLATE-COLORED JUNCO, Junco h^emalis. 

In 1917, but one specimen seen in the spring but 
fairly common in the autumn. In 1918, Young 
noted it from April 24 to May 1 5 and from Sept. 
6 to Oct. 2. 

155. *SONG SPARROW, Melospiza melodia. 
Common in spring and autumn of both years. In 

1918, present on arrival, April 24, and when leav- 
ing, Oct. 2. Specimens taken between May 13 and 
July 31, probably breeding birds are the slightly 
lighter form, with more distinct markings, than 
eastern M. m. melodia and I refer them to M. m. 

156. ^Lincoln's sparrow, Melospiza lincolni. 

In 1917, single individuals seen and taken on 
May 19 and June 1. In the autumn seen nearly 
daily in limited numbers. Noted in limited numbers 
by Young in 1918 from May 11 to 25 and more 
commonly from Aug 3 to Oct. 1. 

157. *SWAMP sparrow, Melospiza georgiana. 
Seen in small numbers in the spring of 1917 and 

more commonly in the autumn. In 1918, Young 
noted it from May 4 to 30 and again Aug. 21 to 
Oct. 2. Strangely enough but one bird was seen 
in the summer, June 10, which seems to indicate 
that the species does not breed in the locality. 

158. %0X SPARROW, Passerella iliaca. 

One specimen taken Sept. 22 is all that was seen 
in 1917. In 1918, Young noted single individuals 
on Sept. 16, 24 and 30, and a flock of 30 on the 
1 59. ^TowHEE, Pipilo eryihropthalmus. 

In 1917, fairly common in the spring and still 
present Sept. 19 and 21. In 1918, Young saw a 
few individuals with general regularity from May 
24 to July 29. A single bird, Aug. 13, and another 
Sept. 19. 


Fairly common during the spring visit in 1917. 
In 1918 observed irregularly from May 16 to 
Aug. 5. 

161. ^PURPLE MARTIN, Progne subis. 

A few seen daily in 1917, probably the same 
ones. A few occupied a box near an adjoining 
summer cottage and another colony was found nest- 
ing according to aboriginal habit in a hollow tree 
a few miles from camp. In 1918, noted by Young 
from May 17 to Sept. 20. 

162. *CLIFF SWALLOW, Peirochelidon lunifrom. 

In 1917 a few seen daily with the flocks of Barn 
Swallows about camp and occasional birds else- 
where. Seton noted twenty-five nests on a barn in 
1891. In 1918, noted from May 24 to Sept. 17. 

163. ''^BARN SWALLOW, Hitundo erylhroga&ier. 
Small colonies occupy most of the farm building 

groups in the neighborhood. In the autumn of 1917 
this was the only swallow seen. In the chilly morn- 
ings a small flock of them would be found warming 
themselves on the sunny roof of the house where the 
frost was melting. As soon as the day warmed 
they disappeared over the meadows and rarely re- 
turned until the next morning. The last seen were 
on Sept. 21. In 1918, they remained common until 
Sept. 20. 

1 64. *TREE SWALLOW, IridopTocne bicolor. 

In 1917, only a few seen each day in spring and 
none in the autumn. In 1918, they remained com- 
mon until Aug. 21, but a few were seen thereafter 
until Sept. 1 7. 

165. *BANK SWALLOW, Riparia riparia. 

A few observed daily in the spring of 1917. The 
Ward brothers say that one stage of the lake left 
numerous steep banks five to six feet high and that 
swallows nested in these in great numbers. Now 

April, 1 91 9] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


these banks are far removed from the water, cut 
down by cattle and sheep, and are deserted by the 
birds. We saw no nesting places in the vicinity. 
Young noted it in 1918 only in autumn, arriving 
on Aug. 17, and seen in small numbers irregularly 
until Sept. 12. 

166. '^CEDAR WAXWING, Bomhycilla cedroTum. 

In 1917, a flock of a hundred or so seen on May 
1 1 and smaller lots daily thereafter through the 
spring visit but not noted in the autumn. In 1918, 
the species was first seen on June 4th and irregularly 
observed until Sept. 26. 

167. ^LOGGERHEAD SHRIKE, Lanius ludovicianus. 
In the spring of 1917 we found two breeding 

pairs and a single individual. I can find little 
foundation for Ridgeway's color distinction, "de- 
cidedly paler" of the White-rumped Shrike, L. I. 
exubitorides. Prairie birds are very slightly paler 
than L. m. migrans from eastern Ontario. The dif- 
ference can only be observed by the closest com- 
parison. In the four specimens taken at Shoal Lake 
the rumps are intermediate between that of eastern 
birds and excubitorides from Alberta. I, therefore, 
regard them as intermediates between these rather 
poorly defined races. 

168. ^RED-EYED VIREO, Vireos^lva oUvacea. 

In 1917, not seen until May 30 after which oc- 
casional birds were noted. Not seen that autumn. 
In 1918, Young noted the species continuously, in 
fair numbers from May 17 to Sept. 16. 

169. ^PHILADELPHIA VIREO, Vireosylva Philadelphia. 
Not noted by us in 1917, but Seton has a speci- 
men in his collection taken at Shoal Lake by 
Miller Christy on May 20, 1887; Young collected 
specimens on the following dates in 1918, May 21 
and 24, June 1 and Sept. 24. 

170. ^WARBLING VIREO, Vifeosylva gilva. 

In 1917, quite common after May 28. In 1918, 
Young found it constantly present in fair numbers 
from May 20 to Sept. 26. All specimens are V. g. 

171. Solitary vireo, Lanivireo solitrius. 
Not noted by us in 1917, but seen by Young in 

1918 from May 10 to 20 and Sept. 2 to 16. 

172. '^^BLACK AND WHITE WARBLER, Minotilta 

In 1917, occasional individuals seen after May 
30 in spring and one on Sept. 19. In 1918, Young 
noted it with fair regularity, but scarcer in July, 
from May 8 to Sept. 26. It probably breeds. 

1 73. ^NASHVILLE WARBLER, VermivoTa ruhri- 

Not noted in 1917 but reported by Young in 
1918 to be very common in May and September. 
Noted May 18 to June 20 and Sept. 2 to 26 with 
occasional individuals through July. 


In 1917, seen the first two days of our spring 
visit and on Sept. 19. In 1918, Young noted it 
only from May 17 to 24. In specimens obtained 
the yellow is slightly lighter than in comparable 
eastern species, but as this is probably due to the 
cleaner and better condition and make up of the 
skins, I regard them as V. c. celala, the geographical 

175. "^TENNESSEE WARBLER, Vermivora peregrina. 
Not noted in 1917, but reported by Young in 

1918 to be very common in May and September. 
Noted May 18 to June 24 and Sept. 2 to 26 
with occasional individuals through July. 

176. '='CAPE MAY WARBLER, Dendrioca tigrina. 
Two taken at Maple Island on May 30, 1917, 

and noted by Young on May 21 to 24, 1918. 

177. ^YELLOW WARBLER, Dendroica aesiiva. 

In 1917, a few present on our arrival on May 17 
but common after June 1. In 1918, common from 
May 8 to Sept. 16. Compared with the writer's 
experience with this species in southern Ontario this 
is a very late stay for the species as in the Lake 
Erie neighborhood Yellow Warblers are rarely seen 
after Sept. I. 

178. "^MYRTLE WARBLER, Dendroica coronata. 

In 1917, the commonest Warbler on both visits. 
In spring i; disappeared abcui June 1, after which 
but occasional individuals were seen. 
1 79. "^MAGNOLIA WARBLER, Dendroica magnolia. 

In 1917, rather scarce in spring. In 1918, on 
the contrary. Young found it quite common from 
May 16 to the 27th and in the late autumn from 
Sept. 2 to 28. 


Individuals seen June 4 and 5 and on Sept. 17. 
Not seen by Young in 1918. 

181. *BAY-BREASTED WARBLER, Dendroica 

In 1917, only seen on June 2 and 6. In 1918, 
only noted on Sept. 6 to 12. 

182. *BLACK-POLLED WARBLER, Dendroica striata. 
In 1917, first seen on May 30. Quite common 

on June 2, and but occasional individuals thereafter. 
One seen on Sept. 1 7. 

183. ^BLACKBURNIAN WARBLER, Dendroica fusca. 
One taken by Young en May 16, 1918, is our 

only record. 


Dendroica virens. 
Individuals seen by Young on May 24 and 
Sept. 4, a specimen being taken on the latter date. 
He also reports the remains of another impaled by 
shrikes without giving date. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


185. '^PALM WARBLER, Dendroica palmarum. 

In 1917, present in limited numbers on our ar- 
rival but none seen after May 25. Several seen 
between Sept. 19 and 22. In 1918, noted by Young 
from May 8 to 30 and Sept. 6 to Oct. 2, the 
date of departure. 

186. ^OVENBIRD, Seiurus aurocapillus. 

In 1917, a few^ single individuals v^ere heard 
and seen in the deeper woods from May 29 on. Be- 
fore leaving they become slightly more common. In 
1918, noted by Young from May 21 to June 3, 
one individual in July, and then again from Sept. 
2 to 14. This is a retiring species and oftener 
recognized by ear than sight. Its absence through 
June, July and August is probably more apparent 
than real. 

187. ^NORTHERN WATER THRUSH, SeiuTus nove- 

In 1917, two water thrushes were seen, perhaps 
an original pair. May 18 and June 2, in the dry 
willow grown creek bed by the Ward house. On 
Sept. 19 another was noted in the same locality. In 
1918, the species was noted with daily regularity 
from May 10 to 25 and Sept. 4 to 26, with a 
single individual on Aug. 22. The specimens are 
in a very mixed lot of plumages, and one a male, 
Sept. 12, is nearly as white below as a Louisiana 
Water Thrush, 5. motacilla ; two other specimens 
are nearer the eastern one S. n. noveboracensis than 
S. n. notabilis. Three others while yellower below 
and blacker above and characteristic notabilis are 
quite comparable with some New Brunswick birds. 
I find that Grinnell's Water Thrush rests UDon very 
inconstant characters. 

188. ^CONNECTICUT WARBLER, OpOTornis agiUs. 
On June 4, 1917, one bird was seen under ex- 
cellent conditions for determination, when shot it 
fell far away in heavy brush and could not be found. 
One juvenile was taken by Young on Sept. 16. 

189. ^MOURNING WARBLER, OpoTotnis Philadelphia. 
Several times in the spring of 1917 I thought I 

heard this bird in a slashing in the oak patch in the 
big bluff behind the camp. It kept so close to a 
limited locality that I have no doubt that it was 
nesting nearby. It was absolutely identified June 
14 when secured. In 1918, the species was noted 
by Young from May 30 to June 8 and one was 
taken Sept. 7. Specimens of this species in fall 
plumage are rather scarce in collections as it usually 
drifts through very inconspicuously early in the 

190. ''^MARYLAND YELLOWTHROAT, Ceothlypis 

Quite common after June 2. In the autumn in- 
dividuals were seen Sept. 21 and 22. The species 
obtained are referable to G. /. occidentalis, the 

Western Yellow Throat. The backs are faintly 
lighter than eastern and intermediate between them 
and individuals from Indian Head and Edmonton, 
but the white foreheads are decidedly more extensive 
than in eastern species. 

191. "^Wilson's warbler, Wihonia pusilla. 
Only seen in 1918 on May 18. In 1918, Young 

observed the species on May 16, 18 and 24. 

192. "^CANADIAN WARBLER, Wilsonia canadensis. 
One taken on June 6, 1917, and noted by Young 

on May 24 and June 4. 

193. "^REDSTART, Setophaga ruticilla. 

Not seen in 1917 until May 29, but common 
thereafter. In 1918, Young observed it from May 
18 to June 8 and from Aug. 26 to Sept. 27. He 
did not note it through the summer. 

194. "^AMERICAN PIPIT, Anthus rubescens. 

In 1918 fairly common during the early days of 
our spring visit along the lake shore, but none seen 
after May 30. Abundant in the fall occurring in 
large flocks, scattered bunches and individuals on all 
bare ground. In 1918, noted by Young on May 
13 and 27 and Sept. 14 to date of departure Oct. 2. 

195. "^sprague's pipit, Anthus spraguei. 
Between June 5 and 9, 1917, I was much puzzled 

by an oft repeated and haunting bird song that could 
be barely heard and which I was unable to locate 
or recognize. It was a fine silvery gradually de- 
scendmg Ree-ree-ree-a-ree-a-ree-a-aree-aree of 
about eight notes, and an octave in range. It had a 
peculiar ringing jingle like the Veery but mere sus- 
tained and regular. After innumerable futile at- 
tempts at discovering the singer at last I found it 
high over head flying about in circles for minutes 
at a time. It beat its wings vigorously against the 
slight breeze, making altitude rather than headway, 
and then the song came down. After the first two 
or three syllables reached the ground the wings fixed 
and the bird would sail in a downward spiral 
through the remainder of the song. This was re- 
peated time and time again. It took considerable 
patience to watch the little vocalist until it came 
down to earth by an almost straight dive. Though 
nearly out of sight in the air the speed with which 
it dropped and the distance away at which it alighted 
indicated that it was originally up no more than a 
hundred yards or so while singing. Thereafter we 
could hear this song nearly the whole of every fine 
day, but this was the only bird of the species that 
we met. In 1918, Young reports the species oc- 
casionally throughout the summer from June 21 to 
Sept. 7. 

196. ^CATBIRD, Dumatella carolinensis. 
Common, found in nearly every bluff. In 1918, 

Young noted it almost daily from May 20 to Sept. 

April. 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


197. %RO\VN THRASHER, Toxostoma rufum. 
Fairly common. At least two pairs lived within 

hearing of cur camp in 1917 and we met with half 
a dozen more on our spring rambles. In 1918, 
Young noted it constantly from May 16 to Aug. 24 
with a couple of late individuals on Sept. 12 and 17. 

198. '^HOUSE WREN, Troglodytes aedon. 

Very abundant and heard singing everywhere. 
They do not seem as inclined to build about the farm 
buildings as the species does in the east. There were 
innumerable possible nesting places about the farm- 
steed that few eastern wrens could resist yet none 
of them were occupied. A few individuals were 
still present during the autumn visit. In 1918, 
Young noted it continuously and regularly from 
May 10 to Sept. 30. Specimens are distinctly T. a. 

199. 'WINTER WREN, N annus h'.cmalis hiemalis. 
Not seen in 1917, but in 1918 \ oung observed 

single individuals from May 20 to 23,. and on 
Sept. 16. 

200. "^SHORT-BILLED MARSH WREN, Cislotlwrus 

Not uncommon in certain localities. While usually 
inhabitating damp marshes some were found in dry 
grass or even in brushy edges in typical House Wren 
ground. None were certainly recognized in the fall 
of 1917 though Young lists it occasionally from 
June 1 to Sept. 25. 

201. ''^LONG-BILLED MARSH WREN, T elmaiodyies 

Hardly commoner than the Short-bill and not so 
widely distributed. This species requires wetter and 
more extensive swamps than that species and the 
drying up of the marshes would more severely limit 
its habitat. A Marsh Wren glimpsed on the shore 
of a small pond on Sept. 19, 1917, was supposed 
to be of this species. Owing to their more restricted 
habitat the Long-biiled Marsh Wren was, in 1918, 
even scarcer than the previous year. Young only 
records occasional individuals May 7 and June 10. 
Specimens show the light back, and brown rather 
than black head of T . p. iliacus. 

202. ='"BROWN CREEPER, Cerlhia familiaris. 
Young took two specimens of the Brown Creeper 

on Sept. 23 and 26, 1918. 

203. ^"red-BREASTED nuthatch, Sitta canadensis. 
One individual seen by Young on Sept. 24, 1918. 

204. '*^black-capped chickadee, Penihestes 

Only seen in 1917 on May 20 and Sept. 26. Of 
the former one female was taken with an egg in 
oviduct ready for deposition. Scattered individuals 
noted by Young throughout the summer of 1918. 
Specimens taken have constantly longer tails than 

any but extreme eastern specimens and hence are 
referred to P. a. sepientr'ionalis. 

205. "^RUBY-CROWNED KINGLET, Regains calendula. 
In 1917, single individuals seen May 20 and June 

1. In September a few were seen nearly every day. 
In 1918, noted by Young daily from May 7 to 24 
and Sept. 9 to 30. 

206. ^Wilson's thrush, Hylocichla fuscescem. 
Common. Its golden chain song could be heard 

every evening from our camp. In 1918, Young re- 
corded it nearly every day from May 9 to Sept. 
28. All specimens show the slightly olive back of 
the Willow Thrush, H. f. salicicola. 
1^1. "^Alice's thrush, H\)locichla alkiae. 

Thrushes of this genus were fairly common during 
migrations, but the bush was generally so dense 
and the birds so shy that collection gave the only 
certain separation between Alice's and Olive-backed 
Thrushes. I was fairly certain that we had speci- 
mens of both in the spring collection of 1917, but 
they all were lost in transit. One specimen taken 
by Young on Sept. 19 belongs to this species. 

208. *0LIVE-BACKED thrush, Hylocichla ustulata. 
In 1918, Young noted thrushes under this head- 
ing from May 15 to June 1 and Sept. 6 to 20. All 
his specimens except one mentioned under previous 
heading are of this species which is probably the 
more common. We have specimens of the following 
dates: juvenile and adult males Sept. 18, 1917, Sept. 
6 and 9. 1918; and juvemle females Sept. 9, 1918. 
These four are slighlty but consistently more oliva- 
ceous (or grayer) above and rather more heavily 
spotted on breast than comparable eastern H. u. 
sn>ainsoni differing from them almost as much as the 
Willow Thrush, H. f. salicicola differs from the 
Veery, H. f. fuscescens. I find these same 
distinctive characters in an autumn specimen 
from as far west as Jasper Park but not in spring 
and summer birds from intermediate points. These 
specimens agree closely with the description and 
range of H. u. almae Oberholser, and if every per- 
ceptible difference is regarded worthy of a separate 
name this form probably has claim to reinstatement 
in the Check List. 

209. ^HERMIT THRUSH, Hylocichla guttata. 
Quite common during the spring of 1917. The 

last specifically recognized was on June 2. In the 
autumn one was taken on Sept. 19. In 1918, Young 
noted the Hermit Thrush from May 13 to 24 and 
Sept. 3 to 30. These are of course eastern Hermit 
Thrush, H. g. pallasii. 

210. ^AMERICAN ROBIN, Planesticus migratorius. 
Common on all visits, in 1918, at date of de- 
parture, Oct. 2. 

21 1. ^BLUEBIRD, Siala sialis. 

Though not known by the Ward brothers as a 


The Canadian Field-Naturali3T 

[Vol. xxxiii. 

bird of the locality, we took a pair in 1917 on May 
28, and later some six individuals were seen at var- 
ious times in the neighborhood. In 1918, Young 
saw 2 and 7 birds on June 24 and 25. On Oct. 2 
as he was leaving there was a migrational wave of 
the species and he lists 50 for that day. This 
suggests that far from Shoal Lake being the most 
northern extremity of the species range here there 
is a habitat beyond that is occupied by them in 
considerable numbers. The species is apparently 
spreading into this country. 

Since the publication of the earlier parts of this 
paper the following published data on the birds of 
the locality have been called to my attention in 

Recent Bird Records for Manitoba by E. T. Seton, 
Auk, XXV, 1908, pp. 450-454. 

20. (anlea) BLACK DUCK, Anas ruhripes. 

Mr. Seton here reports another Shoal Lake 
specimen of this species in his collection taken by 
Geo. H. Meacham in 1901 who reports "two or 
more were shot at Shoal Lake in 1899". 

28. (aniea) WOOD DUCK, Aix sponsa. 

Seton says: "G. H. Meacham reports it rare at 
Shoal Lake, but one or two are seen there each 

212 LEAST BITTERN, Ixohrychus exiUs. 

Seton says: "Frank M. Chapman saw one at 
Shoal Lake, June, 1901". 



The fortieth year of the existence of The 
Ottawa FieM-Naturalists' Club has been the most 
successful in the recent history of the society. The 
club activities are directed toward popularizing and 
diffusing knowledge of the natural sciences, and have 
been carried on in three chief ways: a course of 
lectures, two series of field excursions, and the 
publication of The Ottawa Naturalist. 

The club membership now numbers 540. Twenty- 
cne members serving overseas have been carried 

The lecture programme consisted ot seven sched- 
uled lectures and a special lecture on wild geese by 
Mr. "Jack" Miner, of Kingsville, Ontario. The 
lectures are planned to create a more intelligent 
interest in Canadian natural history, and to give a 
better understanding of the value of scientific work. 

The field excursions were well patronized, 
especially the spring series at which the attendance 
averaged 38. Weather conditions reduced the at- 
tendance at the fall series. The spring series con- 
sisted of five outings and the autumn series of three 
outings. Scientific men attended the excursions to 
direct interest and answer questions. 

The Ottawa Naturalist, the official organ of 
the Club has been enlarged in dimensions and im- 
proved in material qualities and by the introduction 
of a cover design, more illustrations and more articles 
of Dominion-wide interest. 

At the request of several natural history societies 
of the Dominion, a plan of affiliation has been ar- 
ranged, the magazine of The Ottawa Field-Natur- 
ahsts' Club to be the medium of publication. 

The officers and committees for the year 1919 
are as follows: 

President, M. Y. WiUiams; Vice-Presidents, L. 
D. Burling, P. A. Taverner; Secretary, Clyde L. 
' Patch; Treasurer, F. W. Waugh; Editor, Arthur 

Additional members of Council: Hoyes Lloyd; 
W. T. Macoun, G. A. Millar, R. M. Anderson, 
J. M. Macoun, Miss M. E. Cowan, Miss Crampe, 
C. B. Hutchings, C. M. Sternberg, H. I. Smith, H. 
McGillivray, H. B. Sifton. 

Standing Committees of Council. 

Fufc/ica/ions Clyde L. Patch, A. Gibson, P. A. 
Taverner, L. D. Burling, H. B. Sifton. 

Excursions~F. W. Waugh, H. B. Sifton, C. M. 
Sternberg, G. A. Millar, Miss M. E. Cowan, C. L. 
Patch, H. McGillivray, C. B. Hutchings, Miss 

Lectures J. M. Macoun, P. A.Taverner, L. D. 
Burling, W. T. Macoun, G. A. Millar, R. M. 


C. Gord 


Trust Funds W. T. Macoun, 
Hewitt, H. M. Ami. 

Auditors]. Ballantyne, E. C. Wight. 

Leaders at Excursions. 

Archaeology Harlan I. Smith, F. W. Waugh, 
W. J. Wintemberg, Dr. C. M. Barbeau. Dr. E. 

Botan^G. A. Millar, W. T. Macoun, J. M. 
Macoun, Mrs. A. F. Brown, Dr. M. O. Malte, 
J. R. Dymond, E. C. Wight, H. B. Sifton, Miss 
M. E. Cowan. 

Entoniology C. B. Hutchings, Arthur Gibson, 
Dr. C. G. Hewitt, J. M. Swaine, F. W. L. Sladen, 
Miss Crampe. 

Geology Dr. E. M. Kindle, Dr. W. Y. 
Williams, H. McGillivray, L. D. Burling, E. 
Poitevin, Dr. M. E. Wilson. 

Ornithology P. A. Taverner, C. L. Patch, Dr. 
M. Y. Williams, A. G. Kingston, Hoyes Lloyd. 

Zoology Dr. R. M. Anderson, A. Halkett, E. 
E. Lemieux, E. A. LeSueur, C. H. Young, C. E. 

Photography W. S. Hutton. 



American Society of Mammalocists. The 
organization meeting of the American Society of 
Mammalogists was held in the New National 
Museum, Washington, D.C., April 3 and 4. 1919, 
with a charter membership of over two hundred 
and fifty, of whom sixty were in attendance at the 
meeting. The following officers were elected: 

President, C. Hart Merriam (Washington) ; 
First Vice-President, E. W. Nelson (Washington) ; 
Second Vice-President, Wilfrid H. Osgood (Chi- 
cago) ; Recording Secretary, H. H. Lane (Okla- 
homa) ; Corresponding Secretary, Hartley T. H. 
Jackson (Washington) ; Treasurer, Walter P. 
Taylor (Washington). The Councilors are: Glover 
M. Allen (Cambridge) ; R. M. Anderson (Ottawa, 
Canada); J. Grinnell (Berkeley); M. W. Lyon 
(Washington); W. D. Matthew (New York); 
John C. Merriam (Berkeley) ; Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., 
(Washington) ; T. S. Palmer (Washington) ; 
Edward A. Preble (Washington) ; Witmer Stone 
(Philadelphia); and N. Hollister (Washington), 

Committees were appointed on: Life Histories 
of Mammals, Charles C. Adams, Chairman; Study 
of Game Mammals, Charles Sheldon, Chairman; 
Anatomy and Phylogeny, W. K. Gregory, Chair- 
man; and Bibliography, T. S. Palmer, Chairman. 

The policy of the Society will be to devote its 
attention to the study of mammals in a broad way, 
including life histories, habits, evolution, palaeonto- 
logy, relations to plants and animals, anatomy and 
other phases. The Society arranged to start the pub- 
lication this year of a "Journal of Mammalogy," in 
which popular as well as technical matter will be 
presented. This journal will fill a long felt want 
in the natural history world, for with all the pub- 
lications dealing with bird life on this hemisphere, 
there h?s been none making a specialty of the no 
less interesting and important mammalian life. 

In choosing the name of the Society, the word 
American is used in the broad sense of including 
all the Americas, North as well as South. Canada 
was represented at the organization meeting by two 
men, and several Canadians appear among the 
charter members. The Society starts out demo- 
cratically, with but one class of members, the gen- 
eral concensus of opinion being that the establish- 
ment of fellows and different classes of members 
would not be conducive to the good feeling and 
harmony desirable in a society of scientific aims. 
The Society invites the co-operation and support 
of all persons in the study and conservation of the 
mammalian life of America. 

Remarks Concerning Sand Launces. There 
has recently been received for identification by the 
Fisheries Branch of the Department of the Naval 
Service a number of small specimens of Sand 
Launce (Ammod^les personatus) obtained from 
Barclay and Clayoquot Sounds, British Columbia. 

The genus Ammo(i^)ies is represented on our 
coasts by three reported species m all, and all of 
which inhabit sandy shores. 

The geographical ranges of the three are as 

A. personatus: Shores of the Pacific from Cali- 
fornia to Alaska, embracing British Columbia and 
the Aleutian Islands and westward to Japan. (This 
is the species of which the Department received 

A. americanus : Maritime Provinces, Gaspe 
Basin, Labrador and Newfoundland, southward to 
Cap:; Hatteras, North Carolina. 

A. dubius: Labrador and Greenland, southward 
to Cape Cod. (As its name implies this is a 
doubtful species, and was first recorded by Rein- 
hardt in 1838.) 

Altogether there are about eight different species 
of sand launces, of which, besides our own, may 
be mentioned A. lanceolatus and A. tobianus, both 
of which occur on the British coasts. 

Andrew Halkett. 

APPEARANCE. Every observer of birds has noticed 
the abundance or scarcity of certain varieties in 
different years, and the reason of this periodical 
variation in appearance is often hard to account for. 
There are several birds that come under this class 
in Alberta, and perhaps the most prominent of these 
is the Blue Bird, (ours is the Mountain variety 
Sialia currucoides.) 

The winter of 1917-18 was quite severe up 
till about the middle of March, when it turned very 
mild and spring like. On the 21st of the month 
I was very much surprised to see three Blue Bird 
flying along the telephone wires on one of the prin- 
cipal streets of Camrose. This was fully two 
weeks earlier that I had ever recorded them before 
in my twenty-eight years residence in Alberta. 

A few days later the weather turned suddenly 
cold, and the month ended with below zero tem- 
peratures. The cold extended into Montana, be- 
tween 200 and 300 miles south of this latitude. 
There is reason to believe that these three birds 
were not the only ones to come north around the 
21st of the month, and it is likely that a large mi- 
gration took place at that time. The cold weather 


The Canadian Field-Naturali?t 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

came on so unexpectedly that there can be little 
doubt but what all the Blue Birds that ventured so 
far north at that time must have perished. 

The consequence was that there was practically 
an entire absence of these birds in this district the 
following summer. 

F. L. Farley, 

Camrose, Alberta. 

On the early life-history of the American 
LOBSTER (Homarm americanus). Were this tiny 
creature, just after it has emerged from the 
egg, to be enlarged to say ten inches in length 
and a regular ten-inch long lobster put along 
side of it, two forms, quite unlike in general 
appearance would be seen. The reason for this 
difference in general form is because whilst 
the mature lobster crawls about upon the bed of 
the sea, the little juvenal does nothing of the kind, 
but swims, or rather floats upon its back, through 
the water or near the surface of the water. It 
would be interesting to follow out in detail how this 
most valuable of all crustaceans becomes more and 
more modified as it passes from moult to moult, but 
it must suffice for the present to point out that by 
the time the lobster has acquired the crawling mode 
of locomotion it has not then reached an inch in 
length. Obviously the free swimming mode of 
movement is primitive, and there are crustaceans, for 

instance the phyllopods, which swim upon their 
backs throughout their life-histories, but in the case 
of the decapods, which stand higher in the scale 
of crustacean life, and to which shrimps, crabs, and 
the lobster belong, this phenomenon is usually only 
temporary, and in the case of the lobster is purely 
so. Now when the mother lobster, guided by her 
instincts, approaches the more shallow parts of the 
sea in order that her eggs may hatch off her swim- 
merets, and once the eggs are all hatched off, her 
maternal duties are over, for that is all the maternity 
she has. The young nauplii are now left to their 
own resources. It was a wise provision of nature 
that led the mother lobster to the shallows, for the 
little helpless creatures are there defended against 
many dangers which would have been encountered 
further out at sea. Furthermore, they undoubtedly 
meet there with a plenteous supply of surface food. 
Nor is this all. In the sheltered harbors and bays 
the little lobsters have an opportunity to undergo 
their metamorphosis until as little crawling creatures 
they seek refuge among the sea-weeds and under 
the rocks; from which time on they become better 
and better equipped, through increase in size, a 
shell hardened with carbonate of lime, and a pair 
of powerful claws, to protect themselves at consider- 
able depths in more exposed parts of the bed of 
the sea. 

Andrew Halkett. 


Injurious Insects and Useful Birds. By 
Prof. F. L. Washburn. J. B. Lippincott Company, 
Philadelphia and London; 414 illustrations in text 
and four coloured plates. Price $2.00. 

This volume prepared particularly for high 
schools and agricultural colleges is largely the re- 
sult of 21 years of work in economic entomology on 
the part of the author. It will of course also be 
a useful work of reference for gardeners and farm- 
ers generally. Chapters one to six deal with the 
losses to agriculture due to insects and rodents ; farm 
practices to lessen these; external structure of in- 
sects; collecting and preserving insects; insecticides, 
spraymg and fumigation. Chapters seven to 
eighteen discuss insect affecting various crops, such 
as apple, pear, small fruits, grain, roots, etc. 
Chapter XIX on "Our Insect Friends"; XX, "The 
Relation of Birds to Agriculture" and XXI, "Some 

Fcur-Footed Pests of 
volume. A. G. 

Outlines of Economic Zoology. By Albert M. 
Reese, Ph.D., Professor of Zoology in West Vir- 
r;inia University. Philadelphia, P. Blakeston's Son 
& Co. 316 pages. 194 illustrations. 

This volume which has been based upon a brief 
course in economic zoology given by the author 
for several years in the above university, will be 
found of special value to students, not only those 
who are taking courses in general zoology, but also 
those who are interested in agriculture. The book 
is divided into fourteen chapters, as follows: 1, 
Protozoa; II, Porifera; III, Coelenterata; IV, 
Echinodermata; V, Platyhelmenthes ; VI, Nema- 
thelmenthes; VII, Annulata; VIII, Mollusca ; IX, 
Arthropoda; X to XIV, Chordata. The importance 
of the study of economic zoology is becoming more 
apparent every day. A.G. 







MAY, 1919. 

No. 2. 


By F. W. Waugh, Geological Survey, Ottawa. 

Canoeing, it may be remarked by way of in- 
troduction, is one of a number of thmgs which have 
been borrowed, either for use or amusement, from 
the American Indian. The name, strangely enough, 
has been introduced from a region at some distance 
from that with which we are accustomed to con- 
nect canoe culture in its typical form, being derived 
from the word "canoa," in use among the Arawak 
of the West Indies. This was adopted in a similar 
form by the Spaniards, and as "candt" by the early 
French in Canada. The fact that there was already 
a name in current use, then, is no doubt the reason 
none of the names applied by the Indians of the 
Eastern Woodland area of America was adopted. 

An Ojibwa term, fairly well-known from its em- 
ployment by Longfellow in "The Song of Hia- 
watha", is "cheemaun". A name applied to a very 
large craft is "nabikwan". A Mohawk appella- 
tion is "gahonwe'ia" ; rendered by the Onondaga, 
a related tribe, as "gaho'nwa". It is interesting to 
note, in the last-mentioned dialects, the close resem- 
blance to the term for a bark bowl or trough. 

Quaint early English forms, now obsolete, are 
canow and cannoe . 

There is little doubt that, in the earlier days of 
French exploration and settlement along the St. 
Lawrence and of English settlement in New Eng- 
land, the birch-bark canoe of Indian make was very 
soon adopted as the most convenient method of 
travel. We can readily infer, also, from early 
writers and other such sources, the extremely im- 
portant part played by the canoe in the develop- 
ment of a very large portion of the North Am- 
erican continent. 

It would obviously be most interesting to trace the 
canoe and other such devices to their origins, but 
there are indications that the problem in hand is 
one of the diffusion or spread of a cultural trait 
already elaborated, or partly elaborated, it may be 
in some other region. This is in part suggested 
by both the extent and the continuity of the area 
in which canoes are used. We can see that migra- 
tions of population, or the influence of one tribe 

upon a neighboring one (accultural influence) would 
soon disseminate the canoe idea, possibly in a simple 
form, very widely, and that, under the influence of 
the varied materials at hand and diversified require- 
ments, specialization in various directions would 
later arise. 

Materials naturally played an important part.. In 
areas where trees were not at hand, or were less 
convenient, such materials as rushes were sometimes 
built into a boat-shaped raft (see the balsa of Cali- 
fornia) ; or a skin-covered craft was employed, as 
in the Eskimo area, among the neighboring Kutchin 
of the Yukon, the Tahltan and other Athabascans 
of the Mackenzie region, and in some parts of the 
Plams) see the "bull-boat," a tub-shaped craft of 
skin and withes, used by various Siouan tribes, in- 
cluding the Mandan and the Hidatsa; also by the 
Ankara, a Caddoan tribe). The Omaha (Siouan) 
used hide-covered boats or canoes of ordinary type, 
but with a rude framework, indicating the slight de- 
velopment among them of ideas regarding naviga- 
tion. In the last-mentioned craft, an oar or large 
paddle was used for steering, the paddlers sitting 
near the bow. 

One of the most interesting developments in 
North American navigation was the canoe of 
birch-bark, which apparently reached its perfection 
in the Algonkian area, a region extending from 
around the Great Lakes, and some distance west- 
ward, to the maritime provinces and the New Eng- 
land states, though the birch canoe area exhibits cul- 
tural extensions in various directions, but particularly 
northward and westward to the Mackenzie river 
basin. There is little doubt that this distribution was 
largely determined by the range of the canoe birch 
(Betula pap^rijera), which extends practically from 
the Atlantic coast to the Rockies, as well as to some 
distance south of the international boundary. The 
disappearance of the birch southward is indicated by 
the fact that very inferior canoes of elm, buttonwood 
and basswood bark were constructed by the Iro- 
quois of Central New York state and southward, 
who evidently found the materials Icist mentioned 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

more plentiful. The Iroquois canoe is everywhere 
stated to have been heavy and loggy, inconvenient 
for portaging and short-lived generally. In fact, so 
poor a craft it was in comparison with that of the 
Algonkians, that the Iroquois are said to have traded 
eagerly for the lighter and more substantial con- 

Bark and skin-covered canoes, however, are not 
the only craft which have been used by Canadian 
Indians, since at least two other devices usually 
constructed in a very primitive style are found side 
by side with considerable advancement in naviga- 
tion. The dugout, for instance, which is usually 
little more than a hollowed-out log, is employed 
by a great many tribes along with canoes of a 
much superior kind. Another very primitive-ap- 
pearing contrivance, the raft, is distributed quite 
widely, though employed to a greater extent in some 
areas than in others. 

It may be unnecessary, or even impossible, for us 
to decide which of the foregoing came into use first, 
but we should certainly be quite near the mark in 
placing the raft first in degree of simplicity, with 
the simpler class of dugout next. 

Practically everywhere within the region of Al- 
gonkian influence proper the birch-bark canoe was 
essentially the same, such differences as occur con- 
cerning mostly the shape of bow and stern, which 
has evidently been derived almost exclusively from 
a single pattern, with local variations in the amount 
of curvature or recurvature and the method of deck- 
ing over at the ends, where such a device was em- 
ployed. The Malecite (western New Brunswick) 
and Ojibwa forms are very good examples of the 
extremes in outline in the Algonkian region. The 
Malecite canoe also exhibits the decking-over sheet 
at the ends, with side-flaps, in a well-developed form. 
As we proceed westward, this sheet decreases in size 
in the Algonquin canoe of northern Quebec and 
Ontario and becomes vestigial in a smaller form 
used by certain of the neighboring Ojibwa. The 
same purpose, that of preventing the inflow of water, 
is accomplished by the recurving ends of the Ojibwa 
type with which we are most familiar. 

Regarding the Algonkian tribes of central Labra- 
dor, Turner remarks that "a tribe of great dis- 
similarity between the Naskopies and the Little 
Whale River Indians (Eastern Cree) is that the 

iDr. E. Sapir, in "Time Perspective in Abor- 
iginal American Culture," Memoir 90, of the 
Geological Survey (Canada), p. 20, remarks: "Sim- 
ilarly, the clumsy elm-bark canoe of the Iroquois 
seems less adapted to its cultural environment than 
the various types of birch-bark canoe of their 
Algonkian neighbors. We may risk the guess that 
the Iroquois bark canoe is an imperfect cojiy in elm- 
bark, a characteristically Iroquois material, of the 
superior Algonkian types, and connect this further 
with the general consideration that the Iroquois 
were rather more inclined to be cross-country 
walkers than the neighboring Algonkian tribes, who 
were more adept river and sea folk." 

birch-bark canoe of the latter is much more turned 
up at each end, producing a craft well adapted to 
the swift currents of rivers." He also states that 
"the occupants are skilful boatmen," that "sails are 
sometimes erected in a single canoe," and that "at 
times two canoes are lashed together and a sail 
spread from a single mast."- 

An offshoot of the Algonkian canoe was the 
"rabiscaw" of the Hudson Bay Company, an extra 
large birch-bark craft designed to meet the demands 
of the fur-trade. A prominent feature was the high, 
upturned bow and stern decorated with gaudy 

At the western extremity of the bark canoe arc" 
we find at least two somewhat divergent forms which 
suggest an attenuation of eastern accultural influence, 
combined, possibly, with modifications from other 
sources. The Dog-ribs, an Athabascan tribe of the 
Mackenzie basin, like the Ojibwa, construct a birch- 
bark canoe having separate keel-pieces for the bow 
and stern. The small and narrow ribs and the 
slender, widely-separated siding or flooring strips 
extending from end to end, however, show some 
resemblance to kayak construction. A special fea- 
ture (also showing a resemblance to the kayak)'' is 
the fairly extensive sheet of decking at either end. 
Conspicuous side-flaps, of the type found in the 
Algonquin decking, are lacking. The seams are 
sewn with spruce root and gummed. 

Among the Kootenay and the various Salish tribes 
of southern British Columbia is found a canoe of 
pine or spruce bark, rather rude in general work- 
manship and showing but little external resemblance 
to eastern forms. The most striking feature is the 
peculiar pointed extension of the lower part of bow 
and stern, which is said to be specially adapted to 
rapid rivers. From a structural point of view no 
radical difference from eastern types is to be noted. 
The bark of the yellow cedar (Thuja excelsa) is 
also mentioned as a British Columbia canoe-making 

A Slave canoe from the neighborhood of Hay 
river (flowing into Great Slave Lake) exhibits an 
upward extension at the bow and stern which adds 
much to its picturesqueness. In other respects it 
conforms closely to eastern models. 

A description of Ojibwa canoe-making will no 
doubt give a fair idea of the methods employed 
throughout most of the bark canoe area.^ The 
process is most interesting and requires considerable 

sTurner, Lucien M., "Ethnology of the Ungava 
District." llth Annual Kept, of the Bureau of Eth., 
Washington, D.C., p. 182. 

sMention of this resemblance is made by Pet- 
itot, m "Autour du Grand Lac des Esclaves," p. 268. 

4<^rom data obtained by the writer among the 
Saulteaux, or Ojibwa of the Lake Nipigon region. 
Permission to use this and other original notes 
was accorded by the Geological Survey. Ottawa. 

May, 1919] 

Plate I. 




1, Alaskan Eskimo umiak, or open boat: 2, Labrador Eskimo kayak: 3, Dog-rib canoe; 4, Malecite 

canoe: 5, Algonquin canoe; 6, Montagnais canoe. 


The Canadian Field- Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

Thin strips of cedar (Thuja occ'idenlal'is) for the 
ribs, and the sheeting used between the ribs and bark 
to prevent injury to the latter, are obtained, split 
into approximate sizes and placed in water to render 
them more flexible. Another important requisite is 
the birch-bark, which peels off most easily late in 
June or early in July. This is rolled up and laid 
away in the shade. Towards evening, or at any 
time, if the day is cloudy, stakes (nine or more to a 
side) are driven into the ground at intervals to 
approximate the length and width of the canoe. 
These are made to flare outward slightly. The 
bottom pieces of bark are now placed in position, 
overlapping a few inches in the middle where they 
are to be joined. A single length of bark is pre- 
ferred for the bottom. This, however, is not always 
obtainable, so that two pieces, or even three, may be 
used. Stones are laid on the bark to hold it down, 
and a bottom frame, approximating the width of the 
canoe at the bottom and pointed at both ends, is 
applied. The work so far is done by the men. 
The next operation, that of shaping the bottom by 
making slashes or gores on each side and sewing 
these with spruce root, is done by the women. The 
gores are made towards the ends, where the canoe 
begins to narrow. The upper edges of the bark 
are also trimmed evenly. The spruce root for 
sewing has been split by the women to a suitable 
size and rendered flexible by steeping in fish broth. 
The men next lay the upper lengths of bark along- 
side, measure them by trial, then place them in 
position. The bottom pieces are now scored along 
the bottom with an axe where they are to be 
creased for the taper to bow and stern, after which 
both upper and lower barks are pinched together 
by stakes driven closely and tied at the top. An 
inner frame (or "inside gunwale") giving shape to 
the upper edge of the canoe, and having exactly 
the right taper and curve, has been prepared be- 
forehand and is now placed between the upper barks 
and sewn closely and firmly to them. Pieces of 
cedar, bent to the approved shape of bow and stern, 
are placed between the barks at the ends of the 
canoe, the bark trimmed to conform to these in out- 
line, then sewn to them with spruce root. The 
Sevang, as before, is performed by the women, to 
whom this part of the work is always assigned. 
Stitches of uneven length are often employed, par- 
ticularly around the ends, to prevent the bark from 
splitting.'^ The gores and laps have in each case 
been well cemented or stuck together with clear 
gum boiled a little to thicken it. 

r.Other devices for preventing the edges from 
splitting along seams, are: The sewing of an extra 
strip of bark around the outer edge of the canoe 
beneath the gunwale; also the inclusion under the 
stitches of a strand of spruce root (often used along 
longitudinal seams where barks are joined). Both 
of these schemes are employed by the Dog-ribs 
Slaves and Chipewyans. 

The bottom frame, which is merely temporary, is 
now removed, the ribs taken from the water, bent to 
shape around the knee, cut to length and driven 
into place with a mallet. Other thin strips of cedar, 
three or four inches wide, are driven between the 
ribs and bark as the work proceeds. The purpose 
of these is to form a protective flooring and siding. 
The canoe, particularly at this stage, is kept well 
moistened both inside and out. The placing of the 
ribs and sheeting proceeds, generally speaking, from 
each end to the centre. Cross-pieces, to keep the 
top spread, are hammered in at every second rib. The 
ribs are a couple of inches wide and about ihe 
some width apart. When the insertion of ribs and 
sheeting is completed, the canoe may require a gen- 
eral correction in shape, which is given by tying it 
between stakes and exposing it for a while to the 

The next process, also a woman's job, is to get 
ready, or rather, to have ready, the spruce gum and 
to gum the seams. All laps have their outer edges 
running backwards or towards the stern, so as not 
to obstruct the motion of the canoe. The spruce 
gum IS obtained from trees which have been gashed 
the year before, is boiled a while to thicken it and 
mixed with powdered charcoal some say, to make 
it look nice. The bottom seam is coated with clear 
gum and pegged, not sewn. 

A little grease is said to be added to the gum 
by most tribes to render it more elastic. The ad- 
dition of the powdered charcoal is not universal. 

Among the Micmac of Nova Scotia and Cape 
Breton the women and girls are said to have pre- 
pared the gum by chewing it. 

The last step in Saulteaux canoe-making is to 
attach a top gunwale strip. This is nailed on at 
present, but may have formerly been fastened on by 
tying or binding with spruce root. 

The Malecite, according to information supplied 
by Mr. William Mclnnes, Director of the Geological 
Survey, Ottawa, construct temporary or emergency 
canoes of spruce bark which are used for bringing 
out furs from the hunting camps in the spring. The 
ribs and frame are roughly constructed of withes 
or saplings, flattened slightly and rather widely 
spaced, the bow and stern being chinked with clay. 

Mr. Mclnnes also furnishes an interesting de- 
scription of the manner in which the Malecite protect 
the bottoms of birch-bark canoes in shallow streams: 
Lengths of spruce bark, with the smooth inner sur- 
face placed outward, are wrapped around the bot- 
toms of the canoes from end to end and held in 
position by tying their edges to the thwarts with 
cedar inner bark. Another material, which is pre- 
ferred to the spruce bark on account of its lightness, 
consists of strips of cedar about two inches wide and 
three-quarters of an inch thick. The strips run 

May. 1919] 

Plate II. 



f^it^- -'1 J I '' II "_' in'L^ - i V V]-,-!] ,JT 

Illllllll1ll |)l |!)l|l |lll\llllllll| f!l^ 



1, Ojibwa canoe (Northern Ontario): 2, Chipewyan: 3, Slave; 4, Kootenay, Shuswap and other 

southern B.C., tribes; .5, Haida. 
No.s. 3 to 6 on plate 1, and 1 to 3 on plate 2, are arranged consecutively to show how one form 

may have developed from the preceding. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

lengthwise from end to end of the canoe, just high 
enough along the sides to afford protection from 
rocks, and are lashed together and to the thwarts by 
continuous strands of cedar bark which are threaded 
through perforations in their upper edges. 

Micmac canoes in the Victoria Museum have the 
ends stuffed for a short distance with moss or shav- 
ings, the purpose being to keep the bark from col- 
lapsing or wrinkling where ribs are lacking. The 
stuffing is held in place by thin partitions of cedar, 
cut to shape and held in position at the bottom by 
the end of one of the inside sheetmg strips. Slave 
and Chipewyan canoes also exhibit stuffing. 

and navigation developed, with the exception that 
the Eskimo to some extent use large sea-going kayaks 
for hunting the whale and seal ; and also that the 
Micmacs, like other coastal tribes, sometimes con- 
struct large bark canoes for a similar purpose. The 
sides of the Micmac canoe are up-curved and turned 
in towards the centre to exclude heavy seas. 

The Eskimo kayak, for present purposes, may be 
regarded as a highly specialized canoe, differing 
from the Algonkian in the important, though not 
essential, respect of having the framework so con- 
structed that it is held together independently of the 
cover; and in the superficial one that the covering 





/. 2. 3. ^ .' 6. 7. 8. fl. 

1 and 4, West Coast paddles, exact locality unknown: 2 and 3, Tlingit (northern B.C.); 5, prob- 
ably Haida (Queen Charlotte Islands): 6, Kootenay (southern B.C.); 7, Ojibwa: 9, Copper Eskimo: 
8 and 10, Central Eskimo. (The last three are neighboring groups). 

In spite of its many excellent qualities and his- 
toric associations, the birch-bark canoe is evidently 
on the wane at present as a medium of travel. The 
factory-made canoe, though modelled after the In- 
dian article, has, in fact, so far eclipsed it that it is 
seldom seen except among remote and backward 
bands of Indians who employ it mainly from 
economy or conservatism. 


In only one region, the great insular area of the 
North Pacific Coast, was a true seafaring culture 

is of skin instead of bark, to which we may add that 
of being decked over so as to accommodate, in most 
cases, but one person. 

The upper rim or frame of two pieces is made first, 
with mortises for the insertion of ribs and thwarts and 
holes for lashings. The thwarts are placed in pos- 
ition and the upper part or deck practically com- 
pleted, one of the last steps being the attachment of 
a middle strip lengthwise along the top, except 
where it is intersected by the opening or man-hole. 
The whole affair is then turned top or face down- 

May, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


wards. The ribs are now shaped and fitted and 
their ends inserted in the upper side-pieces and 
secured with wooden pins. The ribs are usually 
from two to six inches apart. The other longitudinal 
strips are then attached to the sides, with a similar 
piece along the middle of the bottom, which, like 
the other canoes described, is destitute of a keel. 

The sealskin covering is sewn together and ap- 
plied to the framework wet, so that it stretches tightly 
as it dries. The sewing, as in the case of the 
Algonkian canoe, is done by several women working 
together in order to complete the job at one sitting. 
A double waterproof stitching renders the seams 

of Yukon Territory and Alaska possesses features 
which give it an intermediate position between the 
umiak and the canoe of the region to the south and 
east. A canoe-like feature is the wedge-shaped bow 
and stern. A pointed or leaf-shaped paddle is 

The umiak is said to have been entirely aban- 
doned on the east coast of Labrador." In parts cf 
the latter region and in Alaska it is used largely by 
the men for whale and walrus hunting as well as 
for general purposes. Lengthy journeys or migra- 
tions are often undertaken in it and its capacity 
is said to be remarkable. 

The bow and stern of the Labrador umiak are 

DISTRIBUTION MAP, the dotted portion showing the 
Eskimo kayak and umiak region, and tlie part 
covered by oblique lines, tlie bircli-bark canoe region. 

According to E. W. Hawkes, from whose memoir wider than those of the Alaskan, which gives it a 
on the Labrador Eskimo the foregoing description is clumsier appearance. It is usually about twenty- 
taken, "Great speed is maintained by the Eskimo in five feet long and is steered with a rudder, quite 
their frail kayaks. It is said that a single Eskimo likely an Asiatic borrowing, as are also the oars. 

in a kayak will propel it as fast as two white men 
will a canoe. The Eskimo ventures out in a sea 
that an Indian would not dare attempt. . . .''" 
The umiak, an open craft, also used by the 
Eskimo, presents a somewhat different appearance 
from the kayak due partly to its not being decked 
over and partly to its being rather deeper and 

rowlocks and sails. In Alaska the umiak is pro- 
pelled by the more aboriginal paddle, the steering 
being done with an extra long and heavy one. 

Sails were nowhere used as an integral feature 
of navigation except along the North Pacific Coast, 
where there is also a suspicion of Russian or other 

clumsier in form. In other respects it does not Asiatic influence. 

differ materially, a fact which would suggest it as Jhe light and rather easily upset birch-bark 

the form from which the kayak was derived. canoe was evidently unsuited for propulsion by such 

An open skin-covered boat used by the Kutchin a contrivance, except in very light breezes, or when 

GHawkes, E. W., "The Labrador Eskimo," 
Memoir <J1, Geol. Survey, Ottawa, p. 72. Tibid., p. 68. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

well loaded. That there was some appreciation of 
the assistance afforded by sails is likely, even though 
it failed to crystallize into a definite form. Catlin, 
for instance, states that among the Sioux a man 
would sometimes stand in a canoe facing the pad- 
dlers and hold a blanket spread out as a sail. 
The upper corners were held by the hands, while 
the lower part was tied to the body or to a thwart.* 

Denys, a French explorer, speaking of the Micmac 
in 1651, remarks: "They also went with a sail, 
which was formerly of bark, but oftener of a well- 
dressed skin of a young moose. Had they a favor- 
able wind they went as swiftly as the throw of a 
stone. One canoe carried as many as eight or ten 

Skinner informs us, with regard to the Eastern 
Cree, that the "Canoes average twelve or fifteen 
feet in length, but those used by the Labrador 

of Athabascans living on Portland Inlet, B.C., used 
sails of Marmot-skin. 

These items, from various regions, suggest that 
the idea of sailing may have existed in an incipient 
form here and there, though none of them is per- 
haps perfectly free from a suspicion of European 

Brinton, the well-known anthropologist, states quite 
positively that no sails were used by the Dene, or 
various Athabascan tribes which occupy an immense 
region extending throughout northwestern Canada. 
In this he is supported by Morice, a missionary who 
spent many years with the Dene.^^ 

Paddles differ little in pattern throughout the 
greater part of the area in which we have followed 
canoe navigation, until we reach the extreme west, 
or the Eskimo country at the north. 

SAULTEAUX CANOE-MAKl i\<; : i'laciiig upper barks in position and trimming. 

voyageurs are often twice that size and sometimes 
more. They are capable of bearing enormous 
weights, and many will hold twenty or more men. 
The paddles used are short and rather clumsy. They 
have no swelling at the end of the handle to facil- 
itate the grip. In paddling, the Eastern Cree take 
shorter and more jerky strokes than their Ojibway 
neighbors of the south. When a fair wind is 
blowing, a blanket or even a bush is set up in the 
bow for a sail."^" 

According to Boas, the Tsetsaut, a small group 

sCatlin, Geo., "Letters and Notes on tlie Man- 
ners, Customs and Conditions of the North Amer- 
ican Indians," London, 1842, p. 214, and plate 294. 

sDenys, Nicholas, "Description and Natural 
History of the Coasts of North America," The 
Champlain Society, Toronto, 1908, p. 422. 

loSkinner, Alanson, "Notes on the Eastern Cree 
and Northern Saulteaux," Anthropological Papers 
of the American Mus. of Nat. Hist., vol. IX, part 1, 
p. 43. 

Those used by the Ojibwa are extremely simple 
and are usually made of clear cedar. The paddler 
sits rather low, the toes turned inward and bent 
backward beneath the body. On a long journey a 
small pad of leaves or clothing is placed beneath the 
legs conveniently for sitting on. 

A double-bladed paddle is used throughout most 
of the Canadian Eskimo region, although in Alaska 
the single paddle is found. Among the Aleuts of 
southwestern Alaska the paddle is pointed, like that 
of the Pacific Coast. 

The Labrador double paddle is about ten or 
twelve feet long and made of hardwood or spruce 
tipped with bone. Leather rings on the handles 
keep the water from dripping on the paddler. 

The British Columbia paddle and that used by 

iiMorice, A. G., "The Great Dene Race," Anth- 
ropos, vol. 5, p. 441. 

May, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


certain adjoining tribes, such as the Aleuts and the 
western or northwestern Dene, is invariably sharply- 
pointed or lance-shaped and has almost invariably a 
T-shaped grip. 

British Columbian influence in this respect seems 
observable eastward as far as the Slaves and the 
Chipewyans, who have the paddle obtusely-pomted. 

A conveyance of the type represented by the 
canoe, which is suitable mostly for summer, natur- 
ally supposes a corresponding wmter cor.trivance, 
especially for the northern part of our range. That 
this was, or is, actually the case is suggested by the 
close correspondence of the dog and sledg= or 
toboggan area with that of the canoe (Eskimo Atha- 
bascan and Algonkian). The exceptions to this are 
found principally on the West Coast, where con- 
ditions are favorable to water transportation through- 

Dugouts seem to have been used to a limited 
extent by the Ojibwa and by the Menominee, a 
tribe living in northern Michigan and Wisconsin, 
and fairly closely related to the Sauk, Fox and 
Kickapoo. This usage may also have been induced 
by a scarcity of the ordinary material, which is 

The eastern dugout region seems fairly continuous 
southward from among the tribes mentioned, and 
would probably be contained very largely by the 
southern half of the Eastern Woodlands area, to 
which we might no doubt add the eastern half of 
the south-eastern area. 

The canoe in common use on the lower Mis- 
sissippi is a dugout, called "pirogue" by the French. 
The bow of this canoe is broad and sloping. The 
average measurement is forty feet by three in width, 
with a thickness of about three inches. A canoe 

Saulteaux Indian in.serting' ribs. 

out most of the year; on the Plains, where the 
travois replaced the sledge or toboggan, and canoeing 
was of relatively slight importance ; and in the 
southern part of the Eastern Woodlands, where the 
snowfall is comparatively light. 

The dugout, in most cases a rather crude canoe 
made by charring and hollowing-out a log ,also has 
quite a wide distribution and is found, as already 
noted, in many regions where a more advanced type 
of canoe is also used. 

Among the Iroquois, who were noted as in- 
different canoe-makers, it was quite extensively em- 
ployed, and is still used for the navigation of small 
streams for trapping and other such purposes. The 
scarcity of better materials may have been a factor 
in its popularity. The favorite Iroquois material is 

of this size will carry twelve persons. The material 
is usually some light or buoyant wood. A craft 
called by the same name is still to be found in the 
old "Acadian" region of eastern Canada. The 
material used is white pine. A black walnut dug- 
out IS used on the Arkansas. Besides a dugout, the 
Chitimacha of the lower Mississippi manufacture an 
elm-bark canoe. 

Bushnell, in speaking of the Choctaw of Bayou 
Lacomb, Louisiana, states that "dugouts were em- 
ployed on the creeks and bayous, but evidently only 
to a small extent." The Creoles at present make 
dugouts eight or twelve feet in length from logs of 
black gum.^- 

Those in use among the Creeks (a Muskhogean 
tribe related to the Choctaw) were made of cypress 

iL'Buslmell, D. I., jr.. "The Choctaw of Bayou 
Lacomb. Louisiana," Bulletin 48, Bureau of Amer 
Ethnology, p. 18. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

and are said to have had their ends sHghtly elevated 
and pointed. 

Among the northern Ojibwa, Cree and Algon- 
kian tribes generally, the dugout is conspicuous by 
its absence. The same remark holds good for the 
Plains tribes and for the Eskimo. 

The Iroquois method of making a dugout is 
probably typical for the whole eastern region m 
which it is used. 

A tree of suitable material and size was first cut 
Jown in former times by burning, the fire being 
localized by applying some damp material above the 
point where the tree was to be burned through. The 
log was cut to length in the same way. The next 
step was to build a number of small fires at intervals 
on top of the log, then hack away the charred part 
with adzes. The fires were rebuilt and the work 
continued in this way until a suitable hollow was 
obtained. The ends were shaped in a similar way. 
The same method of hollowing-out dugouts and large 
wooden bowls is practised by the present-day 

Among the Dene, the adoption of the dugout is 
considered by Morice to be of fairly recent origin, 
dugouts of balsam poplar having, in his opinion, re- 
placed the original spruce-bark canoe. These dug- 
outs are sometimes thirty feet in length by not more 
than three in the middle and are said to possess no 
elegance or design of beauty. 

Along the Pacific Coast the dugout is the char- 
acteristic craft and is here elaborated into an article 
possessing graceful lines and considerable beauty of 
workmanship. Its development, both in the matter 
of size and finish, was no doubt due at least partly 
to the size and workability of the coniferous trees 
of the coast region, as well as to the decreased 
demand for portability. A factor which must have 
greatly improved the product of the last century or 
two is the introduction of modern tools. Huge sea- 
faring dugouts were, and are still occasionally, made 
by the Haida and neighboring tribes of the northern 
Pacific Coast. 

An interesting feature of construction is the re- 
tention of the simple or primitive method of alternate 
charring and hacking in hollowing-out the interior. 
The final adzing imparts a fine scale-like appearance. 
When the adzing has been completed the canoes 
are given additional beam by filling with water, 
which is heated with stones, after which the sides 
are forced apart by means of thwarts. 

British Columbian dugouts in general bear a 
degree of interresemblance in outline and structure 
that suggests a common cultural or intercultural 
origin. A groove inside the stern provides a rest 
for the whaling and sealing harpoon. 

The eastern dugouts, already described, though 
possessing some broad features of resemblance to 

those of the West Coast, are sufficiently different 
in general character to suggest a development under 
differing conditions. r^FTS 

The raft is at least the crudest of the navigatory 
devices mentioned and possesses a distribution which 
is practically universal, though used in many regions 
merely as an occasional or emergency craft. Its 
form is usually extremely simple and seldom exhibits 
anything which can be dignified by the name of 
design or style, though occasionally there are ex- 
ceptions to this. The balsa, found among certain 
California Indians and in isolated localities south- 
ward to Chili, is really a raft composed of bunches 
of tule or rushes tied together, although its pointed 
ends give it some resemblance to a canoe. 

Regarding the northern Dene, we have the state- 
ment of Morice to the effect that they occasionally 
make use of rafts. "They are made of three dry 
logs bound together, with their larger ends aft, 
while a slightly tapering shape is given their op- 
posite extremities. The logs are fastened together 
fore and aft by means of ropes, which, when of truly 
aboriginal make, are of twisted strips or willow 
bark, starting from one end of a crossbar placed 
over them and going round each of the logs and the 
bar alternately. Among the Loucheux, these prim- 
itive embarkations are used in combination with regu- 
lar canoes."'' 

Decking, so prominent in Eskimo canoes, has been 
observed to be less extensive in the Dog-rib bark 
canoe, and still slighter in the Chipewyan, Algon- 
quin and Malecite. It is interesting, however, to 
find it outside the Eskimo region. The side flaps of 
the Algonquin and Malecite and some Ojibwa deck- 
ing sheets have been already referred to. 

Sewing, like covering materials, exhibits changes 
based on geographical location, these consisting 
mainly of a transition from sinew (used by the 
Eskimo) to spruce root (used by nearly all Cana- 
dian tribes excepting the Eskimo and Kutchin) ; or, 
in a few cases, to the bast or inner bark of the bass- 
wood and elm (used by the Iroquois). 

The seams in all bark canoes are gummed. 
The wide, flat rib is characteristic of the Eastern 
Woodlands and extends westward to the Slave coun- 
try. This is accompanied by an inside sheeting 
which covers the bark completely. Contrasted with 
the wide, flat rib, though not differing from it in 
principle, is the narrow and widely-spaced rib of 
the Eskimo, Kutchin and Dog-rib crafts. 

A feature which seems to be closely associated 
with the birch-bark canoe in general is the separate 
strip or piece used to give shape to the bow and 
stern respectively. These are also possessed by the 

isMorice, A. G., "The Great Dene Race," Anth^ 
ropes, vol. 5, p. 443. 

May, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Kutchin skin canoe. In the Eskimo canoes they 
are continuous with the central strip along the 

The differences in outline, which constitute the 
most striking superficial variations among the canoes 
described, are dependent principally upon the shape 
of the end strips or "fashion-pieces" just referred to. 
A reference to Plates 1 and 2 will show that a series 
may be found starting with a very simply curved 
bow and stern piece (Kutchin and Dog-rib) and 
proceeding to one having an almost perpendicular 
upper portion (Algonquin and Malecite), and from 
the latter form to one which is considerably re- 
curved (Slave, Chipewyan, Ojibwa, Montagnais, 

The gunwale is another interesting item. Among 
the Slaves and the neighboring Dog-ribs there are 
two gunwale strips, an inside and an outside, bound 
at intervals with the sewing or binding material. A 
similar feature links together the Algonquin and the 
Malecite. An inside gunwale to which the upper 
edge of the covering is sewn continuously, is found 
among the Chipewyan, Ojibwa, Montagnais and 
Micmac. An upper or top gunwale characterizes 
all the Algonkian canoes. The Algonquin and 
Malecite have consequently all three gunwales; in- 
side, outside, and top. The maximum of protection 
or reinforcement is evidently gained by this employ- 
ment of three protective strips along the upper edge, 
although at some addition of weight. 


By Capt. T. W. Kirkconnell. 

Pastures new are always seen through an alluring 
mist of anticipation, and when, some two years ago, 
it was my military misfortune but botanical privilege 
to be detailed for duty on the staff of Kapuskasing 
Internment Camp in further New Ontario, I waited 
with intense interest for my first opportunities for 
exploration. During my exile, unkind weather and 
strenuous duties have permitted far fewer local ex- 
cursions than I had hoped for, yet I have been able 
to ggin a fair approximate knowledge of the sub- 
arctic conditions that obtain here and of the vegeta- 
tion which they have evolved. 

Kapuskasing, in the so-called "Clay Belt," is situ- 
ated on a river of the same name which joins the 
Mattagami, about one hundred miles from James 
Bay. The region exemplifies in its flora the inevit- 
able selection power of rainfall, temperature, and 
soil. Lying within the path of the broad cyclonic 
disturbances that traverse North America from the 
southwest, it has an abundant rainfall and is conse- 
quently completely forested, except in the extreme 
north where under duress of temperature trees give 
place to scrubs. It also borders on the great north- 
western reservoir of high pressure and so tastes the 
first bitter cold of anticyclonic gales. The menace 
of winter is felt throughout the greater part of the 
year, and during 1918 frost was registered in every 
month without exception. The great penetration of 
the winter frosts cannot fail to have a discouraging 
effect on plant life. During August, 1918, a drain 
was being dug through the camp at Kapuskasing and 
ice was encountered at a depth of four feet. Snow 
\ also persists in the bush until late in the summer. 
^^\As a result, only species that are exceedingly toler- 

ant of cold have survived the selection of ages, and 
even existing life is dwarfed and stunted. Finally, 
the soil almost everywhere is a heavy clay resting 
on gneiss and covered with from one to four feet 
of rich vegetable mould. Thousands of square miles 
have absolute homogeneity of conditions and the 
flora shows like lack of variety. 

The change from Southern Ontario is marked and 
complete. As one travels northward from North 
Bay, the transition in the character of the forestation 
cannot fail to attract attention. In the long climb 
into the rock country deciduous trees are left be- 
hind more and more ; white pine is supreme in 
parts of the Timagami area, but before Cobalt is 
reached the last white pine has disappeared ; and 
in descending into the Great Clay Bog of the North 
one sees mile after weary mile of stunted spruce 
(Picea mariana), broken at intervals by ridges of 
poplar (Populus balsamifera), aspen (Populus tre- 
muloides), and birch (Betula alba). First im- 
pressions of the endless leagues of spruce are pecu- 
liar. One might almost, by a stretch of the imagina- 
tion, conceive of the scene being laid in Paleozoic 
times amid the forest of progressive Equisetales and 
Lepidodendreae which clothed the lower James Bay 
slope when the world was some aeons younger. Closer 
inspection finds other trees eking out a minority exist- 
ence. Cedar grows along river-bottoms, as do 
Alder and Willows. Balsam and Jackpine (Pirtus 
Banlfsiana) are occasionally found, and the Moun- 
tain Ash (P^Tus americana) flourishes as a large 
shrub on higher ground. Any tamarack that I have 
found has been dead, apparently the victim of the 
Larch Sawfly. 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

My first botanical survey of the bush country im- 
pressed me more with the abundance of the species 
that were missing than with that of those present. 
After the swamps and bogs of Southern Ontario the 
new field seemed miserable and poverty-stricken. 
One of my earliest quests was for orchids. In Old 
Ontario I was on speaking terms with some thirty- 
two of these little aristocrats and the possibility of 
making some new acquaintance among them always 
added the keenest zest to a day's botanizmg. Kap- 
uskasing has treated me but poorly in this regard 
for here I have met only four species, all familiar. 
I found some Habenaria hyperhorea growing sturd- 
ily in the lush grass beside the railway track, a com- 
mon enough acquaintance before, but welcome now 
for the family's sake. Later search, located 

than two or three blossoms at a time, but here I 
could count thirty within a radius of three paces and 
over a hundred in sight. I felt myself a second 
Odysseus in Ogygia, with the roles of infatuation re- 
versed, and it finally needed the Hermes of a raven- 
ing appetite to tear me away from the spot. 

Nor are orchids the only rare visitors; for even 
plebeians are very sparsely distributed here. The 
spring woods show few of the familiar faces of the 
south no Hepaticas, White or Purple Trilhums, 
Bellworts, Leeks, or Dog Tooth Violets. I have 
found a few unhealthy specimens of Sanguinaria 
canadensis, Viola cucullata, and Anemone parvi- 
fiora, but there is little else reminiscent of an Old 
Ontario spring. Trillium cernuum, a smaller plant 
than its brother T. grandiflorum, and characterized 

Weiswinin Falls, May 22, 1917. 

Microst])lis monophyllos and Corallorrhiza trifida 
on a damp, wooded hillside. They, too, were not 
prizes to bear home in triumph for the admiration of 
friends poor, shy slips of green, they are the de- 
spised Cinderellas of their kind, with just a touch 
of inherited grace in their soberness. But one 
pleasant surprise was in store for me. I was tramp- 
ing one mild June day through an open spruce woods 
that crowns the steep bank just below Weiswinin 
falls on the Kapuskasing. There was little under- 
growth but a wonderful carpet of moss, a most 
beautiful display of Hypnum Crista- castrensis spread 
out like elfin ferns. Then suddenly I burst into an 
enchanted glade and saw the ground dotted with 
gems of purple and white and gold. It was the 
most wonderful bed of Calypso borealis that I have 
ever seen. I had never before come across more 

by a recurved peduncle whereby the blossom hides 
its face among the leaves whorled below, is met with 
occasionally. Coptis Irifolia is plentiful in June. 

The slashed clearings and "brule" have a some- 
what different flora from the woods. The first- 
comer to push through the mould was a stranger to 
me, and one whom I have never identified to my 
complete satisfaction in Gray. In the main it seems 
to answer to the description of Anaphalis margar- 
iiacea, var. occidentalis, being an erect dioecious com- 
posite, with linear-lanceolate, subtomentose leaves 
and small whitish florets. It is, however, more 
fleshy and herbaceous than the Pearly Everlasting, 
flourishes in mucky loam, and never attains more than 
3 dcm. in height. Corydalis aurea and C. semper- 
virens are ubiquitous in burnt-over areas, their 
supremacy being undisputed until the later arrival of 

May, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Epilohium angusiif olium and Cirs'ium muticum. An 
abundant companion of these is Merlensia panicu- 
lala, a sturdy vagabond with purphsh-blue flowers, 
handsome when young but becoming disreputable 
with age. Caltha palustris and Veronica americana 
succeed one another along swampy rills. The Crow- 
foots are represented by Ranunculus abortivus, plain 
but hardy, R. penns^lvanicus, and our childhood 
friend, R. acris. There is not much further change 
until autumn, when Asters and Goldenrods brighten 
the fields for a season. 

Bog societies present little that is new. Sphagnum 
Moss, Labrador Tea, Laurel (Kalmia polifolia), 
Linnaea borealis with its delicate twin blossoms, 
Galium borcale, Pyrola chlorantha, Pyrola asarifolia, 
Moneses uniflora, and quaint Milella nuda are per- 
haps representative. I have yet to find the Pitcher- 
plant, Sundew, Valerian, and Gaultheria. Where 
spruce bog thins out into poplar knolls you find 
Actaea rubra, Apoc})num androsaemifolium, Aralia 
nudicaulis. Prunella vulgaris, and sometimes a patch 
of Pedicularis canadensis. 

Ecologically, one might almost speak of "portage 
societies" for I have found the open ground about 
portages a rich hunting-ground for species lacking 
elsewhere. There, outcropping gneiss is thinly up- 
holstered with sod and abundant moisture tempers 
frosts and fosters vegetation. At the foot of rocky 
cliffs just below Kabahose falls, a forty-foot cataract 
some twelve miles south of the camp, I discovered 
last June an Eldorado of Primula mistassinica, a 
charming little flower, easily rivalling Campanula 
rotundifolia in grace; and when scattered along the 
brim of a magnificent foam-flecked pool of black 
water, it was doubly beautiful. Another "find" in 
the same spot was Clematis verticillarus. Beside 
Weiswinin falls, too, I gathered in a goodly harvest 
during the summer months. Blue-eyed Grass (Sis\)r- 
inchium angusiifolium), two less common Cinque- 
foils, Polentilla fruticosa and P. tridentata, and two 
unfamiliar Fleabanes, Erigeron b\)ssopif alius and E. 
racemosus grew there in abundance, along with 
Aquilegia canadensis and Lilium philadelphicum. 

Weeds, the profanum vulgus of civilized fields, 
have immigrated but little so far, and the few ruf- 
fians to be found in this new country can be blamed 
on balast and poor seed. My rogue's gallery com- 
prises the Catchfly (Silenc nociiflora), Chickweed 
(Stellaria media). Ox-eye Daisy (Chrysanthemum 
Lcucanthemum), Vetch (Vicia Cracca), Hound's 
Tongue (Cynoglossum officinale), and Shepherd's 
Purse (Capsella bursa-pasloris), but none grow yet 
in sufficient quantities to harrass the farmer. 

Cryptogamic life I must dismiss briefly. Ferns 
are less plentiful than further south, but there is an 
abundance of Bracken, Bladder Fern, Maidenhair 
Fern, and Oak Fern. The Equisetaseae are well 
represented, and there is a great plenitude of Lyco- 
pods, especially Lycopodium clavatum, L. dendroi- 
deum, and E. complanatum. Many glades on high- 
er ground can boast of a charming Lilliputian forest 
of these dwindling descendants of the Coal Mea- 
sures. Mosses abound in the woods and are ex- 
uberant under portage conditions, Bryum and 
Hypnum forms predominating as usual. New 
"brUle" is often a moist mass of Liverworts. Among 
fungi my most welcome finds were Coprinus mica- 
ceus and Morchella deliciosa, and these I did my 
best to exterminate. 

A man of grass will be pardoned for venturing 
a few closing remarks on the zoology of the district. 
The only fish in the Kapuskasing river are pike, 
pickerel, black bass, and suckers, all of small size. 
Precipitous falls between here and James Bay ap- 
parently discourage ichthyic development. Insect 
life is plentiful (my fellow officers wax profane over 
armed hosts of Anopheles) but lacks the variety of 
the lower latitudes. In seeking Coleoptera I have 
found the Buprestidae and Cerambycidae well re- 
presented, while my Pay Sergeant, Alex. Miller, of 
Toronto, whose hobby runs to butterflies, captured 
some thirty-six different Rhopalocera during the 
summer of 1918, chiefly of the genera Argynnis, 
Brenthis, Crapta, Vanessa, Eycaena, and Pieris. 

My register of birds totals about forty to date. 
The Whiskey Jack (Perisoreus canadensis), the 
Arctic Redpoll (Acanthis linaria), and the Snow- 
flake (Plectrophenax nivalis) winter with us, the 
latter two whirling about in flocks of hundreds. 
Spring brings Horned Larks and Juncoes, and later 
on Robins, Song Sparrows, Phoebes, and the Veery 
Thrush. I have seen very, very few warblers. 
Ducks, Rails, Bitterns, and Sandpipers haunt the 
swampier stretches of the river, and a pair of 
Herring Gulls (Earus argentatus) have returned here 
summer after summer to fatten on the garbage from 
the internment camp. Our most distinguished vis- 
itor has been a Snowy Owl (Nydea) who lit a few 
feet from my office door one cloudy noon last 
November. He was a magnificent specimen, white 
without a sullying fleck, and must have measured 
four feet from tip to tip of his great wings. We 
were permitted to step almost up to him before 
he took to flight and floated noiselessly away. Had 
murder been desired, a child could have shot 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 


Canadian conservationists are to be congratulated 
upon the success so far achieved in bird protection 
in the Dominion. Probably the most important 
step ever taken in any country in this direction is 
the ratification of the International Migratory Bird 
Convention with the United States whereby the two 
great North American powers are bound to co- 
operate in the protection of migratory game and 
other birds. This is now the law of the land and 
founded upon international treaty. 

In addition to a number of bird reservations 
created in the west we have lately achieved the 
following in the east: Point Pelee, Ontario, on Lake 
Erie, established as a wild life sanctuary; its unique 
bird life will be permanently retained in coming 
Canadian generations and a place reserved for them 
where they may see and hear the Mocking Bird, 
Cardinal, Carolina Wren and other southern birds 
of song and story within our own borders. 

Lately, a bill has passed the Quebec Parliament 
preserving Perce Rock, the bird ledges of Bona- 
venture Island, and Bird Rock, all in the Gulf 
Coast, as permanent bird havens, and the threatened 
destruction of some of our national wonders is 

The next serious protection problem is the con- 
dition of bird life on the north shore of the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence, the "Canadian Labrador." To- 
day we have every reason for serious effort in this 
direction, economic, that a necessary food supply 
shall not be lost to the inhabitants of this bleak and 
desolate coast; sentimental, that no form of innocent 
life perish from the face of the earth; and moral, 
that we live up to the conditions and responsibilities 
imposed upon us and agreed to by us in the solemn 
treaty we have entered into. The following corre- 
spondence from those who speak from first hand 
observation on the Labrador coast, will indicate how 
critical this question is and how necessary it is that 
all join together in assisting and supporting Dom- 
inion officials in this direction. 

Boston, Mass., Dedember 11, 1918. 
To the Editor of The Ottawa Naturalist: 

The following note received by me from Dr. 
Robert T. Morris, of New York, which he has al- 
lowed me to use in any way that will do good, is 
deserving of the widest publicity. 

The chapter he refers to in my book was pub- 
lished in advance in 1916 in the seventh annual 
report of the Commission of Conservation of Can- 
ada, and describes in detail the terrible destruction 
of bird life on the coast of the Labrador Peninsula. 
The subject is so important, if the bird life of this 
region is to be saved, that I have taken the lib- 

erty of quoting from this chapter some suggestions 
wh'ch I believe to be of vital importance. 

"What then is to be done? Is there no hope for 
the birds and for the people to whom the birds are 
such a valuable asset? I think there is. I believe 
that the whole problem can be solved most rationally 
and satisfactorily for all concerned by the immediate 
establishment of bird reservations. These should be 
islands or groups of islands or suitable portions of 
the main coast that can be watched by guardians. 
Here the birds should be undisturbed and allowed 
to rest, feed and breed in peace. The people should 
be made to understand that these reservations are 
not established to cut down their hunting, and 
thereby invite poaching and violation of the laws, 
but for the purpose of preserving and increasing the 
birds so that there shall be better shooting for every- 
body on the coast. 

' A campaign of education is necessary, there- 
fore, and I believe that the bird reservation will do 
more good in making the people understand, not only 
the need of bird conservation, but its advantages. The 
game wardens will be looked upon, not as enemies 
to be avoided and cheated, but as friends who are 
working for the people's good. If the matter is well 
managed, the people will regard their reservation 
with pride, and public opinion will keep the birds 
there inviolate. The wasted regions near fishing 
villages now devoid of all sea-bird life on the one 
hand and the crowded bird reservations on the 
other will be powerful object lessons in this process 
of education. I would suggest the placing of a 
brief notice on each reservation, printed in English, 
as well as in French, Montagnais or Eskimo, where 
these languages are used, worded somewhat as 

"bird reservation 
"The purpose of this reservation is to preserve the 
birds from destruction and to increase their num- 
bers, so that there will be better shooting on the 
coast. The people are asked not to disturb the 
birds or their eggs on this reservation and to avoid 
the use of guns in its neighborhood." 

Charles W. Townsend. 

616 Madison Ave., 
New York City, November 15, 1918. 
To Dr. Charles Wendell Townsend, 
98 Pinckney St., 

Boston, Massachusetts. 
Your treatment of the subject of conservation in 
Labrador in the book, "In Audubon's Labrador", 
which I have read with great interest, meets with my 
approval or more than that. On my trips to the 
Gulf Coast of Labrador and on the eastern coast 

May, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


as far north as Hamilton Inlet, I observed that the 
Newfoundland cod fishermen were in the habit 
of raiding all the islands and adjacent mainlands on 
Sunday and making way with the eggs and the 
young of all the sea-birds. Some of the islands were 
wholly deserted so far as bird life was concerned 
and your Captam Joncas told me that in addition 
to the Newfoundland fishermen a number of men 
were engaged in the business of egging and that 
the eggs were preserved in brine and sold to the 
crews of various vessels. He said that the egg hunt 
was contmued until such a late date in the season 
that the young birds which finally hatched were not 
strong enough to withstand the autumn storms and 
he had seen thousands of young birds thrown up on 
the beaches. When I have been on the coast the 
Newfoundland fishermen destroyed young birds for 

sport, leaving them where they fell on the ground 
if they were of species not good to eat. 

The waste of food fish also is very great along 
the Labrador coast. Small cod and hake which 
are not desired by the fishermen are often smothered 
in the traps or killed when the traps are emptied 
and I have seen them floating for miles on the sur- 
face when the trappers were at work. The cod 
trappers catch a great many adult salmon by 
setting their nets in the channels when the salmon 
first make their way towards the rivers. This is 
illegal, but is winked at by the officials. A remark- 
able waste of salmon occurs in September when the 
herring nets are used near the coast. This is the 
time of year when the smelts are descending from 
the rivers and putting out to sea. They are captured 
in quantities in the herring nets. 

Robert T. Morris. 


By H. Mousley, Hatley, Que. 

It is rightly said no doubt that "old traditions 
die hard," and therefore it is not so very surprising 
perhaps to find in Mr. C. B. Hutching's short note 
on the above subject in the November number of 
The Ottawa Naturalist, page 97, that a writer 
in the 5/. Louis Republic, whilst considering the idea 
of birds flying in the rarified atmosphere three miles 
above the earth's surface, and being guided by the 
topography of the country at night, when flights are 
mostly made, as being somewhat erroneous, pro- 
pounds a solution equally erroneous to my mind, 
when he suggests that they guide their course by 
means of the stars. 

Speaking personally I have long ago given up 
cherishing "The fairy tales of science, and the long 
result of Time;" which to put it in a nutshell, 
amounts to considering birds as self-conscious an- 
imals like ourselves, instead of sub-conscious ones, 
governed by some impulse imperfectly known at 

To imagine that birds are capable of shaping their 
course by means of such landmarks as mountains, 
rivers or even stars, seems to me to be somewhat 
far fetched, especially when we consider that a large 
proportion of them migrate at night, and sometimes 
on the very darkest nights too, when all of these 
landmarks, including the stars, would be invisible. 
No, there must be some other explanation to account 
for this unerring intuition (or call it what you like) 
in the animal world, and that explanation lies in 
the fact, I think, that in pure nature there is no such 
thing as self-consciousness, or the power of reason- 

ing, although some of the higher animals, such as 
dogs, horses, etc., from long and intimate association 
with man, no doubt at times display traces of it, in 
the same way that some human beings are still ab- 
normally susceptible to subconscious impressions, a 
relic of conditions existing before the evolution of 
self-conscious mind. 

All wild birds and animals however I believe are 
subconscious, and therein lies the secret of their 
making no mistakes, for they do not reason as human 
beings do, but know just what ought to be done, 
and when and how to do it, in the same way as the 
larva knows exactly when it is full fed and must 
pupate, as well as where and when and how that 
process is to be accomplished, and the birds the 
time of migration, the nesting period, the rearing of 
their young, and the time to return to their winter 
quarters, without the aid of any landmarks whatso- 
ever in either case. To understand this more fully 
one must be prepared to accept the fact that telepathy 
(now recognized by science, but which up to the 
present we have been unable to turn to practical 
account by mechanical means as in the case of the 
Marconi wireless system) pervades and is general 
throughout the entire animal kingdom. It is a 
potential faculty (working on an astral plane un- 
known to us at present) which inter-connects sub- 
conscious mind, and permits silent intercourse to be- 
come established. But just as in the case of electric- 
ity and wireless telegraphy, electric force must pass 
in the one case along a wire connector, in the other 
through a psycho physical medium (ether) before it 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

can be energized, so in the case of telepathy and 
teloesthesia which if not identical with electricity 
operate much in the same way, a circuitous con- 
nection must be established before results can be 
obtained. These results in the case of teloesthesia 
are no doubt enhanced by the cover of darkness 
(just as they are said to be in the case of the 
Marconi system) this accounting no doubt for so 
many birds migrating at night. In telepathy (mind 
blending) and teloesthesia (perception at a distance, 
or power of vision passing the limits of time and 
space) however the forces operate through a medium 
not apparent at present to our sense, and therefore 
we cannot determine the necessary conditions, or 
reahze their full significance, but this may possibly 
be an open book some day, when sufficient time can 
be given to the study of life functioning on a plane 
other than our own. 

My studies in the field of late have more and 
more convinced me that in telepathy and teloesthesia 
we have the means of answering some of those 
awkward questions which are for ever perplexing the 

followers and believers in the old idea that birds 
are self-conscious beings, and perform their wonder- 
ful feats by a process of reasoning. As a matter 
of fact these facts are not so very wonderful as 
natural, because they belong to the infallibility of a 
subconscious, and not to the reasonings and hence 
mistakes of a self-conscious mind. 

In conclusion I see in the late war one of the 
most definite proofs against the belief that birds 
are self-conscious for had they been so they would 
surely have forsaken the battlefields of France and 
Flanders, which has not been the case. The resi- 
dents have remained just as usual, and the migrants 
have come and gone likewise. Thus in face of 
danger of which they know nothing the birds have 
kept on the same course and frequented the same 
places, which for countless ages have been their 
custom, and despite the noise of battle have nested 
as heretofore, surely a proof that they do not act 
on their own responsibility, but are dependent on the 
ruling of their subconscious minds. 


By F. L. Farley, Camrose, Alta. 

Sometime in the summer of 1908, I heard of an 
island in a lake about 18 miles north of Camrose, 
where a large number of White Pelicans nested. 
After more enquiries I learned that the island was in 
the furthermost North Miquelon lake, one of several 
beautiful small bodies of water lying to the south 
of the Beaver Hills. At the time there were prac- 
tically no trails leading into that new country, and 
with one exception no land had been taken up 
around the lakes; it was therefore in its natural 
state. I was not able to visit the island until the 
shooting season opened, when a friend and I drove 
to the lower lake, and with a row boat worked our 
way through this and the middle lake, and made a 
short passage into what we named Pelican lake. 
This body of water is about two miles long by one 
mile in width and the timber grows to within a 
few feet of the high water line. The island is quite 
descernible about one mile out in the lake. The 
two outstanding features were the several large 
nests up in the trees, which turned out to belong to 
the Great Blue Heron, and the large wave of white 
which seemed to cover the eastern shore of the 
island. As we came near this apparent white wave 
turned out to be Pelicans, some of which were on 
the beach and others close by in the water. 

Before we approached to within 500 yards, those 
that were not in the water joined the others, and 

swam around the south side of the island, and upon 
our speeding up, they arose, a few at a time, and 
before we reached the shore the whole flock was 
high in the air, moving in wonderful formations al- 
most immediately overhead. A small flock seemed 
to be particularly interested in us and came down 
to within close range, so close that the black mark- 
ings showed quite clearly. Others were probably 
half a mile high, and about half the Hock were at 
such an altitude that they did not look larger than 
Rmall gulls. When a flock of these birds are 
wheeling and circling in a close set company of 
from ten to fifty, their appearance in the air is one 
of almost unbelievable change. When they are 
sailing in such a way as to present their horizontal 
aspect to the distant observer, they are nearly lost to 
view, but when they are banking for a turn, there 
comes to view a wonderful brilliance of white wings 
and bodies, flashing in the sunshine, beautiful beyond 
the powers of one's mind to imagine, and at a 
distance of a mile or two the transcendent ease and 
grace of their flight is intensified, because all hint 
of effort and of wing motion is lost to the observer. 
We remained on the island for about an hour, 
and before we left the lake the birds had alighted 
on a long stony bar a short distance to the west 
of the island. Our estimate of the number of Pel- 
icans, after failing to count them several times, was 




The Canadian Field- Naturalist 


about 500. The island is less than two acres in 
extent. The east end slopes to the water and is 
quite narrow, and from there to the western ex- 
tremity the ground gradually rises until it is about 
fifteen feet above the water. There were at that 
time about one dozen Balm of Gilead trees, a few 
willows, and one spruce tree, mostly on the higher 
part of the island, some of which were dead. The 
Balm of Gilead trees were about one foot in 
diameter and thirty to forty feet high. The only 
grass that grew on the island was close to the 
waters edge. A very strong growth of nettles cov- 
ered practically all the higher part of the island. 
Running through the centre of the island from the 
south there was a small depression on which nothing 
was growing, and it was here that the Pelicans 
nested. Scattered all over this sandy loam were 
hundreds of eggs which had never hatched, now 
entirely dried up inside. These were about the size 
of goose eggs, but the surface was quite rough and 

On May 29 in the following year, 1909, I visited 
the island again and found about the same number 
of Pelicans. Most of them on my approach were 
out on the stony bar, but there were about fifty up 
the little draw where the eggs were on our first 
visit. Before I landed these quietly walked to the 
water and swam away to join the others. The 
stench that seemed to be everywhere after leaving 
the water, was beyond description, and I thought 
it would be impossible to remain long enough to 
make the investigations I hoped to. However, I 
soon got used to it; perhaps I forgot it when all the 
varied sights came before me. Climbing up the 
bank I soon came to the nests, some with eggs inside, 
but often with as many outside. The nests were 
nothing more than depressions in the loam, with a 
slight banking up on the outside. There was no 
lining whatever, and it was evident that different 
birds used the same nests, from the various sizes of 
the eggs. The number of eggs varied from one 
to five, and at this date they were very little in- 
cubated. About one-third of the eggs were scat- 
tered here and there over this part of the island, 
some quite a distance from any nest, and I concluded 
that these must have been thrown out by the birds 
when they left the nests hurriedly, as no doubt they 
are very clumsy in their movements on land. This, 
then, would explain the great number of eggs that 
were not hatched the previous year. 

During my inspection of this breeding ground there 
were many other sights on all sides to interest one. 
Up in the larger trees there were Great Blue Herons, 
some on their nests, and others keeping guard. On 
the small trees were about a dozen Double Crested 

Cormorants, some of which were setting on their 
nests of three and four beautiful bluish eggs. These 
nests were small and flat, built of sticks and put 
together very loosely. In a hollow stump I found 
a Golden-Eye setting on a nest full of eggs. A 
little further on, a Mallard flew up from her nest 
of well incubated eggs. House Wrens, Yellow 
Warblers, Yellowthroats, and Tree Swallows were 
nesting on the island, and on the shore Spotted 
Sandpipers and Yellow Legs were feeding. 

The following July another visit was made, and 
as the island was approached the Pelicans came to 
meet us. Up on the island we could see what 
looked like a small flock of sheep huddled together. 
These proved to be the young Pelicans, the entire 
increase for the year of this colony, nineteen only. 
It seemed a tragedy to think of this small numbsr 
from perhaps six hundred eggs. There were the 
usual number of unhatched eggs lying around, at 
least several hundred. As I moved toward the 
young ones they waddled off slowly, but gave no 
note of alarm. Some of the old birds flew down 
over the island, and very rarely gave a small cry, 
this was the only note I ever heard from them. The 
stench at this time was even worse than in May, 
likely due to the number of dead fish lying around, 
which were partly decomposed. About a month 
later when motoring through the lake we came onto 
the little flock of young, still nineteen in number. 

The following two or three years this colony 
used the island for their summer home, but the 
land around the lake was gradually being taken up, 
and no doubt farm boys wanted to see the big 
birds, and this with the ever increasing number of 
motor boats on the lakes, must have disturbed the 
Pelicans so much that they deserted it entirely. The 
Government made the lake a preserve and appointed 
one of the settlers a guardian, who posted notices 
forbidding anyone landing on the island, but it was 
too late, and people are wondering where the 
former owners of the island have gone. A half- 
breed told me that many years ago the Pelicans 
nested on all the islands in these lakes, and that 
they were as plentiful as geese in the fall. He said 
the Cree name for them was Cha-Chac-Kw. 

Last fall. Dr. R. M. Anderson, of the Canadian 
Geological Survey, and I spent some time on Pelican 
island, and there were no signs whatever of Pelicans 
being there during recent years. All the trees had 
fallen and the entire surface of the island was 
covered with nettles. 1 never saw a Pelican migrat- 
ing, and as Camrose is directly south of where this 
colony lived, I am of the opinion that they must 
come and go by night, or they would have been 
noticed passing over. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 


Mr. Levi Penney of Woodlawn, Ontario, re- 
ported an unusual abundance of fall ducks in 
Constant bay on the Ottawa river, and attributes the 
phenomenon to the epidemic, during the shooting 
season, of mfluenza, which in various ways prevented 
the exodus of city gunners. 

Clyde L. Patch, Ottawa. 

Last fall while rabbit hunting near Ottawa, Mr. 
Phil. Brady observed, resting about ten feet from 
the ground in a cedar tree, a Screech Owl which 
held in its claws an adult Ruffed Grouse. The death 
of the grouse, the throat of which was torn, cannot 
with certainty be credited to the owl which may 
have secured it after it had been killed by another 
agent; nevertheless the remarkable fact remains 
that the owl had sufficient strength to carry the 
grouse to an elevation of ten feet. 

Clyde L. Patch, Ottawa. 

An Hermaphrodite Lobster. In the month of 
November, 1917, whilst engaged in making special 
observations on the lobster at Bay View, Pictou 
county, N.S., I found in a fisherman's trap, just 
after it had been drawn out of the sea, a lobster 
which was absolutely male on the left side and 
absolutely female on the right side. The specimen 
was sent intact to Dr. A. P. Knight, Queen's Uni- 
versity, Kingston, Ont., with whom I was associated. 
This find was surely a remarkable one. 

Andrew Halkett. 

Reading Mr. Harlan I. Smith's note in a recent 
issue of The Ottawa Naturalist, I am reminded 
of a mishap which befell another bird some years 
ago. While passing one of the fine spruces on the 
grounds of the Ontario Agricultural College, 
Guelph, my attention was arrested by a fluttering 
of wings among the branches, which I found to 
come from a robin dangling by the tail from a tuft 
of twigs. Excited by my closer approach the bird 
managed to free itself, leaving behind a half-dozen 
tail feathers, which proved to be firmly glued to 
their anchorage by means of ordinary tar! Pre- 
sumably it had come here and perched, perhaps 
over night, within tail's-length of the unfriendly 
mesh of branchlets, after having first frequented 
some newly-tarred surface in which the tips of the 
feathers had become daubed. 

Herbert Groh, Preston, Ont. 

of the most delightful of birds in spite of its bad 
qualities Wis-Ka-Tjan or thief the Indians call it; 
it has well earned its reputation. The lumbermen 
have corrupted the name into Whiskey Jack and if 
any of their number misses some whiskey he is ad- 
vised to go to this bird for information. Not only 
will this bird steal everything in the way of food 
about a camp, but we are sorry to say it will also 
eat the eggs of other birds as well as their young. 
If it were not for these bad qualities the most ap- 
propriate name for it would be "The Grey Nun" 
for with its beautiful grey color white forehead, 
white throat and black at back of head and neck, 
also its delightfully soft eyes and gentle manner, it 
IS typical of the nun. Although not seen in large 
flocks, half-a-dozen or more may often be met, and 
when they discover a camp in the woods there is 
great jubilation, we might say laughter, for their note 
at this time is much like laughter. 

It might be supposed that a few such birds, some- 
what less than eleven inches in length, could not 
make much impression on a hanging deer, and the 
camper would be surprised to find that one of his 
best haunches had disappeared in a few hours, this 
taken piecemeal and most of it hidden for future 
use. Last September when watching these birds it 
was noticed that they did not carry all their supplies 
to one place, but to several places and they were 
often tucked away between a hanging piece of bark 
and the trunk of the tree. 

The Whiskey Jack is probably the easiest of any 
of our birds to tame. When camping not long ago, 
and while preparing a duck for cooking, in which 
one of these birds was much interested, it was in- 
duced to come and peck at the duck. Having 
once tasted this delicious morsel it forgot all fear, 
and drawing the duck gradually nearer the writer 
played hide and seek with it round his body and 
over his thighes the Whiskey Jack following. From 
that date this bird became our pet and would freely 
eat out of our hands. It would also come into our 
tent and wake us up by walking over us if break- 
fast was delayed too long. p' p Davne 

The Canada Jay. There are few campers in 
the northern woods of Ontario who have not met 
with the Canada Jay (Perisoreus canadensis), one 

An Epidemic of Roup in the Crow Roosts of 
the Lower Thames River, Kent Co., Ont. 
Residents of the lower Thames valley, west of 
Chatham, Ont., report that large numbers of crows 
regularly winter in western Kent county and roost 
in the orchards and groves along the river. Mr. 
John Johnston says in a letter to the writer that 
"the date when the crows first wintered here was 
about 1895. It was a mild winter and a very late 
fall, and not a great deal of snow. They started 




The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


to gather in flocks about October. The number I 
should judge, would be well up in the thousands 
and it has materially increased ever since. They 
fed principally on corn and dead animals and also 
on garbage in the towns. Every time we had a 
cold spell hundreds of them died. I am told that 
the place where they have been in the habit of 
roosting (McGavin's) the ground is now (Feb. 
10 h, 1918) covered with dead crows." 

Mr. William Holmes residing about 4 miles below 
Chatham, relates that there was a great flight of 
crows in 1904, large numbers remaining all winter 
feeding on the corn left standing in the fields, or 
in the fields in stocks. Thousands died. As Mr. 
Holmes protected the crows on his property, his 
orchard of 400 trees was "literally packed, and the 
ground underneath (was also) packed, and the pigs 
(were) busy every day for weeks eating the frozen 
and blind, as there seemed to be a disease of the 
eyes, a white film growth over the eyeball. Though 
they seemed healthy and strong (they) would walk 
around as blind as a bat." They remained with him 
until late in the spring. 

There is no doubt but that the affection from 
which the crows were suffering was the same as that 

described by Eldon Howard Eaton''^ as occurring 
in the Canandaigua Crow Roost of New York 
State in December, 1901. This disease he determ- 
ined to be "roup," and his description of "the 
eyes" being "usually blinded by a membrane form- 
ing over the exterior of the cornea" agrees accur- 
ately with Mr. Holmes' description given above. 
Eaton states that the disease did not appear either 
"in the Rochester roost or in that near Niagara 
Falls" . . . "the disease disappeared with the 
coming warm weather." The last evidence of it 
noted by Eaton was on April 6. He states "it is 
probable that one thousand crows died of this 
d sease during the last winter in Ontario county." 
Both Mr. Johnston and Mr. Homes believe that 
the crows assisted in the spread of the San Jose 
scale, which Mr. Johnston states was first intro- 
duced into the orchards along the Lake Erie shore 
on nursery stock from the United States. Mr. 
Holmes informed me that the scale made its first 
appearance in his orchards the summer following 
the great flight of crows, and in spite of all his 
endeavors to check it, in three years' time it had 
"won out." The whole orchard along the river was 

^'^^'"^- M. Y. Williams. 

*Auk. Vol. XX, isio:;, pi). .^T-r.n. 


Class Book of Economic Entomology, with 
special reference to the economic insects of the 
Northern United States and Canada. Philadelphia: 
P. Blakeston's Son & Co., 436 pp., 257 illustrations; 
price $2.50. 

We were much pleased to see this new volume 
on insects, prepared by one of our own members 
one who is held in high regard by entomologists 
generally not only throughout Canada, but the 
United States as well. The volume is a class 
book of Economic Entomology, with special refer- 
ence to the economic insects of the Northern Unr.ea 
States and Canada. It is a companion voluipe to 
Reese's book on Economic Zoology. It is divided 
into four parts: Part I, discusses the structure, 
growth and economics of insects; Part II, the 
identification of insects injurious to farm, garden 
and orchard crops, etc. ; Part III, the classification 
and description of common insects; Part IV, the 
control of injurious insects. 

Briefly, this new book on Economic Entomology 
is one which undoubtedly will be well received. It 
will certainly find a useful place among economic 
students. The descriptions are concise and to the 
point, the illustrations well chosen and the printing 
excellent. A.G. 

The Works of J. Henri Fabre. Translated by 
Teixeira De Mattos. N.Y., Dod, Mead & Co. 
The writings of the great French naturalist, J. 
Henri Fabre are only now becoming widely known 
though the writer was a contemporary of Darwin. 
To those who do not understand French, these 
works are now available in their entirety by the 
English translation. 

To the entomologist of the old school who studies 
nature for the wonders of her works rather than for 
the shekels which are now offered to a professional 
student, these volumes will prove a delight, which 
we believe, has never before been equalled in the 
realms of science. Nor should they be neglected by 
the professional who will discover in their contents, 
details in observation in methods of study and in 
habits that must prove of great value even to the 
most proficient. 

It is, perhaps, enough in this short notice to say 
that these works are teeming with facts presented in 
a manner that only a Frenchman seems capable of, 
and this lucidity seems to have been fully maintained 
by the translator. 

These works are, to all intents and purposes, with- 
out technical language and deal with a great range 
of subjects as will be noted from the following 
titles already published: "The Life of the Spider", 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


"The Life of the Fly", "The Mason Bees", "Bram- 
ble Bees and Others", "The Hunting Wasps", "The 
Life of the Caterpillar", "The Life of the Grass- 
hopper", "The Sacred Beetle and Others". 

To review such a remarkable series of works in 
so short a space is impossible nor has it been at- 
tempted. It is enough to say that under each title 
are provided the life habits of many different insects 
told with a charm that turns the tedium of ordinary 
technical science into the wonders of a fairy tale, 
and yet in the transformation does not at all over- 
step the realms of truth. 

These writings should prove a source of delight 
alike to the young and grown-ups, and for the 
parents who wish to instill a knowledge of nature 
into their children, free from the too common im- 
aginary teachings of to-day, we know of no books 
that should prove more suitable or more readable, 
than those of J. Henri Fabre. N. C. 

Key to the Rocky Mountain Flora, by P. 
A. Rydberg, Ph.D., Curator, New York Botanical 
Garden: Published by the author; price $1.60 post 

When Dr. Rydberg published his "Flora of the 
Rocky Mountains and Adjacent Plains," which was 

reviewed in "The Ottawa Naturalist" a year ago, 
field botanists immediately felt the need of some- 
thing less bulky than a large volume of more than 
1,100 pages. Dr. Rydberg has now filled this want 
in a manner that will please and satisfy both field 
and herbarium botanists. The recently published 
Key is a reprint in a somewhat different form of all 
the keys published in the Flora, and these keys 
vAlh an excellent glossary and index make a handy 
little volume of 306 pages of 5x8 inches and less 
than half an inch thick which can be carried in 
any ordmary pocket. The Key may in this - 
be used independently of the Flora and fresh 
growing specimens be studied before they are col- 
lected. Another use to which the Key can be 
put is in the listing and checking of local floras, an 
initial letter or some arbitrary sign being used to in- 
dicate particular localities, countries or provinces. 
As the Key covers not only the flora of the Rocky 
Mountains, but also that of the provinces of Al- 
bert and Saskatchewan and the Kootenay Districts 
of British Columbia, it should be in the hands not 
only of all western botanists but of all schcol- 
eachers, ranchers, farmers and others who are in- 
terested in knowing the names of the flowers which 
'^jcw near their homes. J. M. 

(The April issue rvas mailed on July 3, 1919.) 







No. 3. 


By J. Dewey Soper. 

The Least Weasel, Mustela rixosa (Bangs). 

This diminutive carnivore is doubtless the least 
known of the North American weasels. About 
fifteen records all told, mostly from Canada, in- 
dicate both our limited knowledge and the scant 
possession of scientific material relative to the species. 
Since 1857 when Baird first described the species, 
data concerning its life history has accumulated 
slowly and even yet is of very limited extent. 

The range of rixosa, according to Seton' extends 
in a broad band, roughly, eight or nine hundred miles 
in width diagonally across the continent from Mon- 
treal and the south-western extremity of Lake 
Superior to Alaska. As a boreal species it is re- 
stricted to the Arctic, Hudsonian, and Canadian 
life zones. In north-western Alaska a race of this 
species P. esI(imo (Stone) is recognized, also what 
may prove to be a race is Rhoads'- allegheniensis 
from Pennsylvania. Thus, theoretically, southern 
Ontario comes within the range of the Least Weasel, 
but I know of no records from the region. 

The Least Weasel is not only the smallest of the 
weasels, but is the smallest known beast of prey in 
the world. 

In summer, the upper parts including the tail are 
of an even light brown color, the under parts being 
pure white. The winter coat is entirely white. TTie 
tail is very short and lacks at all seasons the black 

As a carnivorus animal its diminutive proportions 
may be better appreciated when compared with a 
mouse for instance. The Least Weasel habitually 
preys on mice, but exceeds them but little in size. 
A glance at the following measurements of rixosa 
will reveal slight difference in this respect from the 
genus Microtus, the meadow mice, ete. . 

Total length about 6'/2 inches (166 mm.); tail 
vertebrae, 1'/^ inches (32 mm.); hind foot, 13-16 
inches (21 mm.) 

Measurements of a large meadow mouse (M. 
penns^lvanicus) taken Feb. 17, 1918, coll. No. 243, 

1 Seton, E. T., Life Hist, of Northern Animals. 
Vol. II, p. 861, 1909. 

liRlioad.s, S. N., Mamm. of Penn. and N.J., pp. 
IT.'^-lTe, 190.3. 

male: Length, 168 mm.; tail, 50 mm.; foot 21 mm. 

It will be noticed that the latter is the largest, 
but this one was of more than ordinary size. 

The only place I ever came into contact with 
the Least Weasel is Edmonton, Alta., and even there 
where weasels are common only one was taken 
within a certain period of time, during which about 
one hundred and fifty of the other species were 
captured. This fact indicates its rarity in that 

I found it about Nov. 13 in one of my traps, along 
the White-mud river, a few miles south-west of the 
city. It was pure white, proving it takes on its 
winter pelage as soon as the other species. 

The locality in which it was collected was that 
ordinarily frequented by M. cicognanii and M. 
longicauda meadow-like river-tracts sparsely over- 
grown with poplar. The first sight of its body made 
me think of an Albina meadow mouse. Even such 
small mammals sometimes spring the larger traps as 
all trappers know. To those who are unfamiliar 
with the many disappointments of the trap line, it 
may be said that after repeated failures at certain 
"sets" when bait disappears and traps are myster- 
iously sprung, a crushed shrew or deer-mouse in the 
jaws will at last dispel the mystery. 

The Long-tailed Weasel, Mustela longicauda 

This species, the largest of our Canadian weasels, 
should not be confused with others of the family. 
Great strength for its size is suggested in the mus- 
cular contour of its make-up. The legs are com- 
paratively short and stout, the body compact and 
very muscular, and the head massively formed in 
alliance with its other physical proportions. 

In size it approaches that of a small mink and in 
summer coat with hasty glance might be mistaken 
for one. In winter, as Seton remarks, it could 
easily be mistaken for a big white squirrel, that is, 
upon the ground. It has a closest resemblance to 
M. noveboracensis but as the range of the two 
species do not coincide and as extra limital occur- 
rences are rare, little or no confusion shpuld be ex- 
perienced in the field. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Except for one extra limital record by Miller^ 
for North Bay, the species has only been found in 
Canada broadly coincident with the prairie con- 
ditions of the western provinces of Manitoba, Sas- 
katchewan, and Alberta; in the south-western por- 
tion of the former and north to 55 in the two 
latter. In the United States its range is south to 
Kansas. While it is generally recognized as a 
prairie dweller, the poplar forests skirting the prairies 
harbor great numbers, as do also to some extent the 
darker coniferous areas. Probably the latter fact 
is not generally accepted. I have personally, how- 
ever, frequently collected the species about the city 
of Edmonton. The immediate region comprises con- 
ditions peculiar to the north-west, such as the oc- 
casional grass or prairie lands, the poplar woods of 
the upper country, and the deep river basins and 
ravines which are comparatively heavily timbered. 
Over all such areas around Edmonton the long-tail 
ranges indifferently. 

In summer the species over the upper parts is pale 
yellowish-brown, the under parts rich ochraceous 
or buff yellow. The winter fur is pure white. The 
tail is one-third the length of the animal and the 
black tip one-quarter of the length of the whole tail. 
Measurements as given by Seton^ : Length about 
18 inches (457 mm.); tail 6 inches (152 mm.); 
hind foot 2 inches (51 mm.) Female about one- 
seventh smaller. 

With the short-tailed species, M. cicognanii, the 
Edmonton region is favorably endowed. In win- 
ter their delicate paired tracks may be seen nearly 
everywhere. M. longicauda occurs in a ratio of 
about one to ten of M. cicognanii. Under the dis- 
cussion of the latter I have placed my estimate on 
the general and specific numbers of all the weasels 
found around Edmonton. 

Along the Saskatchewan river numerous deep 
wooded ravines open out upon the valley. Withm 
these, probably induced by a greater abundance of 
game in winter, a goodly number of weasels, or 
ermine as they are called, make their daily rounds. 
The spaces under the spruces and the open runs 
of the little frozen streams are usually at very fre- 
quent intervals indented with the innocent-looking 
trails. Hither and thither they lead, under wind- 
falls and logs, through tangled growths, into crevices 
or other surface openings, etc. A blood-flecked 
hollow reveals the tragic end of a little deer-mouse ; 
probably at a grassy margin a meadow vole. In a 
sheltered hollow a huddled hare has provided a 
sumptuous feast for days. And so all through the 
bitter weeks until nature fans the land with vernal 

breezes, the great white page is written again and 
again with signs of frolic or grim tragedy that 
spells life or death. 

Bordering the White-mud river which flows into 
the Saskatchewan about two miles south-west of 
Edmonton I found the favorite hunting grounds of 
longicauda in the meadow-like areas on both sides. 
On these miniature alluvial plains in the concavity 
of the bends now grown to grass and scattered 
poplars, the weasels bounteously fared on the num- 
berless population of shrew, mice and rabbits. Such 
places always suggest good weasel grounds. 
New York Weasel, Musiela noveboracensis 
In comparison with other weasels this species has 
a relatively restricted range within which also occurs 
Musiela cicognanii. In some sections it yields in 
numbers to the latter, but in other areas entirely 
replaces it. 

The range of this species is approximately within 
the area bordered by an imaginary line drawn from 
the southern New England States, south to the 
Carolinas, west to the Mississippi, north to Georgian 
Bay, and east to Montreal. Within such area it is 
confined to the Canadian, Transition and Upper 
Austral zones. 

The summer color of M. noveboracensis is dark 
brown above and white below, sometimes tinged 
with sulphur-yellow. In Ontario the winter coat is 
pure white, excepting sometimes a slight xanthic 
tinge on the belly, buttocks and tail. The latter is 
one-third of its total length and the terminal half 
is black (at all seasons). By this character it may 
readily be distinguished from M. longicauda, but as 
the range of the two species do not coincide, it will 
not be needed as a field mark. 

The following measurements of this species are 
given by Rhoads'' : Total length, male 405 mm. (16 
ins.), female, 325 (12^4 ins.); tail vertebrae, male, 
140 (5'/2 ins.), female, 108 (AVi ins.); hind foot, 
male, 47 (P/j ins.), female, 34 (Wi ins.) 

In the counties of Wellington and Waterloo, of 
the province of Ontario, I have found this species 
to be much less common than M. cicognanii. Brooks 
as recorded by Miller'' saw weasels at Milton much 
larger than the latter. The species, I think, would 
scarcely be other than M. noveboracensis. Mr. W. 
E. Saunders, of London, Ont., has informed me that 
the New York Weasel is the form occurring there, 
and that it is common throughout the western part 
of the Ontario peninsula. 

By a peculiar coincidence the first weasel I ever 
trapped in Ontario was this species. This was near 

sMiller, Jr., G. S., Mammals of Ontario, VoL 28 
No. 1, 18'J6. 

4Seton, E. T., Life Hist., N. Animals, Vol. II, 
p. 865, 1909. 

"'Rhoads, S. N., Mammals of Penn. and N. 
Jersey, p. 172, 1903. 

cMiller, Jr., G. S., Mammals of Ontario, Vol. 28, 
No. 1, p. 44, 1896. 

September, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Rockwood. Since, I have taken numbers of the 
Lesser Weasel, but only, I think, two or three of 
the large kind. The capture of the one mentioned 
was purely accidental and happened in November. 
The seasonal change to white is not always affected 
by this time. Some specimens taken near Christmas 
time when snow was on the ground still had a few 
belated brown hairs over the back. Contrary to 
this, individuals of spotless white are occasionally 
taken when no snow exists. The moult from brown 
to white or the reverse does not seem to depend on 
any particular seasonal change or condition. 

I recall a story to'.d me years ago by a farmer 
which portrays nicely the intrepid nature of this 

An interesting note by John F. Carleton, East 
Sandwich, Mass., entitled "Bold Mother Weasel 
Rescues Young" (January, 1919, Field and 
Stream) illustrates again the venturesome spirit. He 
says: "Some years since I was at work with my 
man on the edge of a dry swamp, on high land, one- 
eighth of a mile from Bay Shore, when I found a 
weasel's nest with four half-grown young in a 
brush heap. I regret that I cannot recall the com- 
position of the nest. I sat down 'side-saddle,' took 
up the four young and placed them in the outside 
left breast-pocket of my coat, my man standing 
near. Soon the mother appeared hunting for her 
young. I placed one on my knee; the mother soon 
scented it, jumped on my knee, grabbed the little 

a Putoriu.s rixosus. c Putorius noveboracensis. 

b Putorius cicoqnaiiii. 

animal. While working in the fields he heard high 
overhead the strident calls of a hawk. Their un- 
usual quality attracted his attention as well as the 
peculiarity of the actions accompanying them. 
Watching, he noticed the bird pass through some 
unusual gyrations, steady itself a moment and then 
come pitching to the earth, tumbling and turning. 
The man ran rapidly to the spot where the hawk 
fell and was just in time to see a brown weasel leap 
from the feathers and disappear in a near-by fence. 
From some concealed position it had doubtless 
leaped upon the feeding hawk and being lighter was 
instantly borne high into the air. In bull-dog fashion 
once having a grip it continued to work deeper and 
deeper until a fatal spot was reached. 

d Putorius longicauda. 

one, and was off like a flash. I remained quiet and 
she soon returned to my knee, worked slowly along 
my leg and up my coat till she reached the pocket, 
pullfd out another little one, and dashed away with 
it. As I was not willing to give up the others, 
I did not experiment further. I took them home, 
but the folks objected so to the odor that I was 
obliged to kill them. I have several times seen 
weasels very bold, but nothing to equal this ex- 

Mr. E. T. Seton' cites an instance of an old 
weasel (noveboracensis) accompanied by five young 
ones about half-grown on June 28 near his home 
in Connecticut. These were evidently older than 
the other ones, which were still in the nest. On 

TSeton, E. T., Life Hist, of Northern Animals. 
Vol. II, p. 848, 1909. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


June I, 1910, north-east of Guelph, Ont., I saw a 
weasel carrying a young one in its mouth as it fol- 
lowed along the bottom of a fence leading from 
a strip of woods. This individual may have been 
M. cicognanii. 

Short-tailed Weasel, Mustela cicognanii 

The Short-tailed or Bonaparte's Weasel is the 
most abundant species in Canada. Its numbers 
like other mammals of course are very variable as 
regards locality. Under favorable conditions M. 
cicognanii usually claims first notice throughout its 
range ; the latter, including that of its closely allied 
races, covers almost the entire Dominion from coast 
to coast. Its range in the United States is governed 
by the boreal conditions existing in the Canadian 
and Upper Transition zones. 

The summer color above is much like M. lon- 
gicauda, a warm brown; under parts white, but 
sometimes tinged with sulphur-yellow. In winter the 
fur IS pure white with a slight xanthic diffusion on 
tail, rump and hind legs. This stain is thought to 
exude to some extent from the odorous glands situ- 
ated at the base of the tail. The latter is one-third 
its total length, and the black tip one-third the length 
of the tail. 

Measurements of M. cicognanii: Total length 
about 1 1 '/2 inches (292 mm.); tail vertebrae, 3% 
inches (95 mm.); hind foot, 1^ inches (38 mm.) 

The female is considerably smaller, probably as 
much as one-fifth. 

With the exception of the narrow belt of the 
Upper Austral zone above Lake Erie, this species 
ranges over the entire province of Ontario. It is 
common in the counties of Wellington and Water- 
loo. In a recent letter, Mr. Saunders informs me 
that he had no record of this species from London 
or the western part of the peninsula, but has skins 
from Durham and Ottawa, and a record by Hobson 
from Woodstock. 

Winter is the time when this weasel is most 
in evidence. The dainty paired tracks may be 
seen in the snow about fences, log heaps, wind-falls, 
etc., representing vividly the wanderings of the night. 
In this the weasel is absolutely tireless, and withall, 
a very eager hunter. The white fur renders it al- 
most invisible; except for the black tip on the tail 
it might bound by unseen. 

The ermine trail may easily be distinguished from 
that of all other animals by its size in conjunction 
with the symmetry of its paired tracks. The mink 
trail is similar, but very much larger. The hind 
feet register almost, if not exactly in the front-foot 
impressions, with the right front and hind feet lag- 
ging slightly behind. The sequence of tracks with 
a bcunding animd is not as regula-r between in- 

dividual impressions as that of a running or walk- 
ing animal, due to the variation in the length of 
jumps from time to time. The ermine being a 
bounding animal leaves a wide range of space 
lengths between imprints. The distance normally 
is about 19 inches, representing a regular rate of 
travel. The "jumps," however, depend entirely 
upon the mood, purpose or demands of the traveller. 
Sometimes they are no further apart than 6 or 8 
inches; obviously the ermine is slowing down for 
more acute observation, scents prey or some similar 
reason. In traversing open spaces they resort to 
long, graceful leaps upwards of six feet in length. 
On January 5, 1919, I measured a record for M. 
cicognanii, a remarkable jump of 8 feet, 2 inches. 
The larger species should naturally be able to ex- 
ceed this, but whether they do no not I am unable 
to say. 

For pure audacity, I have seen enough of this 
species to prompt his classification as a ring-leader. 
Weasel reputation is, however, I think, very largely 
exaggerated. In rural sections the animal is seldom 
discussed apart from the hen-roost, for it seems 
firmly impressed upon the population that every 
weasel, big and little, here or there, now or any- 
time, is by right, might and heritage a blood soaked 
villain of endless carnage. But then some reason- 
ing would dispel that view. Unfortunately for the 
whole lot the evil of one jeopardizes all. Individual 
temperament in animals is probably quite as diversi- 
fied as in human beings, wherewith due allowance 
should be made for individual exception. Weasels 
do stand on the aggressive, but only a few interfere 
with the farmer. 

I remember a little incident that happened on a 
summer night a number of years ago. About ten 
o'clock an old mother hen covering a brood of 
chicks, near the house, began to cackle anxiously, 
becoming gradually more positive until in about five 
minutes she opened up with a whirlwind of vocifer- 
ous hysterics, sufficient to arouse the soundest sleeper. 
I dressed hurriedly and with light invaded the 
troubled region, expecting to find a skunk (Mephitis) 
on a stroll with views and tastes similar to certain 
southern dwellers, but it was only a solitary little 
M. cicognanii. Three chicks had been killed and 
the remainder was under very active consideration. 

At Edmonton they were very common during 
1912-14. In two or three weeks each of two 
winters I trapped about sixty ermine over an area 
of not more than nine square miles. A great deal 
of this area escaped the trap in running the lines 
making it safe to discount one-third, leaving six 
square miles. I believe when I ceased operation 
that nearly as many remained free as were taken. 
Halving sixty for the one year and doubling for 

September, 1919] 

The Canaoian Field-Naturalist 


the supposed original population we have ten 
ermine per square mile. I do not consider this 
figure in the least excessive for the wooded, northern 
portion of Alberta. That portion of the province, 
say from Edmonton to Fort Smith, would thus yield 
about 1,478,750 weasels. About one in every ten 
of this number would undoubtedly be longicauda ; 
that is, one of the latter and nine cicognanii to the 
square mile. 

North of Jasper Park on the Hay river during 
the fall of 1913 a friend and I in eight weeks' 
trapping for this animal, took about eighty skins. 
Whether these were all M. cicognanii or not I 
cannot now say. I queried this point under 
longicauda. As the territory trapped, up the valley 
of the Hay river, Fish creek, and other tributary 
streams, did not exceed thirty linear miles, one- 
quarter of a mile in width, we have only a total 
of eight square miles. Again this is ten weasels to 
the square mile, coincidmg with the Edmonton 
figure, with this difference, however, that the number 
of the trapped animals is not doubled to indicate 
the probable total population. This is because over 
the restricted area of the valleys and the prolonged 
period of trapping I believe most of the weasels 
were taken. At Edmonton this was not the case. 
In the former instance, a certain influx of animals 
from adjacent areas may have occurred as the com- 
petitive influence was removed from the valleys, 
thus lowering the figure somewhat per square mile, 
but I do not think a weasel travels widely in a 
wooded country like western Alberta. 

Many interesting experiences happen to a man in 
the woods. One day I travelled up a long dark 
timbered ravine that cut into the White-mud river 
south-east of Edmonton. At the base of a big 
spruce I had a "set" for ermine, which on in- 
spection showed the bait stolen with some of it in 
the sprung trap. In a few minutes' hunting, an- 
other hare was secured with which to replace it. 
The meat being warm was no doubt exuding a 
tantalizing odor to furtive nostrils, for as I knelt 
at the trap, a faint rustle, like leaves in a light 
breeze attracted my attention. There was no wind, 
so I concluded that it was a shrew, but looking 
quickly, following a repetition of the sound, I saw 
a beautiful snow-white ermine silhouetted among 
the dark roots of a spruce not three feet distant. It 

eyed me for a while, head held high and nose a- 
quiver; then it disappeared. But the next moment 
back it came, followed by a rapid series of dis- 
appearances and reappearances. I then laid the 
rabbit near the roots and the intrepid little rascal 
ran out, bit into the meat and retreated. After doing 
this for a while he would pertly mount the rabbit's 
carcase with his front feet, draw one foot up under 
his breast as if it were cold and gaze me straight 
in the face. Ambition was now chasing away all 
discretion. His next move was to bite into the 
rabbit's ear and attempt its removal to the hole. 
The brave attempts following this consuming desire 
were indeed very commendable. 

A year later near a mountain pass in Alberta a 
similar experience befell me, while I was setting a 
lynx snare. This time the ermine after watching 
me with beady eyes for a time, actually followed 
(though with caution) a piece of meat that I 
slowly pulkd along the ground. It was not be- 
cause of food scarcity that orompted this, for hares 
existed in plenty throughout the region that 

Another time on Fish lake, in the same general 
region, I broke through the ice one early afternoon 
and to prevent frostbite was compelled to camp 
and dry out my clothes. Comfort was about re- 
stored as I sat dreamily gazing into the leaping 
camp-fire when something flashed just to one side 
of my line of sight and was gone. Looking, expect- 
ing to see a whisky-jack, as usual, I saw nothing, 
the silent wilderness apparently, excepting myself, 
without an atom of life. About to dismiss the 
matter as a trick of the sight, I saw an ermine 
bounding along among the trees, hesitating moment- 
arily, but ever circling nearer, until on the very edge 
of the camp almost, he stood partly erect, daintily 
folding one foot along his breast and surveyed the 
scene for several seconds. He circled the camp 
a number of times, darting here and there venturing 
now close, then retreating, bolting under roots, into 
holes, and over open spaces until I suppose his 
curiosity was fully satisfied. Then I saw him no 
more. There is a strange fascination in thus sitting 
silently in a great solitude, fleetingly viewing a bit 
of its v/ild life, open, free, unsuspecting, thougk 
usually occult and mysterious. 

48 The Canadian Field-Naturalist [Vol. XXXIIl 


By Harry C. Oberholser. 

There is in the west central United States and 
adjacent portion of Canada an unrecognized sub- 
species of Melanerpes erythrocephalus. Mr. Ridg- 
way, years ago, called attention^ to the difference in 
size and color between specimens of this species from 
the eastern United States and those from the region 
of the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains, but 
made no subspecific separation on account of the 
more or less intermediate character of the birds 
from the Mississippi valley. A recanvass of the 
matter, however, shows that the bird from the 
Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains is sub- 
specifically distinct and therefore deserves recog- 
nition in nomenclature. It has an available name, 
however, as we shall explain, and should stand as 
Melanerpes erythrocephalus erythrophth- 
ALMUS, subsp. resiit. 

Melanerpes erythrophlhalmus Silloway, Bull. 
Fergus County Free High School, No. 1, 1903, 
p. 36. 

Chars, subsp. Similar to Melanerpes erythroce- 
phalus erythrocephalus, but decidedly larger; ab- 
domen more strongly tinged with yellow, and more 
often with red. 

Measurements. Male:- wing, 142-149.5 (aver- 
age, 145.6) mm..; tail, 72.5-81 (77.1); exposed cul- 
men, 26.5-28; tarsus, 22.5-24.5 (23.5); middle toe 
without claw, 17.5-19 (18.2). 

Female:'^ wing, 140-144 (average, 142.6) mm.; 
tail, 74-84.5 (78.1 ) ; exposed culmen, 27-30 (27.8) ; 
tarsus, 20.5-24 (22.2); middle toe without claw, 
18-19 (18.4). 

Type locality. Lewistown, Fergus County, 

Geographic distribution. West central United 
States and adjacent portion of Canada. Breeds north 
to southern Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan, and 
southeastern British Columbia; west to southeastern 
British Columbia, central Montana, central Wyom- 
mg, and central Colorado; south to northern New 
Mexico, northwestern Texas, and southern Okla- 
homa; and east to central Oklahoma, central 
Nebraska and eastern North Dakota. Casual 
northern Utah and southeastern Arizona. 

/^emar/fs. Size is the best and most reliable char 
acter for distinguishing this subspecies.. The foil 
ing measurements of Melanerpes erythrocephaL. 
erythrocephalus from the central eastern United 



iBulL U.S. Nat. Mus., No. 50, pt. VI 1914 p 4" 
Q :uV} fPecimen.s, from Colorado. Wyoming, and 
South Dakota, measured by Mr. J. H. Riley 

3Six specimens, from Colorado, Wvomin- nnri 
Oklahoma, measured by Mr. ,J. H. RileV. "' 

States will facilitate comparison with those of 
Melanerpes erythrocephalus erythrophthalmus given 
above : 

Male:^ wing, 134.5-145 (average, 138.1) mm.; 
tail, 70.75.5 (73.2) ; exposed culmen, 25-29 (26.4) ; 
tarsus, 22-23.5 (22.6) ; middle toe without claw, 
17-18 (17.4). 

Female:' wing 133.5-138.5 (average, 135.6) 
mm.; tail, 72.5-77 (74.5); exposed culmen, 25-26 
(25.4); tarsus, 21-22 (21.7); middle toe without 
claw, 17-18 (17.4). 

The color differences between these two races of 
the red-headed woodpecker, while of value in sub- 
specific characterization, are not constant enough 
to be of much use in the identification of individual 
specimens. The depth of the yellow tinge on the 
abdomen, while appreciable in a series, is in indiv- 
idual specimens often the same in both forms, while a 
more or less evident tinge of red on the abdomen is 
present is only 20 of 31 adult specimens of Mela- 
nerpes erythrocephalus erythrophthalmus; while of 
40 examples of Melanerpes erythrocephalus erythro- 
cephalus from the eastern United States, 9 show 
more or less evidence of red. In fact, one example 
from Fort Meade, Florida (No. 78253, U.S. Nat. 
Mus.), taken in June, 1879, has as much red on the 
abdomen as any western bird that we have examined. 

Mr. Ridgway suggested" that if a Great Plains 
race of this species were to be separated, the Mis- 
sissippi Valley biid should be treated likewise be- 
cause of its similarity in color to the birds from the 
Great Plains and its corresponding difference from 
those of the eastern United States. As we have 
shown above, the differences in color between the 
eastern and the farthest western birds is scarcely 
constant enough to serve for their recognition in 
absence of any other character; furthermore, of 31 
adults from the Mississippi Valley, only 17 have 
any red tinge on the abdomen, though practically 
all have a more or less strong buffy suffusion. This, 
in view of the fact that about one-fourth of the 
eastern birds have at least an indication of red on 
the abdomen, shows clearly that there is here no 
color difference by any means constant enough for 
the subspecific separation of the Mississipppi Valley 
birds from those of the eastern United States, or 
from those of the Great Plains. As will be seen, 
however, they are, in this average color character 
of red on the abdomen, somewhat nearer Melanerpes 

4Ten specimens, measured by Mr. J. H. Riley. 
"Five specimens, measured by Mr. .J. H. Riley. 
oBull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 50, pt. VI, 1914, p. 43. 

September, 1919] 

The Canadian Fielx)-Naturalist 


eryihrocephalus erythrophthalmus ; but since they 
are practically the same in size' as typical Mela- 
nerpes erythrocephalus erythrocephalus, they are to 
be referred to that form. 

Birds from Mount Scott, in south central Okla- 
homa, belong undoubtedly to the western race, as do 
also birds from central New Mexico, and breeding 
birds from the Panhandle of northwestern Texas. 

Red-headed woodpeckers from Minnesota are 
rather large and frequently have red on the abdomen, 
but appear to be, as a whole, nearer the eastern form. 
All the specimens from Texas examined, except those 
from the northwestern portion, belong to the typical 
eastern bird. 

By the segregation of the present subspecies the 
range of Melancrpes erythrocephalus eryihrocephalus 
becomes restricted to the following area: 

Eastern United States and southeastern Canada: 
north to New Brunswick, southern Quebec, and 
southern Ontario; west to Minnesota, Iowa, Mis- 
souri, Arkansas, and central Texas; south to south- 
eastern Texas, southern Louisiana, and southern 
Florida; and east to the Atlantic coast of the United 
States and New Brunswick. Casual in Nova 

The technical name to be used for the western 
red-headed woodpecker involves an interesting com- 
plication. In an annotated list of the birds of 
Fergus County, Montana, Prof. P. M. Silloway 
enters this species as follows:"^ 

anerpes erythrophthalmus. 

This handsome woodpecker occurs sparingly in 
the wooded coulees near Lewistown, which is cer- 
tainly near the western limit of its distribution. On 
several occasions I have seen it along Big Casino, 
where it breeds. On June 9, 1903, I noted the pres- 
ence of the red-headed woodpecker at Cottonwood. 
Dr. J. A. Allen states that the red-headed wood- 
pecker was abundant everywhere from the Mis- 
souri to the Yellowstone, far outnumbering all the 
other Picidae together. It is migratory in this 
portion of its range, making its appearance about 
the middle of May, and beginning to nest early 
in June. 

Distinguishing features: Head, neck, and upper 
part of body crimson ; middle of back across, bluish- 
black; other parts white; length 9-10 inches." 

The name Melancrpes erythrophthalmus is appar- 
ently a lapsus calami for Melanerpes erythrocepha- 
lus, and there is no other evidence that the author in- 
tended to describe a new species or subspecies. The 
name Melanerpes erythrophthalmus does not occur 

"^i. Kiagway, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 50, pt. 
Vr, 1914, p. 43. 

sBull. Fergus County Free High School, No. 1, 
1903, p. 36. 

in the index, but the species is duly entered there^ 
as Melanerpes erythrocephalus. If no description 
had been given, the name Melanerpes erythroph- 
thalmus could have been regarded as a nomen 
nudum; but it is validated by the addition of the per- 
fectly recognizable description, for it certainly can 
not be called a typographical error; therefore, ac- 
cording to the rules of nomenclature, it must be ap- 
plied to the form of red-headed woodpecker occur- 
ring in its locality, now that this is found to be 
different from typical Melanerpes erythrocephalus. 
Its type locality is, of course, Fergus County, 
Montana; furthermore, since Lewistown is the first 
definite place mentioned we may legitimately select 
this as the restricted type locality. The original 
description of Melanerpes erythrocephalus^" was 
based on the bird of South Carolina, so that this 
name is, of course, properly applicable to the 
eastern race. 

The specimens of this newly recognized race 
examined are principally in the United States Na- 
tional Museum, including the collection of the 
Biological Survey, but additional examples seen are 
in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, the Am- 
erican Museum of Natural History, and the Field 
Museum of Natural History. The writer is further 
indebted to Mr. Charles B. Cory for data in regard 
to specimens in the collections under his charge. 
The 46 specimens of Melanerpes erythrocephalus 
erythrophthalmus examined are from the localities 
given in the subjoined list. 

Colorado. Denver (June 5, 1874); Bear Creek 
(June 7, 1873); Pueblo (July 23, 25, and 28, 
1874); Fort Lyon (May 16 and 19, 1883); North 
Fork of South Platte River (July 12, __) ; Kettle 
Creek (August 6, __) ; Huntsville, August 7, __). 
Kansas. Hart's Hill, east of Fort Riley (June 
13, 1856). 

Montana. Custer's Creek (August I, 1873); 
near old Fort Sarpy (August 9, 1873); Big Bend 
of Musselshell River (August 24, 1873); Sun 
River (September 5, 1867); 5 miles southeast of 
Ekalaka (May 31, 1916); Crow Agency (August 
5 and 6, 1916); Little Missouri River, 8 miles 
north of Capitol (June 3, 1916); Pilgrim Creek, 
8 miles northeast of Broadus (June 12, 1916); 
Darnall's Ranch, Dawson County, 30 miles south 
of Glasgow (June 28, 1910; July 1, 1910); Zort- 
man (July 28,1910). 

Nebraska. Valenline (September 8, 1891). 
New Mexico. Bear Canyon, Raton Range (Sep- 
tember 10, 1903). 

North Dakota.~V alley City (June 25, 1912); 

KloicL, ij. 7o. 

iiirPicu.s] Erythrocephalus Linnaeus, Syst: Nat., 
ed. 10, I, 1758, p. 113 fsoulhern South Carolina: 
based on Catesby, Nat. Hist. Car., Florida, Bahama 
Is., I, 1743, p. 20, pi. XX.) 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Medora (June 16, 1913); Cannonball (August 16, 

Oklahoma. Kiowa Agency, 17 miles southeast 
of Fort Cobb (April 1, 1868); Mount Scott P.O. 
(March 26 and 27, 1904). 

South Dakota. Cuslei County (July 7, 1894); 

Corral Draw, Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (May 
16, 1894). 

Texas. Vernon (April 30, 1894). 

Wyoming Deer Creek (May 21, 1877); Fort 
Laramie (May, 1864; May, 31, 1878); Black 
Hills (August 3, 1856); Saratoga (June 4, 1911); 
Greybul! (June 8, 1910). 


By F. C. Whitehouse, Red Deer, Alta. 

Owmg to the fact that ichthyology has never 
apparently appealed to amateur naturalists ^o any 
great extent, the general knowledge respecting our 
fishes is infinitely less than that concerning our birds, 
mammals, flora and at least two orders of insects. 
This surely should not be in a country like Canada, 
blessed with fresh water fishes to the extent that 
they constitute a very important factor in the 
economic wealth; not to mention the sport and out- 
door recreation they provide to a very large number 
of enthusiastic fishermen. In spite of their en- 
thusiasm, however, I find that most sportsmen are 
lamen'ably ignorant concerning their catches, and 
in speakmg of trout for instance, either generalize 
in calling everything "speckled-trout," or go ^o the 
other extreme and specify "Brook trout" or "Rain- 
bow trout," neither of which species occurs in this 
section of Canada unless of course the imported 
"Brook trout" of the Mountains Park be included. 

While disclaiming any specialized learning in the 
science of ichthyology, I contribute the following 
notes for the purpose of correcting errors in the re- 
corded range in the case of three well known fishes, 
and I hope clearing up a few mistaken ideas in the 
minds of some who may know even less than myself 
upon the subject. 

The list is arranged according to the "Check List 
of the Fishes of the Dominion of Canada and New- 
foundland," which laudable work will be hereinafter 
alluded to as the "Government Check List." 


41. Acipenser transmontanus Richardson. White 
Sturgeon are but rarely captured in Alberta. 
Three or four years ago, however, a very fine 
specimen was taken in the C.P.R. dam (Bow 
river) at Bassano, and since the Bow and Belly 
rivers join to become the South Saskatchewan river, 
and transmontanus is recorded from the latter water- 
way, the Bassano fish must presumably be referred 
to that species. On the other hand A. rubicundus 
(Lake sturgeon) is also recorded from "Lake of 

the Woods and Prairie Provinces" so it is clearly 
unsafe to jump to conclusions. 

52. Hyodon chr^sopsis Richardson. Western 

While the Government Check List gives "Pro- 
vinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan" as the range 
of this fish, it is certainly common in Alberta in the 
Red Deer river. It was also one of the fishes re- 
corded by Mr. Fletcher's survey party, 1916, "Peace 
river." I do not doubt but that it is common in 
both branches of the Saskatchewan river. 

Goldeyes usually average rather less than one 
pound, but they are frequently taken up to 18 
ounces. I was informed of a specimen fish taken 
at the junction of the Blindman river and Red Deer 
river two years ago, the weight given being two 
pounds. This fish rises nicely to artificial flies, and 
on a light rod puts up an excellent fight. It is an 
insect feeder, "whirl a gig" beetles forming an im- 
portant item of its diet. Under normal water con- 
ditions Goldeyes feed all over the river, but in 
times of flood seek the less muddy water in the 
mouths of tributary rivers and creeks, when they can 
be taken in numbers with various baits such as 
worms, grasshoppers, meat, etc. 

In Manitoba there is a small industry in kippering 
Goldeyes, and both from an economic and sport- 
ing point of view an increase rather than diminution 
of these fishes is desirable. 


67. Coregonus Tvilliamsoni Girard. Rocky Moun- 
tain Whitefish. 
This fish occurs throughout Alberta and British 
Columbia in rivers and lakes, but I have no first 
hand knowledge concerning it. In the interest- 
ing and useful little booklet, "Classified Guide to 
Fish and Their Habitat in Rocky Mountains Park" 
by Mr. S. C. Vick, published by the Dominion 
Parks Branch, Department of the Interior, 1913, the 
author states that C. Tvilliamsoni "is found in almost 
all the park lakes and streams," and both in the text. 

September, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


and below the illustration, gives the species the alter- 
native common names of Rocky Mountain White- 
fish or Grayling which, of course, places it simul- 
taneously in two different genera. In the Raven and 
Clearwater rivers, west of Red Deer, so-called 
"Grayling" occur, and have been taken by fisher- 
men for years past. Whether these are really Rocky 
Mountain Whitefish I cannot state, but I am con- 
fident that many of the "Grayling" catches are so 
only in the minds of their captors. 

73. Coregonus labradoricus Richardson. Labra- 
dor Whitefish. 
Whitefish occur in Lake Wabuma, west of Ed- 
monton, and in fact in many of the lakes of north- 
ern Alberta. If the facts are as stated in the foot- 
note (Jordan and Everman) in the Government 
Check List, however, the whitefish of commerce 
in the prairie provinces is labradoricus, and not 
clupeiformis the common whitefish of the Great 

89. Oncorh})nchus kcnnerl^i Suckley. Kennerly's 
Salmon: Little Redfish. 

I have no personal knowledge concerning this 
species. Through the kindness of Mr. J. W. Cockle, 
of Kalso, B.C., I am able to give the following 

"This diminutive salmon is found in all the 
waters of the interior of British Columbia. It runs 
up the creeks to spawn in the fall and is taken with 
nets and by spearing and salted down for winter use 
by many of the settlers. The fish is sometimes 
taken in Kootenay lake when trowling for salmon 
and forms the main diet of both salmon and char 
which inhabit these waters. It runs up from the 
Columbia river into Christina lake and spawns there 
on the shallow shores at the south end of the lake; 
large numbers are taken there every season." 

93. Salino clark'n Richardson. Cut-throat Trout. 

This fish is most aptly named since there is a red 
streak on the throat on either side. It occurs in the 
clear rivers of Alberta and in the mountains in 
streams and lakes. The Cut-throat trout rises very 
well to artificial flies, and is a game fighter. In 
bodies of water of high altitude such as Consola- 
tion lake near Lake Louisa, etc., and mountain 
creeks, clarkii does not frequently exceed one pound 
in weight, but at lower altitudes runs from three to 
four pounds. 

The author of the "Classified Guide," already 
referred to, suggests that mature fish cannot negotiate 
the small mountain creeks and that inbreeding re- 
sults. The lakes are not inaccessible to small fish, 
however, and as new blood is thus introduced I do 
not think inbreeding is the explanation. The tem- 
perature of the high altitude lakes is intensely cold 

42 or thereabouts and I personally incline to the 
opinion that the rigors of the habitat is responsible 
for dwarfing a theory supported to some extent 
by insect life under alpine conditions. 
95. Sahno rivularis l(amloops Jordan. Kamloops 
My experience of this fish is confined to the 
Kootenay lake at Kaslo, B.C., where it is taken on 
rod and line with a large spoon. Local fishermen 
use about 600 feet of thin line, and run the spoon 
say 300 feet from the boat. The fish in its fight 
breaks water like an Atlantic salmon. I quote, in 
addition, from a recent letter from Mr. J. W. 
Cockle, of Kaslo: 

"A native of Kootenay and Okanagan lakes; 
when mature, large fish of both genders are slivery 
with a very faint tinting of pink over the gill coverts; 
attains a weight of over 20 pounds, but the usual 
size of mature fish is about 12 to 16 pounds. Noth- 
ing is known of its spawning habits, but it is usually 
taken about the end of May and during June at 
which time it is in prime silvery condition." 
( ) Salmo rivularis kamloops? (By Mr. Cockle 
and the present author). 
The fish I now refer to is the species commonly 
(and of course erroneously) called the "rainbow 
trout" by fishermen. I have taken the fish at 
Kaslo on a spoon up to 12 pounds, and at, or rather 
below, Boddington Falls, B.C., up to 3'/2 pounds 
on artificial fly. It is a very game fighter, and a 
beautiful fish in appearance the sides being streaked 
with an iridescent sheen. Mr. Cockle, of Kaslo, 
B.C., has had this species under observation for years 
and has consequently had ample opportunity to form 
a mature opinion as to its distinctness from the 
species next above. I quote from recent corre- 

"A large salmon indigenous to Kootenay lake, 
which spawns on the upper waters of the Lardo 
and Duncan rivers just as they emerge from Trout 
and Houser lakes. It spawns during May and 
up to the second week in June, at which time the 
males are nearly black: specimens spawned at the 
Hatchery at Gerrard last season weighed 40 pounds, 
but the average spawning fish are about 16 to 20 
pounds. When in prime condition during Novem- 
ber they are a bright silver color, heavier spotted 
with black markings than the preceding, and have a 
bright pink band extending from the gill coverts 
along the sides. The back is a deep olive green in 
contradistinction to 5. I^amloops which is blue-black 
on the back. There also exist some very small var- 
ieties of this species which are to be found in moun- 
tain lakes; these attain a weight of about six ounces, 
but the identical with the above in habit and in also 
turning black when spawning. The late Dr. Starr 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Jordan and other authorities could find no difference 
in the structure of these two varieties (i.e., S. J^am- 
loops and 5. I^amloops . . ..-) but from the fact 
that the first is in prime condition at the same time 
that the other is spawning and has turned black, 
the writer has not a doubt of their distinctness, but 
until it is proved by breeding, the fact that they are 
two species will have to remain unproven." 

98. Crisiivomer namaycush Walbaum. Great Lake 

Nama\)cush, generally conceded to be our most 
valuable commercial fresh water fish, inhabits the 
lakes of n rthern Alberta, and also, supposedly, 
Minnewanka lake, near Banff. While closely allied 
to the genus Salvelinus (Charrs) the teeth in the 
palate, or more correctly the vomeral ridge, easily 
serve to separate from that genus. To the best of 
my knowledge this fish will not rise to a fly at any 
stage in its life a "spoon" or bait being the lures 
used by sportsmen. The commercial method is 

In the Classified Guide, already referred to, an 
illustration is given of a Minnewanka "nama}^cush" ? 
but the body of the fish illustrated does not taper 
narrowly to the tail ; the tail is not forked, and ex- 
cepting for the large mouth, the figure depicts the 
genus Salmo rather than Crisiivomer or Salvelinvs. 
Of course the illustration may have been made from 
a faulty painting or cast, but a comparison of it with 
the excellent illustrations in the Government Check 
List, Fig. 46, 47, Plate VII, will explain why I 
state the Minnewanka lake fish is supposedly (?) 

100. Salvelinus foniinalis Mitchell. Speckled 
Trout: Brook Trout. 
Disregarding the importations from Lake Nipigon 
to the waters of the Mountains Park, this species 
does not occur in western Canada. In spite of this 
fact, however, and as stated in the introduction to 
this paper, more bags of fish are designated "brook 
trout' 'or "speckled trout" by their proud captors 
than are named (or more probably misnamed) any- 
thing else. Foniinalis is unusually unhappy in the 
matter of its common names. If it is "speckled," 
so are all the other members of the family! If it 
inhabits "brooks," it thrives equally well, or even 
better, in lakes and rivers! It is not a trout but a 
charr. Notwithstanding everything, including the 
fact that the Canadian charrs otherwise will not rise 
to artificial flies, and are poor fighters, fontinalis 
IS probably the sportiest and most popular fish in the 
world, and in the Nipigon river on the north shore 
of Lake Superior specimen fish run up to 10 pounds. 
Mr. Vick, in the Classified Guide, states that the im- 
ported fish in the Mountains Park have adapted 

themselves and that they are doing well. It is to be 
hoped that they are not doing so at the expense 
of the Cut-throat trout. 
101. Salvelinus parkU Suckley. Dolly Varden 

Trout: Bull Trout. 
( )Salvelinus ? Silver Trout: Bull Trout. 

In the Classified Guide to the fish in the Rocky 
Mountains Park, the author, Mr. Vick, separates 
par/fi'i, the Dolly Varden trout, from the Silver 
trout which he designates "of the same species," but 
fails to supply us with a scientific name. If there 
are two Bull trout and I incline to such view 
myself Mr. Vick's dilemma is my own ! Per- 
sonally, I separate these charr chiefly by the sheen 
on the scales: the Dolly Varden is golden in ap- 
pearance, whilst the Silver Charr is silvery. They 
both have pink spots, large mouths, and bodies that 
taper very much toward the tail. They will take 
any bait from a live or artificial minnow to a mouse 
or garter snake: are voracious feeders, but poor 
fighters. I have caught them from six inches long 
in the headwaters of mountain creeks, to six or seven 
pounders in the Red Deer river, and Kootenay lake, 
but they run up to 12 and even 14 pounds. They 
put in an appearance at the mouths of creeks tribu- 
tary to the Red Deer river just as the ice is going 
out, and owing to the fact that they are native 
to waters unsuitable for the more delicate Salmos, 
are a valuable and interesting fish. I quote Mr. 
Cockle, of Kalso, B.C. 

"Besides the large variety of this fish which is 
indiginous to the waters of Kootenay lake and reach 
the weight of 10 to 15 pounds and which go up the 
creeks during high water during June to spawn at 
the headwaters of the creeks, and which return 
again when the first snow water comes into the 
creeks, there is also a small variety which is 
practically identical, but which seems to stay up the 
creeks and mountain lakes at all times. These attain 
a weight of one-half to two pounds, and spawn 
during October, but whether they are the fry of 
the larger fish which spawns during the summer or 
are distinct can only be solved by the hatchery." 

I have on several occasions been told of 
a fish that occurs in the lake at Sicamous Junction, 
B.C., and locally known as the "Silver Trout." 
From my understanding of the matter the Sicamous 
fish must not be confused with the Silver (charr) 
trout, above discussed. 

109. Th^mallus tricolor montanus Milner. Mon- 
tana Grayling. 

The absolute identity of the south Alberta Gray- 
ling does not appear to be established, but the 
Government Check List refers it to the above 
species. I have personally never seen an AlbertaZv 
Grayling, but the curator of the Calgary Museun/%) 


September, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


(Basement, Supreme Court Building) two or three 
years ago showed me plaster casts of what he re- 
garded as Alberta Grayling in contradistinction to 
casts of Rocky Mountain Whitefish, Coregonus 
Tpilliamsoni. I am not questioning, therefore, that 
a fish of the genus Thymallus occurs in the pro- 
vince, on the other hand I feel sure (as already 
stated under C. yvilliamsoni) that no small percent- 
age of the catches of "Grayling" taken by fisher-, 
men are Rocky Mountain Whitefish. If T. tri- 
color montanus possesses the characteristic long 
dorsal fin of the Grayling group long in the sense 
that the fin occupies approximately one-third of the 
fish's back it should be easily distinguished from 
any species in the Whitefish group. 

Suckers, Mullets, etc. 
We next come to the large group of fishes com- 
monly known as "Suckers," including Mullets, Red 
Horse, etc., quite uninteresting to sportsmen, and 
unesteemed for the table, yet far from unworthy of 
study from an economic standpoint. Like many 
creatures of nature the "Sucker" group of fishes are 
not wholly bad, nor good! On the one hand they 
are evil, in as much as they are spawn-eaters of 
fish more worthy than themselves, and on the other 
their own myriad young provide food for the said 
fish of greater value. I have made no study of the 
local fishes of this group and therefore simply list 
several species which, according to the Government 
Check List, occur in the province: 

136. Pantosieus jordani Evermann. Mountain 

137. Calostomus griscus Girard. Gray Sucker. 

138. Calostomus casostomus Foster. Northern 

140. Catostomus commersonii Lacepede. Common 

White Sucker. 
147. Moxostoma lesueuri Richardson. Northern 
Red Horse. 

Minnows, Dace, etc. 
The next group is closely allied to the last, and 
comprises a number of genera of small fishes, in- 
cluding minnows, dace, chub, etc. By fishermen 
they are esteemed as bait, and as food for larger and 
more valuable fishes they have their uses. Some of 
them at any rate are spawn-eaters so like the 
Suckers they are both good and evil. I list a few 
that are recorded in the Government Check List as 
occurring in the prairie provinces: 

168. Notropis jordani Eigenmann and Eigen- 
mann. Jordan's Shiner. 
%^^, 1 ^^- Notropis hudsonius selene Jordan. The 
^ ^-^ Spawn Eater. 

181. Notropis scopifer Eigenmann and Eigenmann. 

Prairie Minnow. 
186. Rh:nichlh\)s cataractae dulcis Girard. Long- 
nosed Dace. 
195. Couesius dissimilis Girard. 
197. Platvgobio gracilis Richardson. Saskatch- 
ewan Dace. (Government Check List, Flat- 
headed Chub). 
A specimen that I forwarded in alcohol to Prof. 
Bensley, of the University of Toronto, was re- 
ferred by him to this species. The fish is common 
in the Red Deer river in the vicinity of Red Deer. 
It inhabits the mouths of creeks and eddies along 
the shore, and can be taken with bait, worms, etc. 
It appears to be an insect feeder as I have had 
them rise to artificial fly. The little fish is round 
bodied; wid across the head between the eyes, 
and h?s an extremely long nose, with protruding 
upper lip or snout. 

210. Lucius lucius Linnaeus. Common Piko 
(Western "Jack-Fish.") 
The pike is probably as well known as any fish 
that swims, for it is widely distributed not only in 
North America but also in Europe, Asia, etc. It 
occurs all over the Province of Alberta m lakes 
and rivers, such as the Red Deer river, Saskatch- 
ewan river. Peace river, and away north to the 
delta of the Peace and Athabasca. While the pike 
is not regarded very highly by fishermen in North 
America, since, generally speaking, it is a poor 
fighter, although individual fish will occasionally be 
hooked that will put up quite a struggle, such fact 
depends very largely, in my opinion, upon the con- 
dition of the fish, and of the water. As a table fish 
it is decidedly in the second rank ; at the same 
time it is of no small economic importance due to 
its wide distribution. In many districts in western 
Canada the pike is virtually the only fish that can 
be obtained to supply cheap food and change of 
diet for the inhabitants and to the Indians it has un- 
doubtedly always been of very considerable value. 
The name "Jack-fish," so frequently given to this 
fish in western Canada, is an interesting mis-nomer. 
In the language of old country fishermen, a "jack" 
is a small pike, say up to five or six pounds. The 
name signifies size, just as the term "parr" and 
"grilse" signify certain immature stages in the life 
of the Atlantic salmon. I suppose old country set- 
tlers, years ago, called the small pike "jack" until 
in the end it was mistakenly adopted as a proper 
name, and the Pike became a "Jack-fish" quite ir- 
respective of its size. 

I am not at all sure that there are not two species 
of pike in western Canada, but whether the doubt- 


The Canadian Fielx)-Naturalist 

[Vol. xxxni 

ful form I have in mind is Lucius reticulatus, the 
Green Pike of Eastern North America or some var- 
iety of that species I cannot say. My suspicions 
of two species is based on the shape of the head. 
The head of the Common Pike, Lucius lucius should, 
according to my views, show a protuberance or 
bulge over the eyes, while the other species or form 
has a head curving gradually from the tip of the 
snout to the dorsum. The latter fish is the poorer 

286. Loia maculosa Le Sueur. Fresh-water Ling: 

The Fresh-water Ling or Burbot belongs to the 
Cod group of fishes, including the Cods, Sea Ling 
and Haddock, and it is the only member of its 
family inhabiting fresh water. The belly is much 
distended by the abnormally large liver a charac- 
teristic of the cods. 

This very interesting, though somewhat objection- 
able-looking fish, is common in sluggish rivers and 
lakes in Alberta: Sylvan lake. Red Deer river, 
Peace river, etc. It attains considerable size, some- 
times I am told up to 40 pounds. The flesh is 
white, it is comparatively free from bones, and it 
is a clean feeder, living, so far as I can discover 
on small fish. In spite of these facts, however, very 
few ling ever find their way to the table, for most 
fishermen, who catch them by chance, seem fright- 
ened of them. The liver and roe were esteemed 
as delicacies by the voyageurs, a statement I make 
on the authority of the Ontario Game and Fish 
Committee's Report of 1892. 

Under normal water conditions this fish is ex- 
tremely sluggish, and will lie on the bottom im- 
mobile for hours. As eels are affected by thunder- 
storms to unusual activity in search of food, so the 
fresh water ling in times of flood and muddy water, 
becomes a thing of action. The mouths of creeks 
are full of them seeking their prey minnows and 
small fry. They hunt close to the bank and right 
on the surface, the locality always chosen by terror- 
stricken minnows seeking sanctuary up the creek. 
The gulps of the ling, sucking their prey into their 
spacious maws, is an unnatural and somewhat un- 
canny sound. My idea of the feeding habits are 
as follows: The fish, a strong but slow swimmer, 
is incapable of catching its prey by the chase. In 
clear water, therefore, it lies like a log, entices 
the small fry by means of the artificial "worm" pro- 
vided by nature as an attachment to its chin, and 
without movement of body sucks in the intruder. 
In time of flood the muddy water provides con- 
cealment and "angling" is put aside in favor of the 
chase as explained above. 


315. Siizosiedion viireum Mitchell. Pike-perch 

(O'd English), Pickerel (Canadian); Dore 
(French Canadian) ; Wall-eyed Pike 
(United States.) 
While the Government Check List gives Sas- 
katchewan as the western limit, probably most fish- 
ermen in Alberta know that this fish is common in 
some rivers in the province, and also in some of the 
lakes. The largest specimen fish taken by me 
(mouth Waskasoo creek. Red Deer river) weighed 
8'/'2 pounds, but some years ago at the mouth of 
the Blindman river, at Blackfalds, Mr. D. Gregson 
took a pair each of which weighed 12 pounds. In 
1918, a Red Deer man caught a twelve-pounder at 
the mouth of the Medicine river, the weight of 
which I verified. The fish is not a great fighter, 
but fishermen esteem it because of its excellence for 
the table. The pickerel, when of mature age, is 
a shy fish and cunning. It has white eyes, like a 
wall-eyed horse, but excellent sight nevertheless. 
It will take a live or artificial minnow, a spoon, and 
a number of different natural baits, such as worms, 
frogs, mice, etc. 

316. Stizosiedion canadense C. H. Smith. The 

The name Sauger probably sounds strange, and 
I fancy that even to many fishermen the very ex- 
istence of the fish is unknown. According to the 
text books it is similar to the pickerel, but seldom 
exceeds fifteen inches in length and has a rounder 
body. It has a black blotch at the base of 
the pectoral fins, and lacks the black blotch 
at the hinder part of the dorsal fin of the 
pickerel. The western range of this fish has 
not been clearly defined, and it will be inter- 
esting to determine definitely whether or not 
some of the small sized "pickerel" of the Red Deer 
river are not properly the Sauger. To date I have 
not been able to satisfy myself upon the point, as 
the position of black blotches is a very unsatis- 
factory characteristic upon which to separate two 
fish. Mr. Gregson, who has lived for many years 
at the mouth of the Blindman river, Blackfalds, 
claims that he can always tell what he calls a 
"Red Deer river pickerel" from the smaller fish 
taken between the mouth and the dam. In the 
former the black "perch bars" are more clearly 
defined. On the other hand these may simply be 
more mature fish, and I must leave the matter un- 

317. Perca flavescens Mitchell. Yellow Perch: 

American Perch. 
The Government Check List mentions Saskatch- 
ewan as the western limit of the perch in Canada. 

September, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


As a matter of fact, however. Pine lake, south-east 
of Red Deer, is full of perch, averaging in weight 
about three to the pound. The fish also occurs 
in the reed-beds at Sylvan lake, the average weight 
being from half to three-quarters of a pound. The 
perch is a very fair table fish, and steps should be 
taken to prevent the wholesale slaughter that some- 
times occur at Pine lake. 

The foregoing notes include a number of species 
of our most interesting and valuable fresh water 
fish, and in concluding this paper I ask the question: 
Do we as a people sufficiently appreciate our her- 
itage in fishes, and realize with the rivers and lakes 
of Canada at our disposal, the opportunities they 

offer (a) as food, (b) as a poor man's sport. Per- 
sonally I do not think so upon the broad lines that 
I have in mind, and I feel, with a view to the 
generations to follow, that we should bestir our- 
selves. It seems to me the necessary procedure to 
be followed groups itself under three heads: 

1. Continually restocking rivers and lakes with 
the best fishes native to such rivers and lakes thus 
insuring an increase and not a diminution in the 

2. Introducing into river and lakes the best fishes 
adaptable (but not native) to such rivers and lakes. 

3. Prohibiting by legislation the polution of 
rivers and lakes by untreated sewage. 


By W. E. Saunders, London, Ont. 

The Caspian is the largest of the three Terns 
which the observer has a reasonable right to expect 
to see on our waters. Until within a few years it 
was supposed that the only nesting ground of these 
birds in the Great Lakes was on some islands in 
Lake Michigan, and I was, therefore, quite sur- 
prised in June, 1909, when I found an adul; 
specimen in the collection of Mr. Chris. Firth, at 
Durham. It was still more surprising to be told 
that this bird came from near Parry Sound where 
it nested on an island in that portion of the 
Georgian Bay. 

This information had come from Adam Brown 
who is the lighthouse keeper at Red Rock light, 
five miles from the Limestone Islands on which the 
Caspian Tern has eventually been found to nest. 

The summer following my discovery of this 
specimen at Durham, I had a letter from Prof. Guy 
Bailey, Geneseo, N.Y., inquiring where he could go 
for some interesting Canadian bird work, and I 
promptly detailed him for the hunt after the Caspian 
Tern which he carried out with entire success. He 
went to Parry Sound, made inquiry, and eventually 
landed on Limestone Islands, where he took photo- 
graphs of the eggs and young. 

I was not able to visit the locality until 1918, 
when on June 4, Rev. C. J. Young, Brighton, 
Ont., Mr. Edwin Beaupre, of Kingston, Ont., and 
I reached Parry Sound in the afternoon and went 
out with Mr. Dan Bottrill to Snug Island light- 
house, some distance past the entrance to Parry 
Sound bay. The next day being calm we traversed 
the intervening ten miles to the Limestone Islands. 
Caspian Terns were in evidence now and again on 
this journey and indeed, are tolerably familiar birds 
around Parry Sound harbor. When we came near 

the island we began to see them in considerable 
numbers and mingled with them were Herring and 
Ring-billed Gulls. The island on which the Cas- 
pians nest is only slightly elevated above the lake 
level with the exception of two places where mounds 
rise to the height of about ten feet above the lake. 
The chief mound, on and around which most of 
the nests are found, is perhaps thirty yards across at 
the base. The sides have a moderate slope and are 
covered with grasses, but the top of the mound is 
nearly bare of vegetation and the rock is breaking 
into small scaly fragments. The other mound is 
similar, but smaller, and the rest of the island, the 
northern one, is only slightly elevated above the 
level of the lake and more or less thickly covered 
with grasses. 

Bare rock showed in a great many places in 
large irregularly formed rectangles and in the cracks 
between these rock faces grew the grasses which 
outlined them. 

The two islands are connected at low water, but 
we had to wade from one to the other and it took 
us up to our knees and the footing was none too 
good at that. 

On the southern island we imagined the nests of 
Kingbirds, Yellow warblers. Song sparrows. Tree 
swallow, Spotted Sandpiper and probably Black 
Duck or American Merganser as these birds were 
represented there, but there were no Terns' nests 
on it nor any gull's except those of the Herring, of 
which there were thirty or forty nests placed mainly 
between the timber logs which had drifted up from 
the low shores of the island and had been left high 
and dry by heavy winds. 

Our interest centered, of course, on the Caspian 
Tern, and as usual in cases of communal nestings of 


The Canadian Field-Naturaust 


water birds, we found the different species keeping 
pretty well to themselves. The Caspian Tern sel- 
ected for itself the highest portions of the island, 
namely, the tops of the two knolls. Here they rested 
when they came in from flight, and the fact that 
they always seemed to prefer to rest on the highest 
point probably accounts for the small number of 
nests on that part of the knoll. There were only 
five nests on top of the large knoll. On the sides 
were more nests of the Caspian Tern, but as the 
lower level was approached the nests of the Ring- 
billed Gull began to be found, and when the level 
at the bottom of the slope was reached, no more 
Caspians were to be seen. In addition to the five 
nests of the Caspian found on top of the large 
knoll, there were ninety-three nests on the sides of 
it. On the smaller knoll we found fifty-seven nests, 
making one hundred and fifty-five with eggs in all. 
It is to be presumed, therefore, that this colony con- 
sists of about 350 or 400 breeding birds, as many 
of the sets were incomplete and some of them had 
probably not yet begun to lay. 

The habit of Terns in general is to make a very 
sketchy nest, often nothing more than a mere hollow, 
and the nests of the Caspian on top of the knoll 
followed this general rule, but as one observed the 
nests on the sides of the knoll, he found that as he 
went down the side, the nests became more and 
more substantial, until the bottom nests were almost 
as elaborate as those of the Ring-billed Gulls nest- 
ing alongside, and our surmise was that the higher 
levels were the preferred nesting ground for all 
species, and that the ring-bills started to lay iheir 
eggs on these higher levels but were ousted from 
them by the Caspians who adopted the more sub- 
stantial nests of the gulls. The Caspians which 
were later in beginning to lay would then steal 
the nests of the next highest Ring-bills. This theory 
would account for the increasing thickness of the 
walls and hning of the Caspian nests as the lower 
levels were approached and the fact that the Cas- 
pians and the Ring-bills were nesting within three 
or four feet of each other in some places, also sup- 
ports the theory. At one point at the south-east side 
of the larger knoll there was a clump of small bushes, 
in and around which were five nests. Three of these 
were Caspians and two were Ring-bills, one of 
these being in the centre of the patch. 

It was very interesting to have these birds so 
close together and to compare their voices. The 
notes of the Caspian are, of course, unique and no 
one who has ever heard them would think of con- 
founding them with any other kind of water bird 
to be found in Ontario. One does not need an ear 
for music to accomplish the distinction. Any one 
who can tell the bray of a donkey from the rooster's 

crow, should be able to distinguish the Caspian Tern 
by its notes, but the Herring Gull and the Ring-bill 
have long been a puzzle to me and I did not get 
any serious help from this visit, except that the Ring- 
bill did not give us any example of the cackle so 
often used by the Herring Gull, but the musical 
tones of the gulls we found indistinguishable, both 
of them using many different pitches and phrasings. 

Considering that there was so little opportunity 
for concealment, the Ring-billed Gulls concealed 
their nests very well, placing them among the 
grasses which grew in the cracks between the rocks. 

When the cracks were of sufficient dimensions, 
say five or ten inches, the concealment thereby af- 
forded was substantial, and the Ring-billed Gulls 
placed their nests in these strips of grassy growth at 
from four or five feet to fifteen feet apart. 

We found the Herring Gulls to be less compan- 
ionable than the others as their nests were much 
farther apart, seldom being as close as fifteen feet 
from one another. They seemed also to have laid 
their eggs a little earlier as we found three or four 
of their nests with newly hatched young, while none 
of the Ring-bills or Caspian Terns had hatched a 
single egg. Three was the maximum set for each 
and two were apparently being incubated in a good 
many cases. 

Against the 155 nests of the Caspian Tern we 
found only 64 nests of the Herring Gull, and 11 
nests of the Ring-billed Gull, and Mr. Bottril and 
Mr. Brown think that the Caspians in the colony 
are increasing slowly. 

Sometimes nesting grounds of this character are 
apt to be much molested by human beings, but in the 
present instance such is not the case. 

During the nesting season, the Georgian Bay in- 
dulges in a good deal of windy weather. The ap- 
proach to these islands is so bad that landing can 
only be managed on a day so calm that it would 
be exceptional. To make matters still better for the 
Gulls and Terns they nest in a season in which the 
fishermen are very busy, and there is no other class 
of inhabitants nearby. 

One of our friends had heard that there were 
a few Caspian Terns nesting on an island some ten 
or twenty miles south where the Common Tern has 
a colony, but we were not able to investigate this 

The migration route of this species was for a long 
time an unsolved puzzle. They appeared in small 
numbers at various points in the lower lakes and 
that was about all we knew of them, but from the 
observations of Mr. E. M. S. Dale of the Mc- 
Ilwraith Ornithological Club, and of our president, 
Mr. J. F. Calvert, it seems that after the breeding 
season has finished, these birds make a very leisurely 

September, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


journey southward, following roughly the route of 
the Trent Valley canal, and from there they doubt- 
less make longer flights to the south. 

That their journeys are not confined to the im- 
mediate vicinity of water was proved by our presi- 

dent one day when he was gardening with his ears 
open, and heard from one of his friends of fhe 
Kawartha district, a salute from the upper air, mak- 
ing the only record we have of the occurrence of 
this Tern in Middlesex county. 


(Clangula clangula americana and Clangula islandica.) 

By p. a. Taverner. 

Except in adult male plumage, the resemblance 
between the American Goldeneye and Barrow's 
Goldeneye is so close as to cause considerable con- 
fusion in identification. Adult males, the American 
with its round facial spot against the green-black 
head and Barrow's with a crescentic spot of purple 
black are distinctive and need never be confused. 


The females are so nearly alike as to be separable 
with difficulty. Various plumage analysis of the 
two species have been worked out but the one really 
satisfactory distinction seems to be in the size and 
shape of the bill which shows the only constant 
character for all plumages. Even in this feature the 
occurrence of poorly developed juveniles is a dis- 
turbing factor. Barrow's Goldeneye has a decidedly 

shorter, narrower and more stumpy bill than the 
American Goldeneye. The difference, however, is 
one that it is difficult to carry in mind and can only 
be certainly perceived when specimens are directly 

The male of the year is almost as difficult as the 
female to diagnose until traces of the adult head 
coloration begin to show, when the problem is im- 
mediately simplified. One distinction between 
these plumages has been pointed out by Major 

a:\ierican goldeneye. 

Allan Brooks and it seems reliable. A firm strok- 
ing with the finger from the base of the culmen 
over the crown reveals in Barrow's Goldeneye 
that the skull rises at the base of the bill more 
abruptly than in the American Goldeneye. The 
dissection of a number of specimens of both species, 
lately, however, has revealed another distinction 
that I cannot find hitherto recorded. The wind- 


The Canadian Fielx)-Naturalist 


pipes of the males of the two species just before 
they enter the body at the merry-thought, are 
strikmgly different. That of Barrow's Goldeneye 
is gradually enlarged and gradually reduced in 
diameter at this point. That of the American 
Goldeneye on the other hand is much more rapidly 
enlarged and then very suddenly reduced, forming 
a conspicuous bulbous enlargement between the 
arms of the clavacles. The illustrations herewith 
show this difference quite well. The sketches were 

Goldeneye, for between these two developments 
the least difference would be expected. Half- 
fledged American Goldeneyes which I have exam- 
ined show little or none of this specialization, but 
it is notable that complete development is reached 
by or before mid-winter. This specific difference 
does not extend to the females at any age. 


Male, adult: Perce, Gaspe Co., Que., Feb., 1916. 

made from dried specimens moderately stretched to 
show the details and are considerably longer than 
is normal in hfe. It will be noticed, also, that 
whilst the bony rings forming the pipe of the 
Barrow's Goldeneye are even and comparatively 
regular in shape, those of the American Golden- 
eye are much more irregular and confused in de- 
sign.* I have purposely taken the trachea of a 
juvenile or yearling American Goldeneye in its 
first winter for comparison with the adult Barrow's 


Male, jv: Barklev Sound, Vancouver Island, B.C., 

Jan. 1, 1916; No. 8916. 

Besides offering a reliable specific test for young 
males this specialization of the windpipe is interest- 
ing as suggesting that Barrow's Goldeneye is the 
more ancient type of the two as it is obvious that 
the American Goldeneye's windpipe is a special- 
ization of Barrow's Goldeneye and not vice-versa. 


By Harrison F. Lewis, Quebec, Que. 

The Migratory Birds Convention is such a great 
advance in systematic protection of North American 
migratory birds, and it has already proved to be so 
beneficial, that one hesitates to offer any criticism 
of it. A short experience with the workings of the 
convention and its enabling Act, has, however, re- 
vealed not only its strong points, but also two or 
three matters, of greater or lesser importance, where 
improvement seems to be needed. 

The birds protected by the Treaty are classified 
therein ^."rijigratory game birds," "migratory in- 
sectivordfsJjirjJjAand "migratory non-game birds." 
Further*^e'tails of^the species included in the terms 
of the Treaty are given under each of the above 
headings, but under no heading can one find any 
of the large, important, and beneficial family of the 
Fringillidae, except grosbeaks, which are mentioned 
as such among the "migratory insectivorous birds." 

*Since writing the above I find that the differ- 
ence between the windpipes of the two species is 
noted and figured by .1. Bernard Gilpin: Proc kncl 
]L';?"/-T^- ^- ^"'^t. Nat. Sci., IV, 1875-1878, 398-t99 

The writer, having reported to the Dominion Parks 
Branch of the Department of the Interior, which 
is charged with the work of carrying out in Canada 
the provisions of the Treaty, that Snow Buntings 
were being sold in considerable numbers by the 
grocers of Quebec, was courteously informed that, 
after investigation, "it would seem that the Snow 
Bunting is not protected under the Migratory Birds 
Convention Act." Presumably most, if not all, of 
our other Sparrows and Finches would be classified 
with the Snow Bunting, as they, too, are mainly 

Surely this is a grave oversight, and one which 
should be remedied as soon as possible, by an 
amending Treaty, or such other action as may be 
necessary. Sparrows and Finches are highly 
migratory, while the usefulness to man of their 
food habits is well known. The following remarks 
in this regard are quoted from E. H. Forbush's 
"Useful Birds and their Protection." 

"Dr. Judd, in his important paper, 'The Relation 
of Sparrows to Agriculture,' states that the value of 

September, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


these birds to the agricuhurist is greater 'than that 
of any other group whose economic status has thus 
far been investigated' . . . The great bulk of 
the food of Sparrows consists of seed, fruit, and 
insects. The native Sparrows destroy very little 
grain, great quantities of weed seeds and msects, 
and hardly any cultivated fruit; they are, therefore, 
almost entirely harmless. They frequent grass 

fields, cultivated fields, and gardens, and in some 
cases orchards; thus their good work is done where 
it IS of great benefit to the farmer." 

In addition to these facts, it may be noted that 
many of the Sparrows and Finches are excellent 
songsters, and a number of them are among our 
beautiful and brightly-colored native birds. The 
popular prejudice against "Sparrows" which has 
resulted from the harm wrought by the imported 
English Sparrow, or House Sparrow, should not 
be allowed to prevent proper protection to our use- 
ful, attractive native Sparrows. Such occurrences 
as the above-related sale of Snow Buntings for food 
show that these birds need protection, and it does 
not appear why it should be withheld from them 
while it is very properly granted to such economic- 
ally neutral birds as guillemots and petrels. 

Another feature of the convention which seems 
to be capable of improvement is the nomenclature, 
which one wculd expect to find unusually accurate 
and correct in such a Treaty. The "migratory 
game biids" are correctly designated by the scien- 
tific names of the families included, followed by 
the general English names commonly applied to the 
members of each family, as, for example, "Anatidae 
or waterfowl, mcluding brant, wild ducks, geese 
and swans." "Migratory insectivorous birds" is, 
however, stated to mean the following: "Bobolinks, 
catbirds, chickadees, cuckoos, flickers, flycatchers, 
grosbeaks, humming birds, kinglets, martins, me.\d- 
owlarks, nighthawks or bull bats, nuthatches, orioles, 
robins, shrikes, swallows, swifts, tanagers, titmice, 
thrushes, vireos, warblers, waxwings, whippoorwills, 
woodpeckers and wrens, and all other perching 

birds which feed entirely or chiefly on insects." 
"Migratory non-game birds" is defined by a sim- 
ilar list of popular English names. The undesirable 
inexactness and repetition in such a list are too 
evident to require comment, while its only system 
appears to be the alphabetical one. The actual 
working of the Treaty is hindered by such inex- 
actness, for if, in a given region, the popular name 
of a bird, which it is intended to protect, is not 
one of those included in the above list, the people 
of that region will have difficulty in understanding 
that the Treaty applies to that bird, and the local 
judicial authorities may even rule that it is not 
protected there. "Wild geese" are protected in 
Quebec by the provincial law, but Canada Geese 
are commonly known in that province as "Out- 
ardes," and the provincial authorities have decided 
that they are not protected in Quebec by the law 
protecting "wild geese," and that they will not be 
protected by that law until the term "Outardes" is 
added to the names of the birds so protected. It 
seems evident that too great care cannot be ex- 
ercised in naming the birds to be granted protection 
by the Migratory Birds Convention, or any other 
similar document. 

There are many things in favor of naming such 
protected birds species by species, giving in each 
case the scientific name, followed by all the known 
popular names used in the area of protection. Such 
a system cf naming would give accuracy and easy 
popular recognition, which are both highly desir- 
able. It might result in quite a long list, but is 
there any objection to that? Failing such a system, 
should not all the birds protected by the Migra- 
tory Birds Convention be accurately and systemat- 
ically named by families, at least, as are the "migra- 
tory game birds?" It is to be hoped that the efforts 
of all these in Canada and the United States to 
whom birds are of value will be joined together to 
secure the amendments necessary to enable the 
convention to perform to the best advantage all the 
work which it ought to perform. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 




By Clyde L. Patch, Ottawa, Ont. 

Point Pelee, Essex County, Ont. the most 
southern point in Canada is about six miles wide 
at the base and, pointing southward, extends nine 
miles out into Lake Erie, ending in a sand bar. 
A shore line map of the point somewhat resembles 
an outline drawing of a funnel. 

The human population is comprised of about a 
dozen families, fifty per cent of whom devote their 
time to agricultural pursuits, while the other half 
gain a livelihood by commercial fishing. This 
locality might prove of archaeological interest, as 
Indian skeletons and pottery are from time to 
time uncovered by the ploM- or the sand-shifting 

Point Pelee's point and west shore are wooded, 
while the east shore is for miles a low-sloping 
sandy beach a hundred or more feet in width, 
crowned by a fringe of willows which separates it 
from several square miles of marsh. The east 
beach is an ideal resting ground for the Piping 
Plover, and a most inviting point of stop-over for 
migrating waders. The marsh, with its several 
open ponds, is a feeding ground for migrant water- 
fowl and on or near it many resident species nest 
Black Duck, Teal, Florida Gallinule, Least 
Bittern, Black Tern, Long-billed Marsh Wren, etc. 
The waters of the marsh are inhabited by various 
species of fishes of which the Dogfish (Amia) is 
probably the most plentiful. An interesting sight 
is a swarm of black, young Dogfish in a spherical 
mass formation two feet in diameter, and beneath 
the parent lurking like a bull-dog on guard. 

Owing to the geographical situation of Point 
Pelee, many plant and animal forms found no- 
where else, or only sparingly, in other parts of 
Canada here thrive in profusion. A floral list 
would include such southern tree forms as the 
Chestnut, Tulip, Walnut, Paw paw, and the Mul- 
berry, which grows to a height of twenty-five feet 
and bears delicious thimbleberry-like fruit. Among 
the lower growing forms can be listed the Spice- 
bush, the Wafer Ash and the Prickley Pear 
Cactus, which grows in beds sometimes ten feet 
in diameter and bears beautiful lemon-yellow 
flowers each of which lasts only for a day. 

The fauna of Point Pelee equals the flora in 
interest, for here the Cardinal nests, and the Yel- 
low-breasted Chat and the Mocking Bird are found, 

Published by permission of tlie Geological 
Survey of Canada. 


d the Turkey Buzzard, scavenger of the south 
lands is not infrequently seen soaring aloft. 

Among the Red Cedars which cover about fifty 
per cent of the wooded land, the Damon Butterfly 
is sought by entomologists, and in the open places 
the Ajax Butterfly has been taken. 

Baird's Mouse is common under the drift-wood 
on the beaches and until recently the Cotton-tail 
Rabbit was conspicuous on the evening landscape. 

With life so rich and varied one might expect 
to find the class Reptilia well represented, and so 

it IS. 

In 1913, the writer spent the three summer 
months on Point Pelee as a member of a Biological 
field party from the Victoria Memorial Museum. 
During this period fifty-nine reptiles representing 
eight species were collected. The following list 
includes in addition three species not collected at 
this time: 

1. Blue-tailed skink, Plestiodon fasciatus. 
Common under the drift-wood on the beaches, 

where it deposits its eggs in the rotting wood. 
Among the nine specimens taken the old adult 
color phase (olive-brown body with coppery-red 
head) is represented by only one individual. The 
largest specimen measures six and seven-eighths 
inches in length. 

2. HoG-NOSED SNAKE, Heterodort conioTtrix. 
Common on the sandy-soiled, sparsely timbered 

areas. Among the six specimens taken, color phases 
varying from yellow with dark brown markings to 
almost black are represented. The largest in- 
dividual measures thirty-two inches. 

3. Bu^CK RACER SNAKE, Coluber c. constrictor. 
This species is represented in the Museum 

herpetological collection by a skin taken on Point 
Pelee, in 1906, by Mr. P. A. Taverner. Judging 
by the skin, the specimen from which it was taken 
was about six feet in length. 

4. Fox SNAKE, Elaphe vulpina. 

Common on the beaches, where the eggs are de- 
posited under the dead wood. Apparently several 
individuals sometimes place their eggs in the same 
site, as on one occasion three specimens and half a 
bushel of eggs were found under a section of log. 
On emission the eggs are coated with an adhesive 
fluid which causes them to adhere and form masses. 
The largest individual taken measures four feet 
nine inches. 

5. Garter snake, Thamnophis s. sirtalis. 

Of the serpents on Point Pelee this is the most 

September. 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


abundant species. It here shows a tendency to 
produce melanistic individuals. Three adult melano 
specimens were collected and a female which was 
transported to the museum gave birth to two black 
individuals in a litter of thirty-eight. With the 
exception of white lower jaws and throats the adult 
melanoes are coal black and might pass for Pilot 
Snakes (Elaphe o. ohsoleta) or for Black Racer 
Snakes (Coluber c. constrictor) were it not for the 
divided anal plate of the former and the smooth 
scales of the latter species neither of which features 
are characteristic of T. sirtalis. The young in- 
dividuals are black over all. The largest melano 
and normal specimens measure thirty and thirty-nine 
inches respectively. 
6. Rattlesnake, Crotalus horridus. 

The only example of Irhis species in the Museum 
collection was taken near the end of Point Pelee 
on Sept. 29, 1918, by Capt. G. Wilkinson of the 
life saving station. In spite of the fact that for 
the past fourteen years the "Point," owing to its 
Carolinian fauna and to its being on one of the 
chief bird migration routes, has been the favorite 
observation and collecting ground of several of the 
Dominion's keenest naturalists, this is the only 
Rattler recorded in recent years. 

The capture of a young individual might indicate 
that there were other members of the species there 

present, but as this specimen is an adult measuring 
fifty-six inches in length and six and one-fourth 
inches in girth, the probabilities are that the Rattlers 
at Point Pelee, like those of many other localities 
in southern Ontario, have been exterminated. 

7. Mush turtle, Kinosternon odoratum. 
Two individuals of this species were discovered 

by members of our party who stepped on them 
while wading in the marsh. The carapace of the 
larger specimen measures four and one-half inches 
in straight length. 

8. Snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina. 
Several examples of this species were observed 

but owing to the small size of our containers no 
specimens were preserved. 

9. Spotted turtle, Clemm})s guttata. . 

The carapace of the largest of the six specimens 
collected measures four and three-fourths inches in 
straight length. 

10. Blanding's turtle, Em\)s blandingU. 
Two small individuals of this species were col- 

1 1 . Painted turtle, C/jri;scmi;5 m. marginata. 
This species and C. guttata are about equally re- 
presented in the marshes. 

As the foregoing is probably not a complete list 
of the Reptilia of Point Pelee, additional records 
would be of interest. 


Canada How an Algonquin Country Re- 
ceived AN Iroquois Name. In the edition 
of Champlain's Voyages, 1604-1618, reproduced by 
the American Historical Society, the editor in a 
foot-note writes of Hochelaga: "This place was 
probably inhabited by Iroquois." A similar as- 
sumption is made by a writer in the last Ontario 
Archaeological Report. In neither case is there 
evidence of any kind cited to support this conten- 
tion and the idea seems to be merely deduced from 
the fact that when Cartier visited Hochelaga in 
1535, he found there a flourishing settlement, while 
when Prevert, one of Champlain's lieutenants, 
reached the same locality in 1603, no trace of village 
or settlement remained. 

Recently, however, I came across some evidence 
which seems to give this contention a more solid 

I have in my possession a copy of Zeisberger's 
Indian Dictionary. It is a presentation copy given 
to the date Mr. Lindsay Russell, by Prof. E. N. 
Horsford, of Harvard, at whose expense and under 
whose supervision the work was printed in Boston 
in 1887. The information contained in this book 

is taken from the manuscript of David Zeisberger, 
a Moravian missionary who worked amongst the 
Indians for sixty-eight years from 1740 to 1808. 
The manuscript is now in Harvard College. 

This work is printed in four parallel columns, 
English, German, Onondaga and Delaware, the lat- 
ter two representing the Iroquois and Algonquin 
linguistic stocks respectively. 

On page 103 I find English and Onondaga as 
follows, viz: 

English Onondaga 

To inhabit Tienageri 

Inhabitants in Canada Tiochtiage hotinageri 

and on page 185 

English Onondaga 

At the fork of two streams Tiochuhogu 

Now as Hochelaga was situated at the con- 
fluence of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers, 
and as "In Canada" doubtless meant to the 
Iroquois of that day "In the country north of the 
St. Lawrence," to one knowing the different forms 
which an Indian word may take, owing to the 
language never having been a written one, it 
seems a fair inference that Hochelaga and Tioch- 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXill 

tiage were in intent the same word, and probably 
derived from Tiochuhogu. 

The word Tiochtiage may have been to some 
extent local in its use, but it was evidently current 
with the Eastern Iroquois amongst whom Zeisberger 
labored, and they it was who occupied Hochelaga 
if any of the Iroquois did. 

If we accept the foregoing as evidence that the 
people of Hochelaga were Iroquois, we can readily 
understand how Cartier obtained the name Can- 
ada there it being an Iroquois word meaning "a 
settlement or village" and so gave an Iroquois 
name to a country almost all of whose natives were 

Furthermore, this does away with the assumption 
that the Iroquois were at any time to any extent 
settled along the lower St. Lawrence river or the 
Gulf, a state of affairs that is highly improbable 
owing to the lack of their place names in that 

Champlain evidently took the name Canada from 
the tradition and history of Cartier's voyage, for 
on his map dated 1613, while he names the coun- 
try as a whole "New France," he marks its most 
easterly section "Canadas," and in his journal he 
names the inhabitants of that section the Canadian 
Indians, although they, being probably Abenakis 
and so of Algonquin stock, would not know what 
the name meant. Armon Burwash. 

An Ontario Bird Sanctuary. It is regret- 
table that the penetration of our wild lands by the 
settler and their development for agricultural pur- 
poses should involve the destruction of the haunts 
and breeding places of the creatures that contri- 
bute most to the beauty and charm of the 
countryside, and are the most assiduous protectors 
of the crops which are the primary cause of their 
disturbance. And yet it is one of the facts which 
bird lovers have to face. What can we do to 
counteract this unavoidable result of the extension 
of our country's most important industry? How 
can we help to check this retreat; how can we 
help to retain in our settled lands some of those 
sights that greet us under conditions so feelingly 
described by Duncan Campbell Scott: 

"When you steal upon a land that man has not 
sullied by his intrusion. 
When the aboriginal shy dwellers in the broad 

Are asleep in their innumerable dens and night 

Amid the dry ferns, with tender nests 
Pressed into shape by the breasts of the mother 
An answer to these questions is given by Miss 
Edith L. Marsh in a welcome little book, "Birds 
of Peasemarsh."* 

*Birds^of Peasemarsh. By E. L. Marsh. Musson 
Book Co., Toronto. 

Of the several means by which we may check 
the disappearance of so many of our native birds 
m settled districts the creation of bird sanctuaries 
constitutes one of the most effectual. Such sanc- 
tuaries have been established by governments and 
organizations, but in Canada the maintenance of 
private bird sanctuaries has not as yet made very 
great progress. For this reason Miss Marsh's de- 
scription of her work and the many species of 
birds that are taking advantage of her efforts on 
their behalf forms a most valuable contribution to 
our Canadian literature for the promotion of wild 
life conservation. 

It is written in a most readable and popular style 
and the educational value of the book makes it 
especially welcome. It should be in the hands of 
all who wish to keep the birds around them, and 
who does not? 

Where the Indian river Hows into the Georgian 
Bay beneath the beautiful Blue Mountain there is 
a tract of land which from the earliest days has 
been a favorite haunt of many species of land and 
water birds. Fortunately, it is in the hands of 
those who are striving to retain as many as pos- 
sible of the former feathered creatures of its up- 
land, woods and marsh. 

In order to secure as much protection as pos- 
sible under the provincial laws the Ontario Govern- 
ment has been prevailed upon to create Peasemarsh 
Farm a bird sanctuary under the Ontario Game 
Act. In Ontario, therefore, we have two such 
private sanctuaries: the Miner sanctuary in Essex 
county and the Peasemarsh sanctuary in Grey 

But the mere creation by law of a sanctuary 
does not ensure the attainment of its objects. The 
protection of birds involves not only the provision 
of natural and artificial haunts, feeding and nesting 
places, but also the suppression of predatory 
enemies, whether they be the possessor of a .22 
rifle or the four-footed or winged enemy. These 
needs and the methods of meeting them are de- 

We hope that Miss Marsh's book will be widely 
read and her example followed not only in Ontario 
but in all other provinces. Nothing would con- 
tribute more to the conservation of our native bird 
life than the establishment of similar sanctuaries 
throughout Canada. The Dominion and Pro- 
vincial Governments are making excellent progress 
in the establishment of wild life reserves, but in- 
calculable good would result from the creation by 
private individuals of sanctuaries similar to Pease- 
marsh. Bird lovers owe much to Miss Marsh for 
her praiseworthy effort, which has our best wishes 
for success. 

C. Gordon Hewitt. 





OCTOBER, 1919. 

No. 4. 




The important bearing of palaeontology on 
zoology has long been recognized by zoologists, but 
it IS not so generally known that archaeology also 
can give valurole aid to zoology. To the arch- 
aeologist, however, the saving of the bones and 
shells of animals found in the course of his ex 
plorations of the graves, mounds, shell-heaps and 
village sites of prehistoric man, is important prin- 
cipally because it is by means of them that he 
learns something of the kinds of animals used for 
food, and what animal bones were used as material 
for artifacts, by prehistoric people. For a long 
time some archaeologists did not seem to see any 
further use for such findings, but all now realize 
how important it is for them to collect all bones 
of animals, not only for their own purposes, but for 
the zoologist's also. So much of the earlier arch- 
aeological exploration, too, was conducted in a 
prefunctory manner with a view more to secure 
rarities than anything else. To the mere relic 
seeker, especially, animal bones are useless rub- 
bish, and it is surprising that even those from whom 
better work could have been expected seldom col- 
lected these bones unless they showed evidence of 

In nearly every prehistoric site explored by the 
archaeologist animal bones and shells are more or 
less numerous, but they are found less frequently 
in graves and mounds. The Roebuck prehistoric 
village site, near Prescott, Ontario, explored by the 
writer for the Geological Survey, Canada, in 1912 
and 1915, yielded a large number of shells of fresh- 
water clams and animal bones, of which about six 
barrels were collected. From the Baum village 
site, in Ross county, Ohio, twenty barrels full of 
bones were sent to the museum of the Ohio Arch- 
teological and Historical Society in Columbus. One 
can get an idea from this of the large accumula- 
tions of shells and bones sometimes found. 

*Besicle.s whose help i.s acknowiedged in 
the text, grateful acknowledgments are here ten- 
dered to all others who kindly supplied me with 

The bones of nearly all the larger animals used 
as food are found. The presence of the smaller 
birds and such animals as mice, shrews, moles, and 
bats, which were probably not used as food at all, 
IS most often not due to human agency, especially 
when the entire skeletons are present. Mere ab- 
sence of the bones of a certain animal from shell or 
refuse heaps, however, does not necessarily mean 
that its flesh was excluded from the aboriginal 
menu. Its bones may have been so small as to 
disappear, or they may have been gnawed to pieces 
by the aboriginal dog. Some taboo prohibiting the 
eating of the flesh of certain species may account 
for the absence of the bones of other animals. 

Some of the bones may owe their preservation 
to the fact that they were buried in refuse heaps 
composed mainly of wood ashes. Another factor 
which probably accounts for the excellent preserva- 
tion of some is that most of them had been boiled 
with the meat on them, thus possibly eliminating 
nearly all the animal matter which might cause 
decay. A few owe their preservation to partial 
carbonization. The shells of fresh-water clams 
found in the refuse in some places are invariably 
fresh looking with the epidermis intact and the in- 
side surface still retaining its pearly lustre. 

One has to contend with several difficulties in 
determining the species of animals to which many 
of these bones belonged. Many of them have 
been reduced to indeterminate fragments, possibly 
in order to extract the marrow and also to make 
them of a size small enough to go into cooking 
pots. Others have been fashioned into various im- 
plements and ornaments; although as in the case 
of awls, enough of the original shape of the bone 
sometimes remains to enable one to identify the 
species of animal to which it belonged. 

As to the probable age of the sites where these 
bones are found, it will perhaps be unnecessary to 
say that where no relics of the white man occur, 
they may be all the way from three hundred to five 
hundred and perhaps more years old. Algonkian 
sites in Ontario, and probably in central New York 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


also, may antedate the Iroquoian occupation by 
hundreds of years, but these do not yield many 
animal remains. 

By identifying the animal bones collected by 
the archaeologist the zoologist can determine the 
former presence of (1) animals now extinct, of 
which we have no historical record; (2) animals 
which are known to have become extinct or to have 
been exterminated since the arrival of Europeans 
on this continent; (3) animals not now living in the 
vicinity of the prehistoric site, but found in other 
and more distant parts of the country; and (4) 
animals still living in the area covered by the 
archaeological explorations. It is also possible lor 
him to greatly extend the range of some species 
thus filling in gaps in distribution. 

As practically all the bones owe their presence 
in archaeological sites to the fact tnat they are 
those of food animals it would probably be possible 
to get an approximate idea of the relative abundance 
of any of these animals in a certain region. The 
bones of those most relished for food would natur- 
ally preponderate and there would be a preponder- 
ance of the herbivores as compared with carnivores. 
Given a sufficient number of specimens it is 
possible for the zoologist to learn whether there is 
any difference in the size of the bones or shells of 
recent and prehistoric animals of the same species. 
For example, there is a difference in size between 
recent oyster shells and those from shell-heaps. 
Oyster shells found by Mr. Harlan I Smith in a 
shell-heap on Merigomish harbor. Nova Scotia, are 
much larger than those of oysters now living in the 
vicinity. Those from the heaps of Damariscotta, 
Maine, likewise are much larger than recent shells, 
being from eight to ten and some even fourteen 
inches long. Then, too. Dr. Edward S. Morse has 
found that shells of Mpa from prehistoric shell- 
heaps of the coast of Maine and Massachusetts 
were higher in comparison with their length than 
recent specimens collected in the immediate vicin- 
ity of the same heaps. He also observed a change 
in the shell of the common beach cockle (Lunatia). 
The ancient shell-heap form from Marblehead, 
Mass., "has a much more elevated spire than the 
recent form living on the shore today, and this 
variation curiously enough was in accordance with 
what he had observed in a species of Nalica in the 
Japanese shell-heaps."' 

There is a possibility, too, that the zoologist might 
discover among archaeological finds some bones ex- 
hibiting unknown pathological conditions of interest 

to the student of animal pathology. It is of in- 
terest to note here that the shells cf Unio com- 
planatus Solander, one of our common fresh-water 
clams, found in the refuse of the Roebuck village 
site, seemed to be affected by the same species of 
parasitic fresh-water sponge (probably Vioa), caus- 
ing exfoliation of the sides and umbonic region, as 
are those of the present day. 

The mention of a few examples will suffice to 
show that some other discoveries made by arch- 
aeologists are of considerable zoological interest. 
One of the most recent was made by the late Dr. 
H. Haeberlin, of Columbia University, New York, 
in a cave in Porto Rico.- The bones were those 
of a large extinct species of rodent belonging to a 
new genus and species, allied to Plagiodontia. 
To this rodent Dr. J. A. Allen has given the name 
holobodon portoricensis.' 

In shell-heaps in Maine were discovered many 
bones of an extinct species of large and heavily 
built mink (Lutreola macrodon Prentiss), which 
"may have lived to historic times." Fifty-three 
finds of this mink were made in one shell-heap 
alone, one-fifth of all the animal bones found."* 

Dr. Henry C. Mercer in his explorations of the 
Durham cave in Bucks county, Pennsylvania, 
found two vertebrae and a fragment of the lower 
jaw of an extinct species of peccary (Mylohyus 
pcnmylvanicus). The modern peccaries are not 
known to have ranged any farther north than the 
Red river. ' 

As examples of discoveries which have extended 
the range of certain species, I might mention the 
following: In a mound in Lee county, Virginia, 
were found the bones of the caribou, which, on 
the authority of Dr. J. A. Allen, "is farther south 
than bones of the caribou have hitherto been 
found."'' In a shell-heap in Maine, Dr. Wyman 
found the bones of the elk or wapiti. This animal 

iClianges in Mya and Lunatia since tlie De- 
position of tlie New England Sliell-lieaps, Proc 
Am. Assoc. Adv. Science, 30tli meeting, Cincinnati 
(Salem, 1882), p. 345. 

JSome Archaeological Work in Porto Rico, Am- 
erican Anthropologist, N.S., 1917, Vol. 19, pp. 225-226. 

3An Kxtinct Octodont from the Island of Porto 
Rico, West Indies, Annals of the New York 
Academy of Sciences, Vol. XXVII, pp. 17-22. 

4L,oomis, F. B., and Young. D. B., On the Shell- 
heaps of Maine, The American .lournal of Science 
(New Haven, Conn.), 1912, Vol. XXXIV. pp. 27-28. 
See also F. B. Loomis, New Mink from the Shell- 
heaps of Maine, ibid., 1911, Vol. XXXI, pp. 227-229: 
I). W. Prentiss, Description of an Extinct Mink 
from the Shell-heaps of the Maine Coast, Proceed- 
ings of the U. S. National Museum (Washington. 
1903), Vol. XXVI, pp. 887-888. and an article by 
M. Hardv on The Extinct Mink from the Shell- 
heaps, Forest and Stream, 1903, Vol. LXI, p. 12.S, 
Hardy thinks the animal became extinct about 1860. 

'An exploration of Durham cave in 1893, Pub- 
lications of the University of Pennsylvania, Vol. 
VI, p. 175. 

tiCarr, Lucien, Report of the Exploration of a 
Mound in Lee county, Virginia, etc., Report of the 
Peabody Museum, Vol. II. 1876-78, p. 80. 

October, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


then (1868) was not known to exist east of the 
Alleghany mountains." 

The discovery of bison bones in a cave on the 
upper Tularosa river, New Mexico, has extended 
the southwestern range of this mammal over one 
hundred miles.^ 

One of the most recent discoveries is that of 
some deer bones in Nova Scotia. Mr. Smith found 
a distal phalanx and some teeth in shell-heaps on 
Merigomish harbor, and I found several astragali, 
distal'' and proximal phalanges, the distaL end of 
a humerus and teeth in a shell-heap on Mahone 
bay, about seventy-five miles west of Halifax. 
Nicholas Denys'" (circa 1653) does not mention 
the deer, and the first printed record of its appear- 
ance in Nova Scotia was in 1888. Even in New 
Brunswick it was not seen until 1818, only be- 
coming plentiful by 1847." 

Although they were plentiful in the days of early 
settlement, caribou seem to have been scarce around 
Mahone bay in prehistoric times, only a small piece 
of antler, doubtfully referred to this species, being 
found in the shell-heap there. Only a few in- 
dividuals, also, are represented among the animal 
remains from Merigomish harbor. 

Some archaeological discoveries may help to 
settle uncertain or disputed points in zoology. For 
instance, I found in the prehistoric shell-heap on 
Mahone bay, the shells of the land snail Helix 
horiensis Miiller,^- and Dr. G. F. Matthew found 
some in a shell-heap at Bocabec, New Brunswick.^^ 
They have also been found on an island in Pen- 
obscot bay, Maine, ^^ and on Martha's Vine- 
yard.'" This snail is considered to be "unques- 
tionably identical with the European species," and 
it was for a long time generally accepted by 
conchologists that it had been introduced from 
Europe. Morse, however, considered it "strange 

"Wyman, Dr. Jeffries, An Account of Some 
Kjoekkenmoeddings, or Shell-heaps, in Maine and 
Massachusetts, The American Naturalist, 1868, 
Vol. I, p. 572. 

sLyon, Marcus W., jr., Mammal Remains from 
Two Prehistoric Village Sites in Xew Mexico, Pro- 
ceedings of the L^. S. National Museum, 1907, Vol. 
XXXL pp. 647-648. 

oldentification confirmed by Dr. Gerrit S. Miller, 
of the L'.S. National Mu.seum. 

i"Description and Natural History of the Coasts 
of North America (Acadia), translated and edited 
by W. F. Ganong. Published bv the Champlain 
Society (Toronto, 1908). 

iiChamberlain, Montagu, Mammals of New 
Brunswick, Bulletin Natural History Society of 
New Brunswick (St. John, 1884), No. Ill, p. 39. 

i2ldentiflcation confirmed bv C. W. Johnson, 
Curator, Boston Society of Natural History. 

i3Discoveries at a Village of the Stone Age at 
Bocabec, N.B., Bulletin Nat. Hist. Soc, New Buns- 
wick, No. Ill, p. 24. 

i4Johnson, C. W., Helix hortensis from a Maine 
Shell-heap, The Nautilus, 1914-1915, Vol. XXVIII, 
p. 131. 

1 "..Johnson, C. W., The Distribution of Helix 
hortensis Muller, in North America, ibid., 1906, 
Vol. XX, p. 76. 

that, while in the old country it is found near the 
habitations of men, in this country it occurs only 
upon the most uninhabitable islands."^" The shells 
found in the Mahone bay shell-heap, while they 
still retain traces of the rarely occurring rufous 
revolving bands, bear the same appearance of age 
as the other shells composing the heap. There is 
a possibility that these snails worked their way down 
into the shell-heap recently, perhaps by way of the 
burrows of small mammals, but if this were really 
so we would expect them to be almost as fresh 
looking as recent shells. Besides, if these snails 
crawled into the heap recently, why did we not 
find other species also? Dr. Matthew found 
the shells of no less than six native species of snails 
at various levels in the heap at Bocabec, and Morse 
reported nine from a heap on an island on the 
coast of Maine. ^" It seems to me, therefore, just 
as probable that the snail shells from the Mahone 
bay shell-heap were deposited with the rest of the 
shells when the heap was formed as that they were 
intrusive. This and other testimony would tend to 
prove that the species was indigenous or else had 
found its way to America through other channels 
than commercial intercourse long before the arrival 
of Europeans on this continent. ^^ Possibly they 
came by way of the much discussed land-connec- 
tion between the old and the new world.^ 

The occurrence in a shell-heap on an island in 
Casco bay, Maine, "of the Httle snail Zua lubri- 
coides" Stimpson (now known as Cochlicopa 
lubrica Muller), is also, according to Morse, "in- 
consistent with the view that it is an introduced 
species. - 

It is still doubtful whether Litorina litoreci 
(Linn.), or "Periwinkle," is an indigenous species 
or one introduced from Europe. No shells have 
yet been found in any of the prehistoric shell-heaps 
of the Atlantic coast, but if some were found deep 
in one of these heaps it would certainly be indis- 
putable evidence that this species was here long 
before the advent of the white man. The possibil- 
ity of finding this shell again suggests the necessity 
for careful and thorough methods of archaeological 

i6The Land Snails of New England, The Am- 
erican Naturalist, 1868, Vol. I, p. 187. 

irWyman, op. cit., p. 566. Also Proceedings 
of the Boston Society of Natural History, 1866-1868, 
Vol. XI, pp. 301-302. The presence in the lowfr por- 
tion of this particular heap of so many species of 
snails which, as Morse notes, can only exist in 
hardwood growths, whereas the island at the time 
of the exploration of the shell-heap was covered 
with large spruce trees, would argue a consider- 
able antiquity for the shell-heap. 

issee Johnson, op. cit., pp. 73-80. See also Dr. 
W. H. Dall's Land and Fresh-water Mollusks 
(Harnman Alaska Expedition, New York, 1905), 
Vol. XIII, p. 20, for its occurrence in the glacial 
Pleistocene of Maine. 

i9See Scharff, R. F., Distribution and Origin 
of Life in America (New York, 1912), p 14 

20Wyman, op. cit., p. 566. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


exploration. It might be of interest to note, in this 
connection, that shells of Litorina irrorata Say, 
which species now ranges no farther north than the 
coast of Florida, were found in the refuse of a pre- 
historic rockshelter near New Haven, Connecticut.-^ 
Its place in Connecticut waters is now taken by 
Litorina litorea. 

While we are on the subject, I might mention a 
few other archaeological discoveries of interest to 
the conchologist. The Mahone bay shell-heap, 
besides shells of Mlja arenaria Linn., Pecten Magel- 
lanicus (Gamelin), Venus mercenaria Linn., Spisula 
solidissima (Dillwyn), Spisula pol})n\)ma (?) 
(Stimpson), Mytilus edulis Linn., Ensis directus 
(Conrad), Lunatia heros (Say), Purpura lapillus 
(Linn.), and Buccinum undaium Linn., also yield- 
ed two small shells of the oyster (Ostrea virginica 
Gmelin.) So far as I can learn very few oysters 
now occur in the bay. No oyster shells were 
found in the prehistoric shell-heap near French 
Village at the head of St. Margaret's bay.-- Only 
a single fragment was discovered in a shell-heap on 
Cole harbor, east of Halifax.-^ Dr. Matthew did 
not find any oyster shells in the heap at Bocabec,-* 
nor were they reported by Professor Baird from 
the heaps at Oak bay, St. Croix river.-"^^ Oysters 
seem very scarce on the Atlantic coast of Nova 
Scotia, and according to Whiteaves only a few are 
found at Jeddore Head, and in Country and Lips- 
combe harbors, east of Halifax. The same author- 
ity does not mention their occurrence anywhere on 
the Bay of Fundy.-*^ 

Our shell-heap evidence therefore is interesting 
as suggesting that the oyster also was scarce on the 
whole outer or Atlantic coast of the Maritime Pro- 
vinces in prehistoric times. Mr. Smith found many 
oyster shells in the heaps on Merigomish harbor, 
which accords well with the present more common 
occurrence of the species in Northumberland straits. 

On the coast of Maine there is a scarcity of 
oysters at the present day, but the prehistoric shell- 
heaps are almost entirely composed of oyster shells, 
some of the heaps, especially those on the Damaris- 
cotta river, reaching a depth of from six to twenty- 
five feet and covering many acres of ground. 

2iMacCurdy, G. G. : The Passing of a Connec- 
ticut Rocltslielter, The American Journal of Science, 
1914, Vol. XXXVIII, pp. 517-518. 

22jones, J. M., in Smithsonian Report, 1863, 
p. 371, and G[ossip], W., On the Occurrence of the 
Kjockkenmoedding on the Shores of Nova Scotia, 
Proceedings and Transactions of the Nova Scotian 
Institute of Natural Science for 1863-1866 (Halifax, 
1867), Vol. I. 

23G[ossip], op. cit., p. 98. 

240p. cit. 

25Baird, Spencer F., Notes on Certain Aborig- 
inal Shell Mounds of the Coast of New Brunswick 
and of New England, Proceedings of the U.S. Nat- 
ional Museum, 1881, Vol. IV, p. 293. 

26Catalogue of tlie ;Marine Vertebrata of 
Eastern Canada (Geological Survey, Canada), Ot- 
tawa, 1901, p. 115. 


One can get a fairly good knowledge of the 
fauna of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa valleys in 
prehistoric times from a study of the animal bones 
recovered from the Roebuck village ."ite. This is 
the largest collection of animal bones from a single 
site in any museum in Canada. The bones com- 
prise those of mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, and 
there also are shells of several species of land 
snails and fresh-water shell-fish. My information 
is as yet not complete enough to reconstruct the 
entire fauna, so I will attempt to show how the 
mammalian fauna alone could be reconstructed by 
means of archaeological and other evidences. 

The first column in the table below iodicaces the 
animals which are known to inhabit the country 
surrounding the Roebuck village site. The second 
column shows those whose former presence is 
vouched for by old residents.-' In the third column 
is indicated the species formerly and still living 
elsewhere in the Ottawa valley within from fifty 
to seventy-five miles of the site. The last column 
gives the species represented by bones found at the 
Roebuck village site. 

Names of Mammals 







O ni 




S^lvilagus ftoridanus (Allen) 


Varying hare. 

Lepus americanus Erxleben-* 


Canada porcupine, 

Erethizon dorsatum (Linn.) 



Jumping mouse, 

Zapus hudsonius (Zimmer- 




Red-backed mouse, 

Evoiom^s gapperi (Vigors) 




O 3 



271 am indebted to Mr. George A. Drummond, 
of Roebuck, Ont., and Mr. F. P. Smith, of Brock- 
ville, for lists of mammals found in the vicinity of 
the site. 

28it is interesting to note that neither Mr. 
Drummond nor Mr. Smith mentions the White or 
Southern Varying Hare. It has been known for 
some time that the common Cotton-tail rabbit is 
continually pushing its way farther to the north, 
gradually displacing the hare. The hare goes with 
the destruction of the coniferous forests and the 
Cotton-tail comes in with the second-growth. 
(See The Geographical Distribution of the Eastern 
Races of the Cotton-tail, etc., by Outram Bangs, 
in Proc. Boston Society of Natural History, 1895, 
Vol. XXVI, p. 413). 

October, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Names of Mammals 









s eS 

'/. -* 


Meadow mouse, 
MicTotus pennsylvanicus 



Ondatra zibcthica (Linn.)__ X 
White-footed mouse, 
PeTomyscus leucopus 

(Rafinesque) X 

Canadian beaver, 

Castor canadensis Kuhl X 


Marmota monax (Lmn.) X 


Tamias striatus (Linn.) X 

Black or gray squirrel, 
Sciurua carolinensis Gmelin_ X 
Red squirrel, I I 

Sciurus hudsonicus 

(Erxleben) X 

Flying squirrel. 

Glaucomas volans (Linn.)__ X 

Short-tailed shrew, 

Blarina brevicauda (Say). _ 

Brewer's mole, 

Parascalops brerveri 


Star-nosed mole, 

Coridylura cristate (Linn.)_ X 

Brown bat. 

Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois) X 

Say's bat, 

M^otis subulatus (Say) 

Silver-haired bat, 
Lasionycteris noctivagans 


Virginia deer, 
Odocoileus americanus 

(Erxleben) X 

Wapiti, | 

Cervus canadensis 

(Erxleben)'" X 






















X X 


29The incisor teeth of tiiis species, identified by 
Dr. R. M. Anderson, of the iJiological Division, 
Geological Survey, Canada, were recovered from 
the faeces of some animal, probably the aboriginal 

soRepresented by a few molar teeth, a polished 
perforated canine, and possibly by some phalanges. 
Antlers were plowed up about one mile west of the 
site some years ago. 









Names of Mammals 



. ^ 




n iS 

o c 


t > 


r- J- 


0/ cd 

^ cd 

O cd 

,~-t -*- 




^ o 

L > 


Alces americanus Jardine''_ 



Woodland caribou. 

Ran^ifer caribou (Gmelin)^- 




Procyon lotor (Linn.) 

dLACK bear. 

Ursus americanus Pallas 




Lutra canadensis (Schreber) 




Common skunk. 

Mephitis mephitis 

(Schreber) ' 




Culo luscus (Linn.) '^ 

Pine marten, 

Martes americana (Turton) 



Martes pennanti (Erxleben) 




Mustela vison Schreber 



New York weasel, 

Mustela noveboracensis 


Small brown weasel, 

Mustela cicognanii 




Red fox, 

Vulpes fulva (Desmarest)^_ 



Gray wolf. 

Canis lycaon Schreber 



Wild cat, 

Lynx ruffus (Gueldenstaedt) 


Canada lynx. 

Lynx canadensis Kerr 



siRepresented by a few molar teeth and possibly 
an astragalus and several phalanges. The wide 
antlers are said fo have been plowed up in the 
neighborhood of the site. Moose were killed by 
Gallinee and his party in Lake St. Francis, about 
sixty miles east of the site, in 1669. 

32Mr. Drummond was informed by an old hunter 
that when a boy his father would bring in deer 
with the horns standing "straight up from the 
top of the head." The description at once suggests 
caribou. A caribou killed at L'Orignal about 1859 
is the nearest record of its occurrence in the Ottawa 

ssAlthough the skunk was eaten by some In- 
dians and bones have been found on sites else- 
where, no bones were found at the Roebuck site. 

34The wolverine may have ranged as far south 
as the St. Lawrence valley, but no bones were 
found at the Roebuck site. Dr. W. Brodie found 
some bones in refuse heaps in York county, Ont., 
which he thought were possibly those of this 
animal. (See Annual Archaeological Report of the 
Provincial Museum. Toronto, for 1901, p. .51). 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Out of the thirty-eight species of mammals which 
possibly once constituted the mammalian fauna of 
the country in the neighborhood of the Roebuck 
site, we now know definitely that eighteen species 
were represented in prehistoric times. Six out of 
seven of the species and one doubtful species would 
be known only from archaeological or historical 

It will at once be apparent how important our 
archaeological evidence would be if we had no 
historical evidence of the existence of these mam- 
mals, and especially after the lapse of another fifty 
or a hundred years, when many, if not most of the 
species, still found in the neighborhood, will have 

I will now endeavor to show by means of certain 
examples how archaeological evidence can be util- 
ized to show the prehistoric distribution of certain 
species of animals. I have selected the wild turkey 
because it seems to have been one of the most im- 
portant food birds wherever it was abundant. In 
two Ohio sites, explored by Mr. W. C. Mills,'"' 
for example, turkey bones constituted as much as 
eighty per cent of all the bird bones found. Al- 
most everywhere, too, where the bird existed, the 
bones have been made into various implements and 
ornaments, the tarsometatarsus being the favorite 
bone for awls or bodkins. I have admitted such 
artifacts as evidence of its presence, although there 
is a slight danger here that when such artifacts are 
few in number they may have been brought from 

Of the original turkey, the Meleagris gallopavo 
of Linnaeus, there are now four recognized var- 
ieties, as follows: 

Meleagris gallopavo silvesiris Viellot. Wild Turkey. 
Range Eastern United States from Nebraska, 
Kansas, Western Oklahoma, and eastern Texas, 
east to central Pennslyvania; formerly north to 
South Dakota, southern Ontario and southern 

Meleagris gallopavo merriami Nelson. Merriam's 
Range. Transition and Upper Sonoran zones 
in the mountains of southern Colorado, New Mexico, 
Arizona, western Texas, northern Sonora, and 

Meleagris gallopavo osceola Scott. Florida Turkey. 
Range. Southern Florida. 

Meleagris gallopavo intermedia Sennett. Rio Grande 
Range. Middle northern Texas south to north- 
eastern Coahuila, Uuevo Leon and Tamaulipas.'" 
Third ed., Revised (New York, IMO), pp. 145-146. 

As may be seen from the map these varieties are 
found distributed over a considerable area in 
North America. 

In Canada its habitat was limited to the south- 
western part of Ontario, and it was fairly abundant 
in the days of pioneer settlement. Mr. C. W. 
Nash, Biologist of the Provincial Museum, Tor- 
onto, in a letter to the writer states that so far as 
he has been able to discover the range of the Wild 
Turkey "was confined to that part of the province 
south of a line drawn from the corner of Lambton 
county to Hamilton. It may have occasionally 
wandered a little north of that in some places, but 
not far. East of the county of Wentworth I have 
never heard of it." According to Macoun's Cata- 
logue of Canadian Birds, the late Dr. Brcdie said, 
"that many years ago (between 1840 and 1850), 
a well-known and reliable hunter saw a flock on 
the west side of Yonge street, in the township of 
Whitchurch, near Toronto, Ontario."'' Arch- 
aeological evidence, seemingly confirmatory of the 
prehistoric presence of the bird in this very town- 
ship, has been discovered by Dr. Brcdie, ''' so it is 
altogether probable that the turkeys seen by Dr. 
Brodie's hunter informant were not stragglers but 
permanent residents of that part of York county. 

It would be interesting to know just where and 
when the wild turkey first entered Canada, but, of 
course, this would necessarily be pure guess work. 
We know from archaeological evidence, however, 
that the bird was in Ontario and probably fairly 
abundant three, four, or perhaps even five centuries 
ago. Perhaps then, as when the bird was first 
seen by whites, adverse climatic conditions pre- 
vented the migration of the bird farther north and 
east. This is singular when we consider that the 
domesticated turkey, although mostly housed dur- 
ing part of our severe northern winters, seems to 
thrive far north of the limits reached by its wild 

In Wisconsin the wild turkey is known to have 
ranged as far north as Green bay, but in all this 
region its bones do not appear to have been found. 
Perhaps the bird hed spread there only a short 
time before the arrival of the whites. Carver (circa 
1766-1768) saw "great plenty" of them near Lake 

3.j"Explorations of tlie Gartner Mound and Vil- 
lage Site," (Reprint from the Ohio Archaeological 
and Historical Quarterly, Vol. XIII, No. 2); (Col- 
umbus, 1904), p. 32; and "Explorations of the Baum 
Village Site (Reprint, ibid., Vol. XV, No. 1), 1906, 
p. 31. 

30A. O. U. Checklist of North American Birds, 
;i7Macoun, John and .lames M., Catalogue of 
Canadian Birds (Department of Mines, Geological 
Survey Branch, Ottawa, 1909), p. 234. 

HSBrodie, Dr. William, Animal Remains Found 
on Indian Village Sites, Annual Archaeological Re- 
port, 1901 (Ontario), p. 48 

October, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Pepin, in Minnesota,^^ and if they were seen as early 
as this they may have been common enough even a 
century earlier. The bird was once fairly plentiful 
in South Dakota. The Mandans knew the turkey, 
but no archaeological remains of the bird have so 
far been found on prehistoric Mandan sites. 

Now, turning agam to the map, it will be ob- 
served that the farthest western archaeological oc- 
currence of what was probably M. g. silvestris is 
in southwestern Missouri,^" the farthest southern in 
middle Florida and the farthest northern, in cen- 
tral Ontario. The occurrences in New Mexico and 
Arizona are most probably those of semi-domes- 
ticated M. g. merriami ; at least the dessicated bodies 
with well preserved feathers, found in some ruins 
there, have been identified as Merriam's turkey. 
Our knowledge of the prehistoric range of the wild 
turkey, however, although slightly extended in one 
direction, is probably very incomplete. This is 
due to several reasons, one being that some regions 
may not have been inhabited by the turkey, the 
faunal areas occupied by Merriam's turkey and the 
Rio Grande turkey, for instance, being separated by 
a broad belt of desert country where the bird could 
not possibly exist. Then, again, other regions, in- 
habited by the turkey, were perhaps unsuitable for 
human inhabitants, and, in some areas, where there 
were human inhabitants, the bones of the birds for 
some reason may not have found their way to refuse 
heaps and mounds, or other archaeological remains. 
Another cause, and I think this is probably the 
principal one, is that in some regions archaeological 
work, if done at all, has not been done thoroughly; 
in short, it was not considered worth while to col- 
lect animal bones. In many instances also the 
identity of the bones, which may have been col- 
lected, has never been determined, and the com- 
plete results of the exploration are therefore not 

What interesting results could be obtained had 
we the necessary data! Notwithstanding the in- 
completeness of our map, it may yet be interesting 
to ornithologists as showing where the turkey did 
exist in prehistoric times. 

The very incompleteness of the map will, never- 
theless, serve to emphasize how important it is for 
all future archaeological work to be done in a 
thorough, systematic manner. 

Archaeological finds of bones of the Great Auk 

(Plauius impennis (Linn.)), whose range on the 
European side of the Atlantic was from Iceland to 
the Bay of Biscay and on the American side from 
Greenland to Virginia, have helped to extend our 
knowledge of the former range of this bird consider- 
ably. This was interestingly shown in a map by 
Lucas in 1889." Further evidence has been dis- 
covered since this map appeared and I take the 
liberty of presenting one here on a larger scede 
giving the location of these recent additions to our 
knowledge. The known summer and winter ranges 
are as indicated on the Lucas map, but to in- 
dicate the archaeological evidence I am using a 
symbol which stands out more distinctly than that 
used by him. 

In Europe the Great Auk was rarely met along 
the coasts of Norway and Sweden, but as is 
evidenced by the finding of its bones in shell-heaps, 
it frequented the fjords of Denmark in prehistoric 
times. Its remains have also been found in shell- 
heaps in the Orkneys, in Caithness, and on Oron- 
say island (Argyleshire), Scotland; in old sea 
caves in Durham, England, and in Donegal, An- 
trim, Waterford and Clare, Ireland. *- 

In America the remains of this bird have been 
found in shell-heaps along the North Atlantic coast. 
No evidence has been found of its presence in 
Nova Scotia, unless some bones found in the shell- 
heap at the head of St. Margaret's bay, and de- 
scribed as "evidently belonging to a bird much 
larger than the Great Northern Diver (Columbus 
glacialis)^ were those of the Auk. Baird found 
Great Auk bones in the shell-heaps of New Bruns- 
wick.^^ In Maine the bones occurred in sufficient 
numbers to justify the belief that the bird was 
formerly very common. It was represented among 
the animal remains found by Wyman in the shell- 
heaps at Mount Desert and Crouchs cove,^ ' and 
the shell-heaps explored by Baird, especially those 
on some islands in Casco bay.^'' More recently, 
Loomis and Young found its bones the most abun- 
dant of the bird remains in one of the shell-heaps 
on Flagg island, Maine.^' In Massachusetts its 
remains occurred in considerable numbers at Eagle 
Hill, in Ipswich.^"* Wyman found its bones in a 

a'.iTravels through the Interior Parts of North 
America, etc; Third edition, (London, 1781), p 56 

4(iC. N. Gould in his 'Prehistoric Mounds in 
Cowley county," (Kansas), speaks of finding the 
bones of a gallinaceous bird, which may have been 
those of the turkey. (Transactions of the Kansas 
Academy of Science, 1895-1896 (Topeka, 1898). Vol 
XV, p. 80). ^. " 

4iLucas, Frederick A.: Animals Recently Ex- 
tinct or Threatened with Extermination ,etc., Report 
of the U.S. National Museum, 1889, p. 639. 

isSharpe, R. B., A Hand-book of the Birds of 
Great Britain (London, 1897), Vol IV, pp. 112-113; 
Saunders, H., An Illustrated Manual of British 
Birds (London, 1899), p. 698: and Hartert, B., Jour- 
dain, F. C. R., Ticehurst, N. F., and Witherby. H. 
F., A Hand-list of British Birds, etc. (London, 
1912), p. 206. 

43jones, J. M., in Smithsonian Report for 1863, 
p. 371. 

440p. cit., p. 297. 

4-jWyman, o]). cit., p. 574. 

40Op. cit., p. 296. 

470p. cit., p. 29. 

48Baird, op. cit., p. 297. 

October, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


shell-heap on Cape Cod,^" and, according to Put- 
nam, bones were also taken from the shell-heaps 
of Marblehead and Plumb island. " 

Shell-heaps on Block island, off the coast of 
Rhode Island, likewise yielded evidence of its 
presence. ' 

The most interesting discovery yet recorded, 
however, is that of two left humeri of this bird in 
a shell-heap at Ormond, Florida, in 1902, by W. 
S. Blatchley and C. H. Hitchcock, which indicates 
that this bird must have gone farther south than has 
been generally supposed, but it is very doubtful 
whether it was a permanent resident of Florida. - 

ground that the bones are probably those of birds 
taken during their migration southward.'' Miss 
Hardy, on the other hand, maintains that the bones 
are those of summer residents and not migrants,"^ 
because she thinks she "can show the best of 
reasons for believing that nineteen-twentiethg of all 
the clams and oysters represented by one shell-heap 
were taken and shelled during the summer months." 
Dr. Eaton, however, speaking of the Block Island 
shell-heaps, says, "there is no reason for supposing 
that they were deposited during the summer only, 
or even principally. On the contrary, the remains 
of many birds which visit our coast in the autumn 

Summer Hi>itat of G/'2-t/^aK. Winter RewT^e . Archzeolo^ic^l Elvidence. 

The discovery of the bones of the Great Auk 
in shell-heaps has given rise to the question whether 
or not the bird was a summer resident of the New 
England coast. This has been discussed by 
Lucas, Miss Hardy and others. Lucas takes the 

4oSecond Annual Report of the Peabody 
Museum (Boston, 1869), p. 17. 

.".fiThe American Naturalist (Salem, Mass., 1870), 
Vol. Ill, p. 540; Note. 

oiEaton, George F. : The Prehistoric Fauna of 
Block Island, as Indicated by its Ancient Shell- 
Heqps, The American Journal of Science (New 
Haven, Conn., 1898), Vol. VI, pp. 143 and 147-148. 

nsHay, Dr. O. P.: On the Finding of the Bones 
of the Great Auk (Plautus impennis) in Florida, The 
Auk, 1902, Vol. XIX, pp. 255-258. 

and early spring rather indicate a permanent resi- 
dence of the Indians there. Furthermore, the fact 
that all the auk bones found belonged to mature 
skeletons is opposed to the theory that these birds 
bred on the island."'"' Forbush, considering the 
archaeological and historical evidence, seems in the 
main to agree with Miss Hardy's conclusion and 
thinks "we have the best of evidence that the Great 
Auk was found in summer at the head of Buzzard 

-.sGreat Auk Notes, The Auk, 1888, Vol. V, 
p. 232. 

^iHardy, Fanny P., Testimony of Some Early 
Voyagers on the Great Auk, ibid., p. 384. 

."..-.Op. cit., p. 148. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Bay and the junction of the Cape Cod peninsula 
with the mainland.""''^ 

In these days when much stress is quite naturally 
laid on the economic value of scientific work, it is 
pleasing to know that archaeology, aside from what 
many may consider its purely academic interest, is 
also, as I think I have succeeded in demonstrating 
above, of indirect value from an economic stand- 

ocForbush, E. W.. A History of the Game Birds, 
Wild Fowl and Shore Birds of Massacliusetts and 
Adjacent States. (Issued by the State Board of 
Agriculture, 1912), p. 406. 

point. There is, of course, a reciprocal dependence 
of one science on another archaeology depending 
on zoology for the determination of animal remains 
and zoology on archaeology for useful osteological 

One of the main points to be remembered is that 
archaeology in order to be truly scientific and most 
useful to other sciences, should be conducted in a 
thorough manner by trained, or at least competent, 
investigators and not by mere collectors of curios 
or other irresponsible parties, who destroy more use- 
ful material than they succeed in preserving. 


By Theo. Holm, Clinton, Maryland, U.S.A. 

For nearly thirty years the writer has enjoyed 
the great privilege of receiving botanical collections 
from the Canadian Government at Ottawa. These 
collections, mainly brought together by Professor 
John Macoun, and his son, Mr. James M. Macoun, 
represent an immense number of Phanerogams from 
the Pacific to the Atlantic slope and extending far 
north to the Arctic regions. Although extremely 
rich in species of all the natural families known 
from Canada, these collections, nevertheless, made 
it evident that one genus appeared to have inter- 
ested these gentlemen more particularly than most 
of the others. It so happened that the genus Carex 
has been, and is yet, the favorite one of the 
Macouns. Naturally the collectors laid special 
stress on the numerous species of this genus, and 
it is due to the great experience and skill of these 
gentlemen that their collections of Qarex have been 
more rich in species than similar collections brought 
together by botanists in general. 

As a matter of fact to collect Carices is a most 
difficult task, at least when the aim is to have the 
species represented at different stages, typically and 
less typically developed, and to show the enor- 
mous variation exhibited by many of the species. The 
object of the Macouns was not merely to collect 
specimens, but individuals in large series of de- 
velopmental stages. Many new and rare species 
were discovered, Carcx petricosa Dew., and C. 
Franklmii Boott, never collected since Drummond, 
were brought home last year by James M. Macoun 
in magnificent specimens. Last but not least, the 
geographical range has been extended year after 
year and it has been shown that the genus pos- 
sesses many species in Canada of extremely wide 
distribution, not a few being circumpolar, and many 
ascending from the lowlands to the alpine regions 

of the Rocky Mountains. And a point of special 
importance is that great care was taken to con- 
sider the variation of the species, which is com- 
mon to many of these, when inhabiting different 
localities at different altitudes, and associated with 
certain species. In this way a broader view has 
been gained, and the systematist has been guided 
to appreciate the power of the species to adapt 
itself to the environment, instead of increasing the 
already untold number of species supposed to be 
specifically new, but actually being mere forms or 
varieties. Many instances illustrating this fact 
might be mentioned, but we shall confine ourselves 
to a few. Carex speciabilis Dew., was never 
known before except as the typical plant, de- 
scribed by Dewey, but James M. Macoun gathered 
the species in Jasper Park, Alberta, at a number 
of stations, and proved the species to be one of 
special interest with respect to variation, influenced 
by the environment. Such very inconspicuous 
species as C. scirpoidea Wormskj., C. nigricans 
C. A. Mey., C. praiensis Drej., C. g^nocrates 
Wormskj., C. lejocarpa C. A. Mey., and a host of 
others are now known and understood better than > 
ever before through the painstaking studies in the /^^ 
field by John and James M. Macoun. Even the./j^Cf 
remote districts in Yukon, explored by John Macoun. / 
have proved rich in Carices, of species closely allied^JJ 1 1 
to each other of the same alliance as a number of^^ \ 
North European species, the rigida, aquatilis and'' {^^ 
acutina alliance, in Europe so excellently outlined \^2 
and described by Elias Fries, Laestad, Blytt and ^^ 

To the writer of these pages these collections 
have been of the same value and interest as to the 
Macouns, inasmuch as he for many years, has given 
special attention to the same genus in Europe and 

October, 1 91 9] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


the United States. However, our knowledge of the 
American element of the genus we owe almost ex- 
clusively to the Macouns, through their familiarity 
with the genus and correct determinations. The 
liberal gifts of well selected material in connection 
with, so to speak, a most indefatigable correspond- 
ence has enabled us to draw a concise comparison 
of the Old World and American representations of 

Most prevalent in the north, even beyond the 
Arctic Circle, and at high elevations in the moun- 
tainous districts, the genus has proved of special 
interest to the student of plant geography and of 
the migration of species during the glacial epoch, 
to be traced now through the circumpolar element, 
mingled with types of southern origm. And the 
vast distribution of the genus has resulted in the 
production of types utterly unlike each other, when 
comparing the supposed ancestral with those of 
more recent origin. The outlining of the genus 
in natural greges we owe to Elias Fries, Tucker- 
man and Salomon Drejer, who laid the foundation 
of demonstrating the natural affinities, instead of 
following the usual tendency to arrange the species 
in accordance wilh superficial characters in a mere 
analytical way. And, while all other Carico- 
graphers considered the "Indicac" distinct from 
"Vigneae" and "Carices genuinae" Drejer in his 
excellent work "S])mbolae Caricologicae" com- 
bined these, the "Indicae" with the two others ; 
thus the "Indicae" may be looked upon as repre- 
senting evolute types of greges of both Vigneae and 
Carices genuinae. Furthermore Drejer demonstrat- 
ed the probable affinities of the species within the 
greges, considering the monostachyous as "forniae 
hebeiatae" passing into the "centrales" the typical 
of the grex, and culminating in some more evolute 
with some deviating types, the so-called "descis- 
centes." By this logical arrangement the mono- 
stachyous species became transferred to various 
greges, instead of as formerly constituting one most 
unnatural section with no other feature in common 
than possessing a single spicate inflorescence, the 
i^\pistillate, or a spike, the staminate. 

^Z\ Now with respect to Canadian types of the genus, 
is interesting to see that of the 39 greges enumer- 
ed by the writer' only five are absent from Can- 
^^Ada; these greges are as follows: Psyllophorae 
S>/(Europe and Azores), Cbionanthae (Europe), 
^ Leucocephalae (Virginia), Echinochlaenae (Aus- 
tralia), and finally Podogynae (Japan). 

As regards the greges present the Microrh])nchae, 
Aeorasiach^ae, Echinosiach^ae and Ph^socarpae 

are the best represented, being rich in species and 
of very wide distribution. 

But of special interest are a number of types 
represented among the various greges, types of a 
very characteristic structure. These we will de- 
scribe briefly in the same order as the respective 
greges (I.e. p. 453). A tristigmatic Vignea, C. 
nardina Fr., by Boott named C. Hepburnii has been 
collected on mountain summits of Alberta and 
British Columbia. Some of the formae hebetatae 
of the Aslroslachyae ; C. gynocrates Wormskj. and 
C. ex;7is Dew., have been known as varying from 
monoecious to dioecious; of these the former con- 
fined to Greenland and this continent is undoubt- 
edly most commonly monoecious in the north, judg- 
ing from the specimens we have examined which 
were collected in Northern Labrador. British Col- 
umbia, Alaska and Greenland; in the last place we 
found this species probably at its most northern limit 
Skarvefjaeld on the island of Disco, about 69 N. 
lat. where it occurred only as monoecious. A still 
more evolute stage is represented by C. exilis, which 
in Canada occurs as monoecious or dioecious, mono 
or plio stachyous. A gynaecandrous- spike is 
frequently met with in this species, besides that the 
female plant may possess several lateral spikes, 
from one to six, at the base of the terminal. Among 
the centrales of this grex we find C. siellulata 
Good., C. interior Bail., C. sterilis Willd., widely 
distributed and clearly demonstrating a natural al- 
liance of true species, although of very close re- 
lationship. The very peculiar and rare C. sychno- 
cephala Carey of the grex Sychnocephalae is also 
a native of Canada, and only one Old World 
species is known of this grex, C. cyperoides L. ; 
they both are very much alike, showing exactly the 
same habit. Among the Xerochlaenae, C. macroce- 
phala Willd., with its dense and remarkably large 
inflorescence occurs on the coast and islands of 
Alaska, and this Carex is tristigmatic, although 
a typical member of Vignea. Very peculiar is the 
Canadian representative of C. teretiuscula Good ^ 
wi;h its large and frequently ramified inflorescence. 
Among the Athrostachyae, C. f estiva is represented 
by a multitude of forms, and is widely distributed 
in the mountains; a very interesting alliance is 
composed of C. pratensis Drej., C. pestasata Dew., 

iGreges Caricum (Studies in tlie Cyperaceae) 
American Journal of Science, Vol. XVI, 1903, p. 443. 

2The term gynaecandrous is applied to spikes 
with both sexes represented, the pistillate flowers 
being situated above the staminate; the opposite 
position occurs in androgynous spikes, where the 
staminate flowers are situated at the apex of the 
spike, the pistillate at the base. Formerly the term 
andrygynous \vas used to signify both cases. 

3ll is very unjust to accept the name C. diandra 
Schrank in place of Goodenough's C. teretiuscula, 
since Schrank's material upon which he established 
the species was mixed, containing also C. paradoxa 
Willd, and C. paniculata L. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


C. adusia Boott, and C. liddonii Boott, besides C. 
aenea Fernald, all of which have been collected 
in Canada, and at a number of remote stations. 
Even the monotypical grex Microccphalae with C. 
capitata L. occurs in Yukon and Alaska, extend- 
ing eastward to Alberta, Hudson Bay and Green- 

Among the Carices genuinae the Melananthae is 
one of the most interesting greges; the formae hebe- 
tatae with their sessile spikes, and the terminal being 
gynaecandrous resemble certam I'igneae (C. alpina 
Sw.), and a correspondmg distribution of the sexes 
occurs m several species of the centrales; C. atrata 
L. and its allies. In Canada C. alpina Sw.^ is 
known from the higher mountains; C. atrata L., the 
typical plant, has been collected at several stations 
by James M. Macoun, notably in the mountains of 
Alberta, Jasper Park, but a near ally of this, C. 
ovata Rudge (C. atratiformis Britton) is much 
more frequent especially on the Atlantic coast, 
nevertheless it is absent from Greenland, where it 
is replaced by the typical C. atrata. The very 
evolute type C. Meriensii Presc, in which the 
numerous spikes are gynaecandrous, is known from 
the western districts, British Columbia and Alaska. 
A very singular type of this grex is C. Parryana 
Dew.; it may occur as dioecious, with a single spike; 
which, however, seems constantly to be pistillate ; 
or the culm is terminated by a gynaecandrous sel- 
dom purely staminate or pistillate spike, while 
there may also be one to four lateral spikes which 
are purely pistillate. Carex Parryana was de- 
scribed from specimens collected by Dr. Richard- 
son at Hudson Bay, but has since been reported 
as abundant in the northern part of the prairie 
region, extending from Portage la Prairie to near 
the Athabasca river. From the mountains of Al- 
berta, Jasper Park, Jarnes M. Macoun brought 
home a splendid series of C. spectabilis Dew., 
illustrating the various forms under which it ap- 
pears, when inhabiting different altitudes, and sta- 
tions with environment of varied nature. These 
interesting forms together with the typical plant 
have, so far, only been observed in Washington, 
Mt. Paddo, where they were discovered by Mr. 
Wilhelm Suksdorf. A species of somewhat re- 
markable habit is C. microchaeta nob., which John 

^ *The name C. alpina Sw. has been replaced by 
C. Halleri Gunn., m Gray's New Manual of Botany, 

L'^^^'Tt, n'",'M ""'^^ Theilung have adopted this 
name (Bull, d'herb. Boissier, Vol. 7, 1907) How- 
ever Gunner did only -'pro tempore" propose this 
specie.s and without his name as author. After his 
death his herbarium was examined, and as stated 
by several Swedish authors, Gunner's material con- 
tained not only C. alpina, but also C. Norvegica 
thus the naine Halleri became invalidated. No other 
authors have, so far, called the species C. Halleri 
and surely the old masters knew they had some 
good reason for ignoring this name. 

Macoun collected in Yukon; in this species the 
culm is phyllopodic, otherwise the plant resembles 
somewhat C. Tolmiei Boolt, and C. spectabilis 
Dew., but is, however, of a much more robust 

Passing to the Microrh^nchae, Canada is very 
rich in species of this grex, and several of these 
are of abundant occurrence; Carex striata Lam., 
vulgaris Fr., acutina Bail., variabilis Bail., and 
lenticularis Michx., are perhaps the best known. 
Typical C. Vulgaris Fr., is known from Alaska, 
British Columbia and from the eastern provinces, 
but the variety lipocarpa, nob., is much more fre- 
quent, and readily to be distinguished by the narrow 
leaves and the early deciduous perigynia ; this var- 
iety abounds on Vancouver Island, in British Col- 
umbia and Yukon at various elevations. The var- 
iety stolonifera Hoppe has been collected in 
Labrador. Another and quite striking variety is 
limnopbila nob., which resembles C. rufina Drej., 
the culm being low, curved and the spikes con- 
tiguous with the terminal occasionally gynaecan- 
drous. It has been found on St. Paul Island, 
Bering Sea, and on a nunatak in Columbia glacier, 
Prince William's Sound; still another variety 
hydrophila nob., from Yukon is a very slender 
plant, with long stolons clothed with shining, pur- 
plish brown scale-like leaves, the spikes are ped- 
uncled, cylindric, dense-flowered and erect; finally 
the variety strictaej ormis Bail, occurs in Nova 
Scotia; it is of caespitose habit, quite tall and 
slender with the sessile spikes remote and sub- 
tended by short bracts. In other words C. vulgaris 
shows in Canada the same ability to vary as is the 
case with the European plant, but, in several re- 
spects it varies in a different way. For instance the 
long stipitate, strongly nerved perigynium is not 
represented in the European plant, nor is the peri- 
gynium early deciduous as is the case with our 
common variety lipocarpa. 

C. aquatilis Wahlenb., has been reported from a 
number of stations in Canada, and it is sometimes 
accompanied by some closely allied species, in 
Yukon by C. sphacelata nob., and C. chionopbila 
nob. ; in the Arctic regions it is replaced by C. 
starts Drej. While Carex rigida Good, is com- 
mon in the Arctic regions, it has also been reported 
from some of the higher mountains in British Col- 
umbia, and the variety Bigelovii (Torr.) Tuckm., 
is known from the Hudson Bay region. Two allies 
of C. rigida : C. consimilis nob., and C. e^clocarpa 
nob., are natives of Yukon; in the former the 
orbicular perigynium is sharply denticulate along the 
upper part of the margins, but the habit reminds 
one of C. hyperborea Drej. ; in C. c^clocarpa the 
perigynium is turgid of a dark brownish green color 

October, 1 91 9] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


with purplish spots above, and the caespitose habit 
reminds one of C. caespilosa L., but it lacks the 
aphyllopcdic structure of this species. 

Allied to C. acutina Bail, is C. Umnocharis nob. 
from Yukon ,a species with long, slender, pistillate 
spikes of reddish brown color, in habit much like 
the European C. prolixa Fr. Furthermore there 
are two very characteristic species bearing a strong 
resemblance to the European C. acuta L., C. Sitch- 
ensis Presc, known from Alaska, and C. Jives 
nob., from the Chilliwack Valley and Vanvcuver 
Island, British Columbia. And, if we compare the 
European representations of these alliances, I'he 
aquatilis, rigida and acuta, we meet with analogous 
types corresponding with those of this continent. 

The large grex Aeorastach])ae is also well ex- 
emplified in Canada, and several of the species are 
also well known from the northern parts of Europe, 
viz, Carex subspathacea Wormskj., C. salina 
Wahlenb., C. cr^ptocarpa C. A. Mey., C. mari- 
tima L., C. Magellanica Lam.' C. limosa L., 
C. rariflora Sm., and C. stygia Fr. Of these C. 
subspathacea, rariflora and st\)gia e.xtend to the 
Arctic regions. 

But especially characteristic of this continent are 
C. macrochaeta C. A. Mey., C. nesophila nob., C. 
aperta Boctt, C. criniia Lam., and C. magnifica 
Dew. A somewhat peculiar habit is exhibited by 
C. nesophila; the culm is phyllopcdic and the spikes 
resemble those of C. salina, while the structure of 
perigynium corresponds with that of C. macro- 
chaeta. This interestmg species was detected by 
James M. Macoun on St. Paul Island, Bering Sea, 
and since then it has also been collected on Popoff 
Island by Mr. Trevor Kincaid. 

Although exceedingly frequent on the Alaskan 

coast and the islands, C. macrochaeta shows but 

nWTth respect to C. Magellanica Lam., this 
species has been exclucied from the North American 
flora, and in the recently published, Gray's New 
Manual of Botany it has been replaced by C. 
paupercula Michx on the strength of the diagnosis 
of Lamarck calling for a species with androgynous 
spikes, as pointed out by M. L. Fernald (Khodora, 
Vol. 8, 1906, p. 73). And Mr. Fernald haying ex- 
amined 633 inflorescences and finding that in 600 of 
these the terminal spike was purely staminate, 
and only more or less androgynous in the remaining 
33, this author reaches the remarkable conclusion 
that the North American species is distinct from 
Lamarck's, wliich was collected on the shores of the 
Straits of Magellan. The fact is, however, that 
Lamarck (Encyclop. 3, p. 385. n. 25) described his 
species "spicis androgynis," meaning that all the 
spikes, the terminal as well as the lateral, had 
staminate flowers at the base thus beneath the 
pistillate flowers. In C. Magellanica the spikes are, 
thus, gynaecandrous, i.e., pistillate at the top, 
staminate at the base and exactly this disposition 
of the sexes occurs in the North American and 
European representations of C. Magellanica. The 
main point, that the lateral spikes are constantly 
gynaecandrous has escaped the attention of Mr. 
Fernald, although Boott, Schkuhr and nearly all 
other caricographers have described and figured the 
species correctly. The fact, that the terminal spike 
is frequently purely staminate is of no importance. 

slight variation. The terminal spike is usually 
wholly staminate, but we found, however, a few 
specimens from Unalaska in which this was either 
androgynous or gynaecandrous or even entirely 
pistillate. In the variety emarginata nob., the 
scales are prominently emarginate with a seta four 
times as long as the body of the scale. 

In another variety macrochlaena, nob., the plant 
IS very robust with four short and heavy pistillate 
spikes, the perigynium is very large and longer than 
the simply mucronate scale; it was collected on 
St. Paul Island, Bering Sea, by James M. 
Maccun. These varieties agree, however with the 
typical plant with respect to the culms being con- 
stantly aphyllopodic. 

Among the Cenchrocarpae we meet with the 
interesting little species C. bicolor All., reported 
from Alaska, Yukon and British Columbia, be- 
sides from Labrador; it occurs also in Greenland, 
and on the Alps in South Europe. Much more 
frequent is C. aurea Nutt, and among the descis- 
centes we meet with C. granularis Muhl., C. 
pallescens L. and the very local C. Torreyi, Tuckm. 

From a morphological viewpoint the Lejoch- 
laenae constitute one of the most interesting greges 
with their monopodial shoots and aphyllopodic 
culms. They are mostly sylvan types of light 
green color, and the more or less drooping spikes 
give them a very graceful aspect. Nearly all the 
American members are represented in Canada, and 
while C. Hendersonii Bail, is a western type the 
others are mainly eastern. We meet here with 
the laxiflora alliance, as well as with some 
desciscentes: C. grisea Wahlenb., C. oligocarpa 
Schk., C. conoidea Schk., and C. glaucodea 

The Dactylostachyae are much less common, and 
altogether poorly represented on this continent; 
Canada, however, is the home of the beautiful little 
species C. concinna R. Br., C. pedunculata Muehl. 
and C. Richardsonii, R. Br. 

Some few species of the small grex Microcarpae 
are represented in Canada, viz : C. gracillima 
Schw., and C. formosa Dew. Characteristic of the 
Athrochlaenae is the scales being deciduous of the 
perigynia being prominently stipitate and reflexed 
at maturity It is a very small grex containing only 
two species, C. pyrenaica Wahlenb., and C. 
nigricans C. A. Mey. Both are found in Canada 
and the geographical name of the former certainly 
proves very unfortunate, inasmuch as the species 
occurs also in New Zealand. A grex closely allied 
to the Athrochlaenae is that of the Stenocarpae 
so far as concerns the structure of the perigynium, 
being attenuated at both ends, relatively narrow, 
and the generally dark colored spikes. It is a grex 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


of very peculiar geographic distribution since two 
of the formae bebetalae : C. lejocarpa C. A. Mey., 
and C. circinata C. A. Mey., are known only from 
Alaska and Oregon, besides some few stations on 
the coast of British Columbia. The formae cen- 
trales on the other hand, are mostly natives of the 
European Alps and the Himalayas, some very few 
occurring in Canada, viz: C. petricosa Dew., and 
C. Franklinii Boott., furthermore C. Lemmonii 
Boott (C. ahlala Bail.) occurs at several stations 
in Canada, Washington, Montana and California. 
Among the formae desciscentes is the circumpolar 
C. misandra R. Br., which occurs in the Rocky 
Mountains of Colorado extending northward 
through the Canadian provinces. 

Nearly all the American members of the 
Sphaeridiophorae h ave been collected in Canada, 
and among the hebeiaiae C. scirpoidea Michx., 
with the variety stenochlaena nob., is quite extens- 
ively distributed. The Greenland C. deflexa 
Hornem., occurs in Canada, but is generally con- 
founded with C. Rossii Boott.; however, these two 
species are easily distinguished, since the culms of 
C. Rossii are aphyllopodic, those of C. deflexa, on 
the other hand, phyllopodic. 

The rather large and coarse species of the 
Trichocarpae are in Canada represented by C. 
riparia Curt., var lacusiris Willd., C. trichocarpa 
Muhl., with the var. aristaia (R. Br.) Bail., C. 
jiliform.s. L., C. lanuginosa Michx., and the very 
characteristic C. Houghlonii Torr. These species 
are, however, of a very ordinary structure, but 
readily distinguished by the perigynium being of a 
brownish or dark green color, more or less turgid, 
pubescent and attenuated into a bidentate beak with 
the sharp teeth spreading. 

Of greater interest is the grex Hymenochlaenae. 
Here we meet with some formae hebetatae: C. 
Sieudelii Kunth, C. Willdenorvii Schk., and C. 
Backii Boott, of which the Howerbearing culms 
are ramified in exactly the same manner as in the 
Indicae, the Vigneastra of Tuckerman.'' The more 
evolute types resemble, on the other hand, Carices 
genuinae in general, but they are mostly light green, 
with the spikes long-peduncled and drooping. The 
best known are, for instance, C. arctata Boott, C. 
dehihs Michx., C. longirostris Torr., C. flexilis 
Kudge, C. capillaris L., C. assiniboinensis W. 
Boott, and the singular, very conspicuous, C 
amphfoha Boott. The presence of these species in 
Canada thus illustrate the fact of the morphological 
structure of the flower bearing stem being identical 
with that of certain members of the highly developed 

uHolm, Thee, Studies in the Cvperaceae XIII 
Carex Willdenowil and its allies (Am. Jour of Sc 
Vol. X, July, 1900, p. 33). 

Indicae, as pointed out above, in C. IVilldenolvii 
for instance. In passing to the Spirosiach})ae, only 
a few are known from this continent, and some few 
of these from Canada, viz: C. Oederi. Retz., C. 
flava L., C. squarrosa L., and the very rare C. 
fulva Good., the last of which being less rare in 

As representing the most evolute of the greges 
we have the Echinostachyae, Physocarpae and 
Rhynchophorae. In these the perigynium is thin, 
membranaceous and inflated. In the Echinos- 
tachyae the pistillate spikes are peduncled, drooping 
and squarrose at maturity, the beak of the peri- 
gynium is quite distinct bidentate. 

Two small monostachyous species: C. microg- 
lochin Wahlenb., and C. pauciflora Lightf., repre- 
sent formae hebetatae, and both occur in Canada. 
Among the formae centrales we meet with the very 
slender C. subulata Michx., and the much more 
conspicuous C. pseudocyperus L., C. Schrveinitzii 
Dew., C. h^stricina Muehl, and C. rotrorsa 
Schweinnitz, all well known in Canada, with the 
exception of C. SchTveinitzii, which is very rare. 

Characteristic of the Physcocarpae is the peri- 
gynium having a very short, mostly emarginate 
beak, and the pistillate spikes not being squarrose, 
moreover the scale of the pistillate flower is lanceo- 
late, acuminate, but lacks the mucro or arista of 
the two other greges. It is an interesting grex, and 
widely distributed in Canada, but several of the 
species are, sometimes, difficult to identify, especially 
those with the dark colored perigynia, for instance: 
C. pulla Good., C. ph\)socarpa Presl., C. compacta 
R. Br., and C. rotundata Wahlenb. They are 
very graceful species with the shining, dark brown 
spikes frequently peduncled and drooping. Of a 
more robust habit and with the spikes of a lighter 
color are C. utriculata Boott., occurring in num- 
berless forms throughout Canada, furthermore C. 
vesicaria L., C. oligosperma Michx., and a few 

Finally the grex Rhynchophorae characterized 
by the large, erect or ascending perigynia, much in- 
flated, strongly nerved and terminated by a prom- 
inent, bidentate beak. The species are tall, and 
of the same habit as those of the two former greges 
and like these they are inhabitants of borders of 
{>onds, creeks and wet swamps. The grex begins 
with some formae hebetatae, C. Michauxiana 
Boecklr., and C. folliculata L., passing from these 
into C. intumescens Rudge, and C. Crapi Carey, 
of a similar but much more robust habit, while the 
more ordinary forms, such as C. lupulina Muehl., 
C. lurida Wahlenb., C. Tuclfermannii Boott, and 
C. monile Tuckm., may be considered as the most 

October, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


evolute of this grex. In Canada the grex is thus 
well represented, and only a very few American 
species are absent. 

Considered altogether the genus Carex in Canada 
is rich in types, some being confined to this con- 
tinent, others being known also from Eurasia. The 
arctic element Canada shares mostly with Europe, 
and as stated above several species are circumpolar, 
and it deserves attention that many of these Cana- 
dian Carices represent alliances analogous to those 
of the old world, exmplified by types of a corre- 
sponding habit and general aspect. 

So far as concerns the greges we have seen that 
Canada is the home of certain ancestral types, 
formae hebetatae, which are absent from Europe, 

in other words several of the greges are more amply 
represented here by possessing these types in con- 
nection with the centrales, and passing gradually 
into some more or less deviating: desciscenies. 

The presence in Canada of such characteristic 
species as those of the Lejochlaenae, mostly sylvan 
types of rare morphological structure, and of south- 
ern origin, indicates the enormously wide distri- 
bution of the genus on this continent, and its ability 
to adapt itself to the environment, far north and 
far south. And the alpine flora with its arctic 
species intermingled with endemic or more southern 
types is a tangible proof of the foundation of the 
theory relating to the history of the arctic fl 
during the glacial epoch. 


By H. F. J. Lambart, Ottawa. 

One specimen of the Alaska Boundary Grizzly, Canadian side of the boundary and inland from 

Ursus miernationalis Merriam,'^ a new bear of the Arctic Ocean 45 miles. 

the Barren Grizzly group, was secured in July, j^e immediate district may be described as be- 

I9I2, when engaged on the survey of the j^^ ^^j^^ ^^^ j^^ ^j ^j^^ g^j^j^j^ mountains, which 

141st meridian. This was the year in which the ii i .l i . j- . f u i -7;; i 

I parallel the coast at a distance or about Zj miles 

meridian was completed through to the shores of j i i,i j c ^r\nr\ f iL u j 

. ^ I . and reach an altitude or oUUU leet at the boundary; 

the Arctic Ocean. Not more than two other speci- .i , j i c j tU j l 

1 A '"^ mountains are deeply rurrowed, the ridges being 

mens were seen by the Canadian and American i j -.l ri , , 

^ bare and open with little vegetation. 

parties during the summer although signs of the 
bear were constantly met with. 

This one specimen was secured by mere chance. 
One of our camps was situated in a sheltered valley 
which later was found to be a favorite haunt as 
evidenced by the quantity of hair found in the gum 
of the small spruce against which he was accus- 
tomed to rub. This sheltered ravine was at the 

The burrows of the Arctic Ground Squirrel, 
Citellus parryi (Richardson), are sadly rooted out 
throughout the district casting suspicion on our 
friend the bear. 

The floor of the river valleys are, generally speak- 
ing, heavily brushed as also the sheltered sides of 
the valley, and small patches of the small Arctic 

head of a small stream in which there was a luxur- spruce in these localities are frequent, 

iant shrub growth, consisting of "buck brush" with I have definitely proved to my own satisfaction 

some small scattered spruce, and was hemmed in that the Brown and Grizzly bears prey upon the 

by rolling high barren ridges. The elevation of sheep (Ovis dalli) at the southern end of the boun- 

the floor of the valley was about 2,000 feet above dary where they are found in large numbers, but 

sea level and was situated just a little on the here at the northern end where the sheep are very 

*Alaska Boundary Grizzly. Ursus internation- 
allis Merrlam, Proe. Biol. Soc. Wa.shlngton, xxvii, 
pp. 177-178. August 13, 1914. 

Type locality Alaska Yukon Boundary, about 
50 miles south of Arctic coast (lat. 69 00' 30"). 

Type Specimen No. 1763 ad., Ottawa Museum. 
Killed July 3, 1912, by Frederick Lambart, of Cana- 
dian Boundary Survey. 

Range Region bordering Arctic coast along 
international boundary, and doubtless adjacent 
mountains, between the coast and the Yukon Por- 
cupine; limits unknown. 

Characters Size medium or rather large; af- 
finities doubtful. Color a peculiar pale yellowish 
brown. Head strongly arched; muzzle and frontal 
region broad. Large lower premolar strictly conical, 
without heel, as in the brown bears. 

Cranial characters Skull of medium size, mas- 
sive, strongly arched and dished, highest over 

anterior part of braincase; frontal shield broad, 
very short pointed posteriorly sulcate medially and 
swollen over orbits; postorbitals bluntly rounded, 
strongly decurved, not widely projecting; fronto- 
nasal region strongly dished; rostrum large and 
broad; sagittal crest long but feebly developed; 
zygomata subtriangular, not widely outstanding, 
and not much expanded vertically; palate and post- 
palatal shelf rather broad; notch moderate. Teeth 
rather small for size of skull; heel of last upper 
molar small and obliquely truncate on outer side; 
large lower premolar strictly of brown-bear type 
a single cone without heel, sulcus, or posterior 
cusplets; first lower molar broad and somewhat 
sinuous; middle lower inolar narrow and short 

Skull measurements. Adult male (type): Basal 
length, 309; occipito-nasal length, 293, palatal 
length, 169, zygomatic breadth, 203.5, interorbital 
breadth, 82. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIIl 

scarce, no signs cf their having been attacked or 
preyed upon were seen. 

Around the camp at the time there were a number 
of cayuses from the pack trains apparently entirely 
ignored, although one report came m of a case 
where one whole train was stampeded. 

The specimen referred to above was shot early 
in the morning in the brush of the southern slopes 
of the valley very near the camp, mistaken by one 

at the time and the skull cleaned. The pelt was 
naturally not in prime condition but, however, now 
forms a valuable specimen in the bear collection of 
the Victoria Memorial Museum at Ottawa. 

The color of the hair is a very light brown, 
darker on the back and shoulders. The head is 
very wide and the nose long. 

The large brown bear frequenting the margins 
of the glaciers on the southern end of the bound- 

,"4 "w^^^ ,i^.'. 

ALASKA BOUNDARY GRIZZLY, Ursus internationalis Merriam. 

member of the party for one of the cream colored 
cayuses. He was quietly strolling along uncon- 
scious of the presence of any danger and killed 
instantly with a .303 military cartridge at close 
range. The bullet having mushroomed to nearly 
an inch in diameter was found lodged in the outer 
skin, which had acted like a rubber sheet absorbing 
the remaining spent energy of the bullet. 

I am glad to say the skin was carefully preserved 

ary, as well as the little black variety, was en- 

Some interesting experiences could be sketched 
of these latter, their unbounded curiosity often 
getting the better of their natural instincts to danger, 
with the result that they have been known to walk 
into camp during the day as well as at night and 
ransack everything if the camp was found to have 
no occupant at the time. 

October, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



By J. A. MuNRO, Okanagan Landing, B.C. 

A day's tramp in the hills usually has for an 
objective, a lake or slough, or a mountain-top to 
reach before turning homeward and after a few 
hours' travel, this becomes the dominant idea. One 
cannot sit down to watch a bird for any length 
of time, as the lake or slough of one's destination 
urges haste. One obeys the impulse and passes 
on, losing, it may be, a chance of learning some 
secret of avian psychology. 

But when hidden behind a screen of brush or 
rushes on some pleasant lake shore, the mental at- 
titude is that of expectancy and curiosity only. To 
become an inconspicuous part of the blind, that 
screens us from the sharp eyes of passmg water- 
fowl, is now the object. One's predatory in- 
stincts counsel immobility and silence, so there is 
no impulse to move and one has the maximum of 
opportunity for observation. While following the 
flight of a bird until it is lost to view or watching 
with close attention, the numerous waterfowl that 
swim past the blind or feed within the range of 
binoculars, the gun is frequently forgotten. The 
band of scaups that swim past the blind, leaning 
against the breezes at an angle that reveals their 
white underparts and then fly straight out over the 
lake, until, a row of vanishing dots, they melt into 
the horizon, have appealed to other than the sports- 
man's eye. The impulse is to watch rather than 
shoot ; the carefully built blind and the decoys 
swmgmg at their anchors to leeward have served the 
bird lover rather than the sportsman. 

October in the Okanagan is a month of golden 
cloudless days and starlit nights. To-day, the 7th 
(1918) the lake is unruffled by the slightest breeze 
and on the glassy surface, there is a perfect un- 
blurred replica of the surrounding hills. There is 
no frost, but the early morning air is keen and 
one's fingers grow numb grasping the canoe-paddle. 
This intimation of the cold days to come is for- 
gotten when the first shafts of sunlight cut through 
the belt of firs on the mountain-top. As the sun 
rises higher, bathing the western hills in a flood 
of golden light, that creeps lower and lower until 
every tree stands out in relief, and as the mist-- 
wraiths over the water are drawn up and dissi- 
pated, one can see little evidence of autumn, save 
the bold splashes of yellow along the shore-line 
where the cottonwoods are turning. 

The blind is built on the edge of a narrow sandy 
beach, close to the mouth of a small creek that 
pursues its indolent course through a wide valley 
of farm land and brush to the north. One hun- 

dred yards from the water, where the beach merges 
into the meadow, there is a thicket of deciduous 
trees, poplar, birch, alder and willow. From this 
shelter come the voices of a few late migrants; the 
faintly heard "chirp" from the last of the Audu- 
bon's Warblers and the stronger, more metallic calls 
from a band of Gamble Sparrows. 

The lake is dotted with grebes. Western, Holboell, 
Horned and Pied-bills. The Horned Grebes are 
quite fearless; seven swim in among the decoys and 
alternately dive for food or preen their already im- 
maculate plumage. Alarmed by a gun-shot, they 
fly, splashing along the surface for thirty or forty 
yards, when they alight again and huddle in a 
compact flock, as if for protection. In a few min- 
utes they paddle back to rest among the decoys. 
Their plumage seems to be in need of constant at- 
tention; when not feeding, they are usually oiling 
and combing their feathers, sometimes lying on the 
side, one foot above the surface and bill buried in 
the glistening breast. 

The other small species, the Pied-bill, which is 
much less common here, does not visit the decoys. 
They are more easily alarmed than the Horned 
Grebe, and at a sudden movement sink below the 
surface until only head and neck are visible, then 
with a rapid look to either side disappear, leaving 
scarcely a ripple. 

The two larger species are much more wary 
and keep some distance out from the shore. The 
Western Grebe with its long slender neck and 
hair-like plumage, suggest reptilian ancestry more 
than do the other species. Paddling towards one 
is an interesting experience. Before being alarmed 
they float high on the water, conspicuously black 
and white ; as the canoe draws near, they turn and 
swim straight away, showing only the black upper 
parts which blend with the dark water. The head 
is carried stiffly erect on the long straight neck and 
there are frequent quick glances backward. A 
few yards nearer and they dive with a quick clean 
flip. Many of these birds are suffering from a 
wasting disease, probably due to the presence of 
intestinal parasites in large numbers. The actions 
of the sick birds identify them at once. They 
swim slowly close to the shore as a rule and dive 
only when actively pursued, to arise exhausted with- 
in a few yards. 

In the presence of their handsomer cousins the 
less conspicuous Holboell receive only a cursory 
inspection. Those that pass the blind to-day are 
all juveniles, with dark greyish back, spotted breast 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


and lacking the characteristic red neck of the adults. 

The lake at noon is like a polished steel disc and 
a faint heat haze shimmers on the surface. Through 
this medium the grebe are seen as distorted shapes, 
suspended a foot above the water, or so it appears. 
Presently a faint breeze comes; the surface breaks 
into millions of scintillating points of light ; the 
decoys bob up and down and make short journeys 
to the length of their anchor lines. The steamer ties 
up at the dock two miles away and the small flock 
of Herring Gulls that attend its daily voyage take 
this opportunity for a prowl along the shore, on 
the lookout for dead kokanees or squaw-fish. This 
is their daily habit. When the mid-day voyage is 
over they rest on the water opposite the dock until 
the steamer leaves in the morning then rise slowly 
one by one and follow with their leisurely tireless 
flight, keen eyes ever on the alert for the scraps 
that are thrown overboard from the cook's galley. 

For several hours, a flock of twelve Green- 
winged Teal have been feeding in the shallow 
water, behind the thin line of rushes twenty yards 
out from the shore. They are very nervous, rising 
every few minutes and swinging out over the lake 
several times before pitching in again. With what 
marvellous speed can they check their headlong 
flight and drop twisting and turning down to the 
water! After one of their periodic flights they 
settle in the shallow water and from there waddle 
on to the beach and feed along the windrows of 
Potamogeton that drifted in during yesterday's 
storm. This mass of water weeds is full of the 
small crustaceans and insects so eagerly sought for 
by surface-feeding ducks and the Teal glean the 
abundant harvest until a passing wagon puts them 
to flight. 

A brown Marsh Hawk, a bird of the year, flies 
along the beach with business-like flight, alternately 
flapping, or saihng on set wings. He is overtaken 
and routed by several hostile crows and departs in 
a panic, twisting and dodging across the beach until 
he reaches the sheltering brush where he loses his 
pursuers. Crows are arrivmg m small bands and 
settle on the beach close to the water's edge, some 
two hundred yards from the blind. These are only 
the forerunners of a great noisy stream, that pass 
in a long straggling line, some high in the air, others 
close to the ground. Soon the beach is black with 
a cawing multitude. This is the great pre-migra- 
tcry caucus; only a few of these will winter in this 
part of the valley. Four birds arriving by them- 
selves are attracted to a muddy stretch of beach 
near the blind: they swerve from the main flight 
and alight in the oozy mud near the water's edge 
where some dead kokanees have washed in. As 
they feast on these a passing merlin sees them and 

unnoticed, stoops like an arrow. He misses or 
perhaps decides that the quarry is too formidable 
so swings in a wide circle and settles on the top 
of a dead poplar in the brush, while the crows fly 
off with squawks of alarm and join their fellows 
farther down the shore. 

Apparently crows do not expect enemies to ap- 
pear from the water as one can approach in a canoe 
within a few yards while the appearance of a man 
on foot is the signal for their hasty departure. 

The lake is still again and woolly cumulus 
clouds gather in the south, several sweet-voiced 
Mountain Bluebirds alight on the beach, their backs 
vividly blue against the dim-colored sand. For 
several minutes they quietly hunt for spiders among 
the debris of the beach and then continue on their 
way, calling as they fly. 

The Osprey that yearly raises a brood in the 
vicinity and whose fishing grounds lie off this beach 
is lingering at this favored spot although the two 
young of her brood departed a week ago. Her 
clear whistle is heard at a distance, but the bird is 
not seen. In the shallow water fifty yards from the 
blind stand a number of upright fir logs, once used 
as mooring-posts by a long-since defunct saw-mill. 
One of these has been used for several summers by 
the Osprey as a resting place and a convenient perch 
on which to tear up the fish that were for her own 

From far out in the lake comes the single note 
of a Loon, mellowed and subdued by the distance. 
An American Merganser swims past, neck curved 
and head below the surface watching for the little 
kokanees that are running up the creek to spawn. 

A straggling flock of soft-voiced Pallid Shore 
Larks come drifting down the beach, like a cloud 
of autumn leaves blown by the vsrind. They flutter 
in a circle around the blind, alight for a moment 
and run to the water's edge, but without bathing 
or drinking they are away again like a flash, for 
no apparent reason. On all sides they pass, with 
slow undulating flight, so close, that the breath of 
air from their wings is felt on the cheeks. Again 
and again they return, always rising again before 
the binoculars can be levelled in the hope of pick- 
ing out a Longspur among them. A short half- 
mile to the west, rising abruptly for a thousand feet 
above the lake is the bare hillside where they feed ; 
they come to the beach only for gravel and water. 
It is curious how all the alpine or northern breeding 
birds that travel in large flocks. Rosy Finches, 
Shore Larks, Snow Buntings and Pipits, have this 
restless habit of circling and wheeling before alight- 
ing, and of flying off suddenly again in nervous 

A month later there is a decided change in the 

Oclcber, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


aspect of the surrounding hills. Much of the color 
has gone ; the narrow wooded coulees, that were 
like tongues of flame against the brown grassy 
slopes, are now subdued in color and merge with 
their surroundings. The leaves have fallen, only 
the delicate tracery of naked branches is seen. 
Along the shore line, the cottonwoods are still a 
blaze of orange, but many of their leaves have fallen 
too and cover the ground with a rustling golden 
carpet. The higher mountains. Terrace, Goat and 
Silver Star, are crowned with glittering snow-caps 
and the close ranks of fir for some distance below 
the bald summits are frosted with the silver of the 
first snow. As yet, there is no frost in the valley, 
so sitting motionless in the blind entails no dis- 
comfort and bird-life is still plentiful enough to 
absorb all one's attention. In the brush to the 
north, a Western Meadowlark is whistling, his 
clear flute-like notes as vivid as if it were April 
instead of November. A flock of brown backed 
Juncos are flitting through the trees cr alighting on 
the sand and in the alders a sweet-vciccd crowd of 
Pallid Goldfinches have gathered. 

From far down the beach comes the unmistak- 
able sonorous call of a Sandhill Crane, decidedly 
a belated migrant. He flies slowly along the shore 
with splendid slow wingbeats, head carried well 
forwaid, the neck slightly curved and legs held 
stiffly behind. He is attended by two softly-flying 
Short-eared Owls, that follow a few yards to the 
rear. As the crane nears the blind, he becomes sus- 
picious and bears off to the north, the owls still 
following. He reaches the beach again in a wide 
circle and once more flys towards the blind, hesi- 
tates again and after rising higher in the air flys 
off, first to the north and then to the west where 
he IS lost to view against the neutral-colored back- 
ground of the hills. The owls do not follow but 
fly back towards the grassy meadows from whence 
they came and as they pass the blind, the sunlight 
burnishes their tawny wings until they shine like 

Along the eastern shore line, about two hundred 
yards out from the beach, a great flock of Redheads 
have congregated over a bed of Poiamogeton and 
their feeding call, a cat-like meoTV comes softly 
across the water. Into this large raft, small flocks 
are continually flying, one sees a successicn of 
splashes on the still water as the birds hurl them- 
selves in and are carried by the momentum of their 
flight for several yards along the surface. Many 
cf the new arrivals are Scaups and these feed 
among the flock of Redheads, but the Canvas Backs 
as a rule feed only with others of their kind. A 
big flight of these occurred during the past few 

days. It is rarely one sees more than a dozen at 
one time, but during this migration flocks of twenty 
or thirty were common and probably two or three 
hundred were present at one time. As they readily 
fly toward the half-dozen canvass-back decoys, it 
IS plain they are new-comers. 

Close to the fringe of rushes on the shallow water 
near shore, a band of fifteen Ring-neck Ducks 
alight and immediately begin to feed. They are 
new arrivals and hungry; frequently all are below 
the surface together. More than half of them are 
drakes and as they rise to the surface, the white 
barred bill and the white triangle on the chin serve 
as diagnostic field-marks. The strings of weed 
brought to the surface trailing from their bills are 
hurriedly gulped and they dive for another mouth- 
ful. After feeding for forty minutes, their appetites 
are satisfied, so they rest on the surface for ten 
minutes longer, dressing their feathers and then 
paddle in regular alignment to the deep water and 

A single female Scaup swims towards the de- 
coys, calling at regular intervals with a singular un- 
duck-like voice, l(iil(coo, l(uf(coo. The first syl- 
lable too short and explosive, the second exactly the 
coo of a pigeon. 

Small bands of Buffle Head fly past, seldom more 
than two or three feet above the water. They 
swerve down to the Redhead flock but usually carry 
on a little beyond them, to the shallow water. The 
strikingly black and white adult drakes are in the 
minority. The young drake can be told from the 
ducks by their greater size, otherwise they are 
identical. When diving for food they are amaz- 
ingly quick in their actions, coming to the surface 
with more buoyancy than other diving ducks. They 
are equally quick in the air, rising with a spring 
and without the preliminary splashing o ne as- 
sociates with diving ducks. 

Four Killdeer are heard down the beach and 
presently they fly past the blind conspicuous and 
noisy, to alight again a few yards away where they 
seem to disappear into the sand, so well do the 
neutral colored backs harmonize with the beach. 

The half-dozen Herring Gulls that make a daily 
pilgrimage in the wake of the steamer have been 
joined by an equal number of the smaller California 
Gulls. These are fully adult birds with immaculate 
breasts that are visible from a long distance as the 
birds rest on the water. Red-shafted Flickers, 
Magpies, a Northern Shrike and a Kingfisher visit 
the beach during the day and in the evening out- 
lined against a pastel tinted sky appears a triangle of 
Canada Geese, southward bound a fitting climax 
to a perfect day. 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


The GameT^BtrdS''^ California. Contrlbu- gulaled gun clubs, occurring as it has, at a critical 
tions from the University of California, Museum of stage in the adjustment of natural to artificial con- 
Vertebrate Zoology. By Jos. Grinnell, Harold ditions, is to be looked upon as a propitious rather 
Child Bryant and Tracy Irwin Storer. Univ. of than an adverse factor in the conservation of our 
Cal. Press, Berkeley, 1918, large 8 vo. pp. i-x plus duck supply. Whether or not, as further changes 
1-642, 16 colored plates and 94 text figures. Price, result from the increased human population, this 
cloth, $6.00 net. valuation of the preserve will persist, remains to be 

This is one of the most notable bird books and seen" 
one of the handsomest examples of popular book- The History of the Attempts to Introduce Non- 

making that has been published under the auspices native Game Birds in California, is an illuminating 
of a public institution in some time. It is a credit chapter, and deserves study by all who contemplate 
to the University and Museum in whose name it such introductions elsewhere. 

appears, as well as to the printer who executed it f he Propagation of Game Birds is an equally 

and the artists and authors who illustrated and important chapter and includes a valuable biblio- 
wrote it. It contains a greater mass of game bird graphy on the subject. 

life histories both original and compiled probably 'Yhe last chapter of the introductory part gives 

than any other work generally accessible. The the history and present status of legislation relating to 
colored illustrations consist of some of the best work game birds in California. 

from the brushes of Louis Agassiz Fuertes and our The Key to the Game Birds of California seems 

talented countryman. Major Allan Brooks. I he a^i admirable instrument. It is clear and concise 
many line drawings scattered throughout the text and notable for the absence of obscure or technical 
to illustrate critical points are exceptionally accur- terms and is such that any one of ordinary intel- 
ate, clean and clear. The introduction states that ligence should be able to get results with it. 
the work was undertaken to meet the varied re- The main part of the book is, of course, oc- 

quirements of the sportsman, the legislator and the cupied with the detailed treatment of the various 
naturalist and was made possible through the fin- species in their systematic order. The descriptions 
ancial munificence of a patron who refuses to make of plumages are unusually complete and clear, para- 
his (or her) name known. California is to be con- graphs on Marks for Field Identification, Voice, 
gratulated on having such public-spirited citizens. Nest, Eggs, General Distribution and Distribution 
In an opening chapter dealing with the Decrease in California of each one are given, and all are 
of Game and Its Causes it is definitely proved that admirably arranged, paragraphed and picked out 
game has decreased and an analysis is made of the by distinctive type for ready reference, 
contributing factors. Tables of game that have The discussions of the species include much or- 

iginal material, but also the most complete series 
of excerpts from other authors dealing with the 
life histories and other pertinent matter of the var- 
ious species that can anywhere be found under <:ne 

The method of such a tripartite authorship where- 
in each does that for which he is specially fitted is 
the ideal one in dealing with a broad subject where- 

passed through the hands of dealers have been ob- 
tained directly from their own books and are pre- 
sented in evidence. These numbers are ample evi- 
dence of the drain on wild life that market hunt- 
ing entails. Other agencies of decrease are logic- 
ally and calmly discussed giving due weight to 
their effects pro and con with convincing restraint. 
The next chapter, on the Natural Enemies of 
Game Birds, discusses the effects of vermin and in no one man can be an equal authority in al 

other enemies and incidentally corrects a number 
of common preconceptions of their relative values. 

The Gun Club of California is a chapter all 
conservationists should read. Arguments are given 
on both sides to show that the subject is not a 
simple one to be answered offhand. Parallel col- 
umns giving detrimental and favorable effects are 
contrasted and the result summed up in the final 
paragraph, saying: 

"It would appear that the institution of well re- 

directions and the course is here amply justified 
by the results 

This book should appeal especially to bird stu- 
dents, sportsmen and conservationists of western 
Canada as whilst it deals most particularly with 
California, the bulk of it is equally applicable to 
British Columbia and it forms the work that most 
nearly fulfills far western needs that has so far been 

P. A. Tavekner. 

Page 51, Vol. XXXIII, Sept., 1919, delete word "late" in bottom line of right column. 
Page 57, Vol. XXXIII, Sept., 1919, I 1 th line, left column, for "crescentic spot of purple," 
read "crescentic spot on purple." 







NOVEMBER, 1919. 

No. 5. 


By The Hon. Mr. Justice Latchford. 

There are few more fascinating objects of study 
in natural history than the members of the family 
of small bivalve mussels known as the Sphaeriidae. 
They abound in the vicinity of Ottawa, and indeed 
throuphcut the whole Nearctic region. The drain- 
age area of the Great Lakes, and of their outlet, our 
own St. Lawrence, may be regarded as the metro- 
polis of the family in North America. Yet, as 
Dr. Vincent Sterki recently pointed out,^ the fauna 
of the Great Lakes themselves is only fregmentarily 
known; but, so far as known, presents many 
peculiar forms and possibly species. Still less are 
we acquainted with the fauna of the vast areas 
northward, e-xtending from Newfoundland through 
Labrador and across Canada to the Rocky Moun- 
tains. In Prince Edward Island, Mr. C. Ives, of 
Miscouche, has collected a few species. In the 
vicinity of Ottawa, in Ontario and Quebec, con- 
siderable work was done many years ago by the 
members of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club, 
especially by Gilbert Heron, Dr. Fletcher, the Rev. 
Geo. W. Taylor, and the writer. Officers of the 
Geological and Natural History Survey, notably 
Mr. W. Mclnnes, gathered some material in the 
waters flowing into Hudson Bay. Little, however, 
is known of the family as it exists over the far- 
flung plains of the Canadian West. In Southern 
British Columbia, Lord found and described two 
new species,- and farther north, and on Vancouver 
Island, Prof. John Macoun and Mr. Taylor collected 
in a few localities. 

Heron died before reaching the prime of 
his promising manhood. Fletcher, Taylor and 
Whiteaves passed away all too soon not, how- 
ever, without having accomplished and recorded 
achievements in various departments of natural 
science that will long keep their memory green. Of 
those who were active in the early days of the club 
in collecting and studying the mollusca of Canada 
only two remain. Prof. John Macoun and the writer. 
One is spending the decline of his fruitful life in 
distant Vancouver Island. The other for ten 

lAnnals of the Carnegie Museum, Vol. X, 1916, 
p. 431. 

2Proc. Zoo. Soc. of London, 1863, p. 69. 

months of the year is far removed from his native 
valley and concerned about matters but little re- 
lated to natural history. Owing to lack of a leader, 
Conchology has for some years been dropped from 
the list of the club's activities. With such wide 
and productive areas open for original investigation, 
the want of interest shown is greatly to be regretted. 
It is not so much to publish a record of worTc as a 
member of the club as to arouse fresh interest in 
others, and to facilitate the collection and study of 
our most numerous and least known shells that the 
following observations are submitted. My hope 
is that some of our younger members may be in- 
duced to devote a part of their leisure to what I 
am sure they will find a delightful diversion, both 
out of doors and over their cabinets. 

The Sphaeriidae are small in size, only a few 
species exceeding half-an-inch in length. As they 
ordinarily lie buried though only slightly in ihe 
sand or other material at the bottom of streams, 
ponds and lakes, they are seldom seen never, in- 
deed, unless where, in very dry seasons, the water 
has receded or evaporated, when the shells may 
sometimes be observed on the exposed surface. But 
so generally are they distributed that it might almost 
be said they are to be found they should certainly 
be looked for wherever there is water that is not 
within the category known to golfers as "casual." 
Yet mere depressions that contain water for but 
short periods in any year often yield these and 
several other fluviatile shells. 

To collect in quantity, except under conditions 
which seldom exist, a dredge of some kind is re- 
quired. The beginner will find that a common 
bowl-shaped wire strainer will best serve his pur- 
pose. The size I find most useful has twelve meshes 
to the inch, and is six inches in diameter. I remove 
the handle and rim, which are too flexible and soon 
break, and substitute narrow, stiff, hoop-iron ; but 
good results may be obtained without making such 
a change. The handle must be extended for all 
but very shallow water by whipping it firmly to a 
walking cane or light pole. On sifting in water 
the material raised by the dredge the shells will be 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


found. Each lot should be kept separate and num- 
bered. A brief record under the same number on 
a field card or in a note book should be made. If 
the shells are stained they may be cleaned by 
placing them in a bottle containing sharp sand and 
soapy water. On no account should an acid be 
used. By rotating the contents the shells will be 
cleaned on the outside. Mere drying out then 
suffices, when the shells are mmute; but when large, 
the animals must be removed after boiling, or ren- 
dered innocuous by immersion overnight in a five 
to one dilution of formalin by far the more rapid 
process, as the tying or wrapping of each shell is 
not then necessary. When thoroughly dried, after 
treatment with formalin, the largest shells will not 
gape, or cause offence by their odor, and may be 
placed in the collector's cabinet. 

As he examines his specimens he will observe that 
they fall naturally into three groups or genera. By 
far the greater number ordinarily found are minute 
shells, triangular in outline, very unequilateral, and, 
with rather sharp terminal beaks. They resemble 
small peas, and belong to a genus fittingly called 

Fig. 1 
Sphaerium sulcatum X 1 Vz-^ 

Other shells will be noticed which are larger, 
less inflated, though never exceeding half an inch 
in length; and usually more delicate and fragile. 
They bear little caps on the beaks, separated from 
the aftergrowth by a distinct furrow, and form the 
genus known as Musculium. 

Still larger shells, often adorned with distinct 
color bands, denoting periods of arrested develop- 
ment, and others of no greater size than some 
Musculia, but of heavier texture, and as a rule more 
deeply striated, beeir Sphaerium as their generic 
name. The term was devised by Scopoli, an Italian 
naturalist and chemist in 1777. It has priority to 
C])clas (Brugaiere, 1789); and Sphaeriidae, ac- 
cording to the laws of modern zoological nomen- 
clature has replaced Cydadidae as the proper desig- 
nation of the family to which the little mussels 

iFor tliis ancl the other figures in tlie text I 
am under the greatest obligation to my friend Dr. 
Bryant Wallier of Detroit, Mich. 

1. Sphaerium SULCAIUM Lamarck, the largest 
of the genus in the species most commonly observed 
in the vicinity of Ottawa. It was described in 1818 
by the famous French naturalist in his "Animaux 
sans Veriebres," from specimens obtained in Lake 
Champlain. In the same year Thomas Say de- 
scribed the shell in the American edition of Nichol- 
son's Encyclopedia as C^clas similis, and Say's 
name may have priority. However, the Lamarck- 
ian name is more generally adopted, and is that used 
in the Club's lists. 

5. sulcatum is the largest of the genus. It is 
oval in outline; distinctly, rather than deeply, striate; 
and, when adult, is usually banded with concentric 
dark lines, marking periods of arrested development 
such as occur every winter. The body color is of 
varying shades of grey or brown. Young shells 
are almost white. 

But one other species, restricted in Canada, so far 
as known, to a single locality near Ottawa, ap- 
proaches this in size. All bivalves found else- 
where that are about three-quarters of an inch in 
length, and have not the corrugated beaks which 
indicate membership in the family of our large 
mussels, or Unionidae, may safely be named Sphae- 
rium sulcatum. 

This species is found in many places within the 
city limits. It is common in the Rideau river, especi- 
ally on the muddy bottom of the reach above the 
islands at Billings' Bridge. In the canal, after the 
water has been let out, it may be easily collected on 
the shoal near the right bank west of the Bronson 
avenue bridge, and anywhere above Hartwell's 
locks. Very large and perfect shells were obtain- 
able at one time in the bay at the east end of the 
small lake below the outlet of Meach lake; but 
owing to accumulations of sawdust and bark the 
locality is now barren of this shell, though it still 
produces sparingly the most remarkable specimens 
I have ever seen anywhere of Anodonta cataracta 
Say ( = fluviaiilis Dillw.) and, in addition, Ll;mnaea 
megasoma, and the shell called Ph})sa lordi in our 

In the Laurentides, north of Meach lake, 5. 
sulcatum abounds, as in Gauvreau lake and its out- 
let, near Ste. Cecile de Masham, and in the brook 
flowing past the orchid swamp still farther north, 
so well known to members of the botanical branch 
of the Club, and now, alas! to many others. What 
a day that was, nearly thirty years ago, when, after 
visiting the brook and its outlet, Fletcher, Harring- 
ton and the writer were the first naturalists to dis- 
cover the sequestered glades where the shy wood 
nymphs, then literally in thousands, swayed to one 
another in virgin grace and loveliness! Whoever 
studies shells should have a mind receptive to the 




The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


delightful impressions that may be derived from 
flowers and birds, and the many strange four and 
six-footed creatures that he will encounter on his 
rambles in places seldom frequented by man. 

A very fine form of 5. sulcatum occurs on the 
Scott Graham farm in Nepean, now called Bri- 
tannia Highlands. In dry seasons the narrow bot- 
tom of the stream lying about halfway between 
Carling Avenue and the Grand Trunk railway is 
exposed for some distance west of the boundary of 
the Shouldis farm. The shell may then be easily 
found in considerable numbers. At other times 
collecting is slew and difficult, even though the 
collector is equipped with a good dredge, and 
what are indispensable in such localities rubber 
boots. This stream is again productive near its 
outlet into the Ottawa below the Deschenes rapids. 

conditions of environment. In fact nothing is so 
wonderful in nature as the adherence to type of 
every organized being properly regarded as a 
species. More interest is, however, manifested in 
departures from the normal than in persistence of 
type, just as variant races of men, like the giant 
Patagonians and pygmy Papuans, commonly at- 
tract more attention than races of ordinary stature. 
Variations from the usual form of 5. sulcatum are 
few and limited. One is found in Bond lake, near 
Toronto. Another, which is well marked and con- 
stant, occurs in Masham, north of Ottawa, and, 
notably, in Lake Gorman, near Brudenell, in the 
county of Renfrew, at an elevation of about eleven 
hundred feet above sea level. 

Dr. Sterki thinks it entitled to rank as a variety 
and calls it palmaiuiu.' He describes it as smaller 



a rp - 



a. a. Anterior adductor mu.scle. 
a. p. Ant. retractor-pedis muscle. 

b. Byssal gland rudiment. 
bs. Branchial sii)hon. 
eg. Cerebral ganglion. 
cs. Cloacal siphon. 

f. Foot, 
ig. Inner gill. 

1. Liver. 

Fair specimens are obtainable in shallow water 
at Graham Bay station, at the intersection of the 
Richmond road and the Grand Trunk railway. A 
few m.iles farther to the southwest the shell is com- 
mon in the creek north of Stittville ; but nowhere 
have I found it in such numbers as in the stream 
about a hundred yards west of Ste. Justine station, 
in the county of Vaudreuil. In either place the 
shell may be readily collected in large numbers by 
means of a dredge with a quarter-inch mesh, such 
as is afforded by a kitchen utensil in common use. 

As S. sulcatum is a true species, with an objective 
existence not depending on the opinion or whim of 
any systematist, it does not vary greatly in its 
characteristic features throughout the vast area 
over which it is desseminated, though it is 
occasionally modified in appearance by different 

m Mantle. 

ob. Organ of Bojanns. 

06. Oesophagus. 

ot. Otocyst. 

pa. Posterior adductor muscle. 

pg. Pedal ganglion. 
prp. Post retractor-pedis muscle, 
psg. Parie to-splanchnic ganglion. 

ro. Reproductive organs, 
t. Male follicle. 

than the common or typical sulcatum, more in- 
equipartite, the beaks being markedly anterior; less 
inflated, especially flattened over the lower part of 
the valves, more truncate anteriorly and posteriorly, 
inferior margin less curved; beaks narrower and 
little elevated; surface striae slighter; shell and 
hinge slighter. 

In Lake Gorman the shell is quite abundant 
buried about an inch in the sand of the bay near 
the boathouse on the Rockingham road. 

The animal of the variety palmatum has not been 
described. It is probably not distinguishable from 
the normal form represented in the following illus- 
tration, which may be regarded as typical of the 
anatomy of all the genus: 

4Preliminarv Catalogue of N. A. Sphaerlldea, 
An. Carg. Mus., Vol. X (1916), p. 432. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


The fcot is capable of great extension as may be 
observed if living shells are placed in a glass bowl 
or aquarium. Cilia in the bronchial siphon, and 
along the inner and cuter gills and mantle, induce 
currents which bring diatoms and other minute 
organisms contained in the water into contact with 
the libial palpi, whence they pass into the stomach 
to be in part elaborated for the preservation and 
growth of the individual and the propagation of its 
kind, and in part rejected through the excurrent or 
cloacal siphon. 

Unlike the Un'ionidae in which each individual 
is dioecius, that is, either a male or a female, as is 
the case also with our native oyster (O. v'lrgin'ica, 
Gmelin), though not, strange to say, with its Europ- 
ean relative (O. edulis, Linn.), 5. sulcatum, like all 
other species of the Sphaeriidae, is monoecious, or 
produces both sperm and ova within the same shell. 
However, it is net harmaphrcditic in the way that 
many, if not all, pond and other snails are herma- 
phroditic. In their case, while each animal is per- 
fectly bisexual, the conjunction of two individuals 
is requisite for fertilization. In the Sphaeriidae, 
en the other hand, the process of fertilization is 
similar to that which takes place within the closed 
keel of the pea blossom and other legumes. Cross 

fertilization is impossible naturally, and could not 
be induced artificially were another Mendel to arise. 
The reproductive organs are located behind the 
stom.ach, and consist of racemose glands, the an- 
terior of which produces sperm, and the posterior 
ova. A common genital duct leads in the cloacal 
chambers of the inner gills, where the young reach 
before birth, in the case of this species, a length 
of seven or eight millimeters, or nearly half that of 
the father-mother.' If living shells are left for a 
day or two in water that is warmer or colder than 
that of their usual habitat, they will, ordinarily, be 
found to have produced a large number of nepionic 
young. These should be separately boxed and 
labelled with the name of the parent and will be 
found very useful when the collector is trying to 
identify shells which are no larger when aged than 
some Sphaeria are at birth. 

(To be continued) 

5The reproduction and growth of S. .sulcatum 
are treated at length by Ralph J. Gilmour in The 
.N'autilus, Vol. 31 (iyi7), pp. 16-28. 

Note. It is my intention to place in tlie Museir.Ti 
of the Geological and Natural History Surve> at Ot- 
tawa specimens of the forms and varieties of S. 
sulcatum, and of the species mentioned in the con- 
tinuation of this paper, of which I possess 


By Rudolph Martin Anderson, Biological Division, Geological Survey, Ottawa. 

A recent and timely publication of the United 
States Department of Agriculture'- calls attention 
to the gaps in our knowledge of the habits of many 
of the commoner species of mammals. The study 
of birds has been developed so extensively in a 
popular way in recent years through the Audubon 
Society movement, local bird clubs, and nature 
studies in the public schools, as well as technically 
by the scientific ornithologists, that the objects and 
methods of bird study have become fairly well 
known throughout the country, and the economic 
importance and aesthetic and sentimental value of 
bird life are becoming matters of common 

The study of mammals, though not less im- 
portant in many ways, has not been developed so 
broadly or systematically. The study of the com- 
parative anatomy and physiology of the major 
mammalian groups, through their closer relation 

iPublished by permission of the Geological 
Survey, Ottawa, Canada. 

^Suggestions for Field Studies of Mammalian 
Life-Histories. By Walter P. Taylor, Assistant 
Biologist. September, 1919. U.S. Department of 
Agriculture. Department Circular 59. Contribu- 
tion from the Bureau of Biological Survey, E. W. 
Nelson, Chief; pp. 1-8. 

to the human subject, has received close attention, 
but the relations of species to one another and to 
their environment, and their life-histories, are un- 
doubtedly less well known than the like relations 
of birds. It is true that the horse, cow, sheep, 
pig, and a few other mammals have been domest- 
icated, but few attempts have been made to dom- 
esticate ether species except in a sporadic way. 
A rather extensive but scattered literature has been 
developed concerning the deer, elk, moose, bison, 
antelope, and other large game animals, which 
are of interest to the sportsman. Unfortunately, 
this in many cases consists principally of the lore of 
hunting field and methods of capture, and what 
may be termed their more intimate history has been 
neglected until many of the species have been ex- 
terminated over most of their former ranges, and it 
is forever too late to obtain complete data in regard 
to these animals' relations to their primitive con- 
dition. Where efforts have been made, often too 
late, to conserve a remnant of these animals, to 
replenish the game of the sportsman, add to the 
food supply, or for other practical or sentimental 
reasons, it is found that there is a lamentable lack 




The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


of knowledge even of an elementary kind regard- 
ing their habits. 

Intimate knowledge of the furbearers was left 
largely to the trapper, whose interest usually did not 
extend beyond the means of outwitting the anmial 
durmg the trapping season, putting its pelt on the 
stretcher or drying-beard, and increasing his own 
personal fur-return for the time being. As the fur- 
bearers have become reduced in numbers, and the 
prices of fur have increased, the importance of the 
fur industry to the country is becoming recognized; 
measures of conservation are being proposed, and 
fur-farms are being started, the practical success 
of which depends largely upon the application of a 
knowledge of life-histories or habits of the animals 
which are to be reared. 

Many species of animals which have no direct 
economic value as food or for their fur, or skins, 
are nevertheless often of enormous indirect import- 
ance, and must be recognized as beneficial, or means 
taken to combat them as detrimental to the interests 
of man. Rats, mice, ground squirrels, etc., have 
been recognized as carriers of trichinae and the 
germs of bubonic plague, anthrax, and other dis- 
eases. Ground squirrels, prairie dogs, pouched 
gophers, and other rodents have caused such ex- 
tensive damage to grain-fields, running into millions 
of dollars annually in some parts of the country, as 
to make necessary concerted action by the govern- 
ment and by associations of individual farmers. 
Rabbits, hares, voles (field-mice), and the like 
frequently cause great damage to fruit trees and 
young forest trees. Coyotes, wolves, and moun- 
tain lions take a large toll of the sheep, cattle, and 
horse-raising industries, and thousands of dollars 
had been expended in indiscriminate bounties with- 
out commensurate results until systematic study of 
these carnivorous pests pointed a way for their prac- 
tical elimination in many districts. 

The ravages of "The house rat, the most destruc- 
tive animal in the world," are given by Lantz 
(Yearbook of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1917), from studies made by the 
Biological Survey in 1908, as amounting to actual 
losses in produce and other property in cne year in 
the two cities of Washington and Baltimore, of 
$400,000 and $700,000 respectively, the sums be- 
ing nearly in ratio to the population. In the same 
report he quotes a recent statement cf the Women's 
Municipal League of Boston to the effect that losses 
from the rats in that city amounted to $1,350,000 
annually. Losses in Pittsburg, Pa., have been 
estimated at over $1,000,000 a year, and no doubt 
the present values of produce would greatly in- 
crease these estimates. 

While the study of the living animal is of as 

great interest and attractiveness to the naturalist as 
any other branch of natural history and has conse- 
quently an aesthetic and sentimental value, it can 
be shown to have a very practical value also. As 
Professor Herbert Osborn says: "Not a single farm 
product but is affected directly or indirectly by some 
animal activity." 

Dr. Taylor, in his recent paper, states that the 
leading museums have been acquiring exhibits and 
studying material representatives of different groups 
of birds and mammals, until at present the American 
collections are in many respects unsurpassed by those 
of any other country in the world, and that the rela- 
tive completeness of research collections permits in- 
creased attention to be paid to the study of life- 

It is, of course, well recognized that species closely 
resembling each other often have quite different 
habits, and to avoid misapprehension and confusion 
of records we must have a certain amount of 
systematic taxonomic study before detailed investiga- 
tions can be made along other lines. Valuable 
observations may be made without drawing the lines 
of differentiation too finely, but in general, we must 
learn the names of cur animals before we can write 
about them. In other words, we must have pegs 
on which to hang our observations, if they are to be 
of value. 

Unfortunately, we must admit that there is not 
in Canada today any collection of mammals ap- 
proaching in completeness, even in Canadian species, 
several collections in the United States, among which 
may be mentioned the Biological Survey and the 
United States National Museum of Washington, 
the American Museum of Natural History of New 
York, the Museum of Comparative Zoology of 
Cambridge, and possibly two or three others. Many 
American zoologists have worked in Canada for 
the enrichment of American museums, and Cana- 
dian naturalists have done intensive work in many 
districts, but many regions of Canada have even yet 
been little worked in the field of mammalogy. 

The development of a national collection of the 
mammals of Canada, as well as of other forms of 
animal life, should be of interest to all Canadians. 
Such a collection is useful as a place of reference 
for students from all parts of the country, and a 
permanent repository for specimens of many species 
which may ultimately become extinct. In addition 
to the national collection, represented by the Vic- 
toria Memorial Museum, under the Geological 
Survey, of the Department of Mines, each province 
should have a representative collection of the mam- 
mals and other vertebrates found within its borders. 
The private collector has a field of his own for 
investigation and experiment which should be en- 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


couraged, for he often has opportunities, resources, 
and freedom to carry on important investigations 
along side paths of knowledge which the govern- 
ment investigator or professional naturalist is not 
able to follow at his own inclination. The univer- 
sities, colleges, and other schools, scientific surveys 
and commissions, local museums and associations for 
the protection of fish and game, all have an oppor- 
tunity to do good work for the country in this field. 
The value of detailed knowledge in fields which 
have previously appeared seemingly trivial, has been 
illustrated many times during the late war. As an 
example of this, the pest of rats became exceedingly 
serious at the Bush Terminal of the port of New 
York, the principal shipping point of the immense 
amount of stores required for the American or 
other expeditionary forces of the Allies. The use 
of poison was impracticable around such great 
quantities of food stuffs, but by detailing field biol- 
ogists to the Sanitary Corps and directing their field 
experience to the problem of exterminating rats, 
within a few months more than 50,000 rodent allies 
of the enemy were accounted for, and it is esti- 
mated that several million dollars worth of com- 
missary and quartermaster stores were saved at a 
critical time. 

The secretive and nocturnal habits of some species 
of small mammals are responsible for so little being 
known of them. They are correspondingly more 
difficult to photograph than the birds. For this 
reason field photographs of mammals their nests, 
runways, tracks, and general habitat, are particularly 
desirable. Although the mammals as a rule are 
more shy than the birds, and are less often seen; 
the larger animals on account of constant pursuit by 
man for generations as objects of sport and of food, 
and the smaller ones from fear of swooping birds 
of prey, the presence of the mammal in a certain 
region may be detected where the flying bird leaves 
no trace. The pads of little paws on dusty roads 
or the muddy brinks of pools or streams, or the 
delicate tracery of tracks on the newly fallen snow, 
leave a record, which though evanescent, may be 
read and interpreted by the initiated, and lends in- 
terest to walks in the great out-doors. 

In a field like this no one can cover every detail, 
and the notes of many persons are needed for work- 
ing out complete life-histories of any species, even 
the commonest. A young observer may find out 
something that was not known before and, in classic 
phrase, "add something to the sum total of human 
knowledge." As a suggestion to aspiring natur- 
alists who are at a loss to know what to do or 
how to begin, we can not do better than quote from 
Dr. Taylor's paper cited above: 


"Tracks, distances between footfalls; differences 
in tracks with different speeds or movements of 

Feces abundance, shape, size, color, com- 
position, place of deposit. 

Claw marks on trees, logs, or ground. 

Tooth marks on wood or bone. 

Wallows, dust baths, beds, forms, nests, shelters, 
runways, holes, trails, cropped or harvested vegeta- 


Relation of soil, rocks, water, air, climate io 
habits and distribution. 

Effects of unusual climatic conditions, as storms, 
floods, and forest fires; degree and rapidity of re- 
covery from disaster. 

Relation of animal populations to climatic cycles. 



Enemies times of activity; enemies in youth, 
middle age, old age. 

Prey modes of capture. 

Parasitic habits of species with reference to each 

Parasites, internal and external. 

Bacteria and disease germs (carriage and trans- 
mission of disease to stock or to mankind; species 
as victims; decimation of animal populations; per- 
iodicity of contagious diseases in animals; degree 
and rapidity of recovery). 

Adaptations of animals to each other or to 

Competition between species, particularly be- 
tween those closely related. 


Hours of beginning and cessation of daily 

Unusual activity, as of diurnal species at night 
or of the nocturnal by day. 


Local or general movements before and after 

Dates of appearance and disappearance (espec- 
ially of bats). 

Extent and direction of movements, local and 

Causes of migration food supply, climatic, 

Unusual migratory movements, as the spasmodic 
irruptions of lemmings, with causes therefor. 

Date of entering upon and emerging from hiber- 

November, 1919] 

The Canadian Field- Naturalist 


Causes of hibernation and estivation the relation 
of climate, soil, physiology, and food supply. 

Condition of animal before, during, and after 

Details as to completeness or incompleteness of 

Place of hibernation or estivation. 

Habits associated with hibernation and estivation. 


Modes of running, jumping, climbing, digging, 
swimmmg, flymg. 

Gait; speed; endurance. 

Other activities. 

Calls in general; courting; alarm; challenge; 
warning calls. 

Descriptions of barking, baying, screaming, howl- 
ing, squeaking, squealing, singing, roaring, bugling. 

Warning attitudes; flash signals. 

Emission of glandular secretions. 

Odor posts. 


Other means of intercommunication. 

Organization of communities leaders, sentries, 
rank and file. 

List of foods eaten. 

Food at different seasons. 

Physical characteristics and habits associated with 
food getting. 

Conveyance and storage of food ; hay making. 

Dependence on water; times and manner of 
drinking; other associated habits. 

General disposition and temperament; intelligence; 
attitudes; strength; vitality; tenacity of life; cour- 
age; esthetic sense; eating of young by parents; 
cannibalism in general; degree of sociability; play- 
fulness; length of life. 

Sanitation, cleanly or filthy habits. 

Reactions to sound, light, odor, taste, touch. 

Relation of physical characteristics to sense re- 






Coloration concealing, disruptive, directive, 
warning, mimicking. 


Courting antics. 

Relations of the sexes in general ; polygamy 
(manner of acquisition of harem by male, mode of 

protection of harem, bachelor males); polyandry; 
promiscuity; monogamy. 

Dates of heat and copulation; associated habits. 

Length of period of gestation. 

Date of birth of young. 

Number of young. 

Family life; relation of father to family; care 
of young feeding; mode of carrying; how lonr; 
cared for by parents; precocious or backward; 
length of time in nest ; behavior. 

Behavior of adults in postbreeding season; in 

Hybridization between related species. 


Natural resorts at different seasons. 

Shelter chambers in general. 

Lairs; dens; forms; beds. 

Nests plan, elevation, accurate measurements; 
storage chambers; breeding chambers; chambers 
for deposit of excrement or for other purposes. 

Nests for different purposes; unoccupied nests. 

Approaches to nests trails, burrows, tunnels, or 
runways; protection of nests through the closing of 
burrows during the daytime or in other ways. 

Habits associated with nest approach. 

Extent of home range. 


Are any mammals strictly crepuscular? 

Periodic phencmcna of any kind of mammals, 
aside from migration and hibernation. 

Habits as affected by the seasons of the year. 

Effect of long days, very dark days, full moon, 
dark of the moon, on activity. 

Use of glands of various sorts, as hip glands of 
meadow mice, metatarsal glands of deer, musk 
glands, anal glands. 

Weights and dimensions cf bats; precise hour of 
appearance in the evening and disappearance in 
the morning; numbers and habits as observed in 
caves; relative numbers of the sexes; methods of 
hanging; condition of females with reference to 


Present and former numbers of valuable species, 
as fur-bearing and game animals, and of pests or 
those otherwise important ; causes of increase or 

Estimates and counts of numbers of animals per 
unit of area. 

Fluctuations in numbers from year to year, and 

Plagues, due to unusual increase or destructive- 
ness of species; origin, course, and virulence; nat- 
tural checks and methods of control. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



Local names; local ideas concerning wild life. 

Sentiment regarding game laws and legislation. 

Trapping and hunting methcds in local use; 
prices received for pelts or animals sold. 

Relation of mammals to the public health; to 

Possible undeveloped resources in mammals, as 
of flesh for food, fur or hides for clothing, or other 
useful animal products for various purposes. 

Possibilities of utilization, through domestication 
or semidomestication, of beneficial species." 

No one individual can hope to acquire full in- 
formation on all the items listed, but any naturalist 
who knows a species at all can put down something, 
and apparently trivial things often turn out to be 

really important when considered in their relation 
to other factors. "These relative lines of inquiry 
include problems in scientific agriculture, geogra- 
phical distribution, phenology, migration, ecology, 
physiology, medical zoology, behavior, game 'iro- 
tection and the conservation of natural resources, 
morphology, heredity, organic evolution, and econ- 
omic zoology." 

The Division of Biology (Mammalogy), The 
Geological Survey, Ottawa, Canada, is interested 
in building up a collection, and in gathering of life- 
histories and other data in regard to the mammals 
of Canada, and correspondence is solicited from 
any person or institution working along these lines, 
and advice or suggestions will be gladly given as 
opportunity is offered. 


By Norman Criddle, Treesbank, Manitoba. 

There are several indigenous species of sunflower 
in Manitoba some of them such as Helianthus 
maximiliani being weeds of importance while others 
merely add to the attractiveness of the landscape, 
without being otherwise of interest to mankind. All, 
however, have their values in the economy of nature 
and for ages past have proved a valuable source of 
food supply for certain native birds, as well as for 
several rodents While animals thus take heavy toll 
of the sunflower seeds, they also assist materially in 
the spread of the species and it seems at least pos- 
sible that these unusually large seeds have been 
evolved for just such an end. In other words, the 
plants offer an especially attractive food, in return 
for which the animals carry a certain indefinite per- 
centage of the seeds far beyond the range that they 
would otherwise fall an unconscious form of re- 
ciprocity very commonly met with in the realms of 

Under the ordinary course of events, the con- 
ditions depicted above might have continued almost 
indefinitely, but, as frequently happens, man has 
intervened. Sunflowers have become of economic 
importance from the human standpoint, the larger 
ones for their seeds and the smaller kinds for fodder 
purposes ; this apart from the fact that many are 
grown in gardens as ornamental plants We have, 
therefore, to view the relations of birds to sun- 
flowers in another light presumably, again placing 
the economic importance before the aesthetic. This 
I have endeavored to do in the following sketch. 
My observations are drawn largely from notes made 
in a garden and refer especially to a bushy type of 
sunflower originated by my brother Stuart. It 

seems well to mention also, that the garden is sur- 
rounded by shrubs and young spruce trees, planted 
to shelter the more tender plants therein. 

At Treesbank, Man., sunflowers are usually 
above ground by the middle of May and it is at 
this time that the first injury is done to them by birds 
which eat the cotyledons. In doing this the birds 
often follow the rows to the end and practically 
destroy every plant. The House Sparrow having 
a bad name, at once got the blame for this injury 
and we accordingly set a watch who was prepared 
to shoot the none too popular bird. But suspicion 
may be misdirected as it proved to be in this case. 
There was the thief at work, pulling and eating the 
plants, and it proved to be no other than the White- 
throated Sparrow, one of the most popular of all 
the feathered tribe No wonder the gun was low- 
ered or that the watcher, who happened to be my 
brother Evelyn, should return to the house dis- 
gusted at his discovery. Later we found that the 
White-throat made a practice of sunflower eating 
and that it continued from the time of its arrival in 
early May until about the first of June when the 
nesting period commenced. Occasionally other 
sparrows, such as the White-crowned or Harris' 
Sparrow would pull up a few plants, but they were 
only casual depredators whereas the White-throat 
went in search of the plants daily. Naturally such 
injury would not take place in the open country 
though it is possible that Longspurs or other birds 
might prove equally troublesome under field con- 

The injury to the newly sprouted sunflowers is 
over early in June and from that time no further 


November, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


damage takes place until the plants commence to 
form seeds. This second attack commences about 
the middle of August and continues until the plants 
are harvested in early October. Four birds stand 
out prominently in the work of destruction at this 
time, namely the American Goldfinch (A. tristis), 
the Pine Siskin (S. pinus), the Crossbill, or as it is 
known in these parts, the Red Crossbill (L. cur- 
virosira minor), and the White-winged Crossbill 
(L. leucoptera). The first mentioned is by far the 
most persistent of all of these and it is probable that 
fully 80 per cent of this bird's food consists of sun- 
flower seeds when they are available. The ripen- 
ing of the seeds also coincide with the Goldfinch's 
breeding season and in consequence the young are 
largely reared on the same food supply. Later as 
the nestlings learn to fly all find their way to the 
sunflower patch and from then on make tlieir head- 
quarters in the vicinity. To see one of tnese beau- 
tiful little birds resting upon a sunflower at once sets 
one speculating as to the probable origin of colors 
that harmonize so remarkably with the plant the 
birds feed upon. Who could possibly select a 
more perfect background for concealment and yet 
endow a bird with such brilliant colors at the same 
time? The females and young are also wonder- 
fully hidden when resting upon their favorite food 
plant and it .therefore, seems strange that the name 
sunflower bird has not been applied to this species. 
While sunflower seeds unquestionably form the 
chief food of Goldfinches during the autumn months, 
the birds also consume a variety of other seeds such 
as Gaillardia, thistle, dandelion, and many others of 
composite plants. All such seeds are usually gath- 
ered while the bird rests upon the plant and the 
seeds dropped are seldom sought after on the 

Pine Siskins though not so persistent sunflower- 
seed eaters as their relatives the Goldfinches, are, 
nevertheless, quite destructive in the course of a 
season and when in large flocks might do serious 
harm. With us, however, a family or two are all 
that visit the neighborhood in autumn and they 
would not, therefore, be a serious menace to a large 
field, though troublesome enough in a garden where 
but a few thousand plants are grown. Both Pine 
Siskins and American Goldfinches leave us in Octo- 
ber; the latter have all gone by about the 20th, 
while the former remain a week or more longer. 
Indeed, there are records of Siskins being seen in 
winter time though I have no personal records of 
winter birds. They return in May and breed in 
the woods close at hand. 

The two Crossbills have such similar habits that 
they may well be treated as one in this article. They 

are, apparently, both residents throughout the year 
and breed in the spruce woods close by. 

Crossbills are not regular visitors to the sun- 
flowers but being great wanderers probably arrive 
accidentally while in search of spruce cones. See- 
ing the plants, however, they soon descend upon 
them and are quickly engaged in tearing the heads 
to pieces. They usually come in flocks of half a 
dozen or so, these being doubtless single families, 
as a majority are in juvenile plumage. Indeed, 
observation shows that the young birds are far more 
persistent in their depredations than the adults, and 
it may be that like various other birds, these have a 
habit when first seeking food for themselves which 
they later abandon for the more general one of 
gathering the seeds of the coniferous trees. This, 
however, is only partly true as I have observed per- 
fectly colored males as busy in the work of de- 
struction as were the young alongside. 

Crossbills though not as persistent sunflower- 
feeders as the Goldfinches are in other respects even 
more injurious owing to their lack of discrimination 
in selecting suitable heads. They may thus tear to 
pieces half a dozen heads before discovering one 
with seeds sufficiently mature for food purposes. 
Under these conditions the damage done in a day 
is often severe. In the case of the garden referred 
to, the depredations become so extensive that I 
eventually went cut with a gun, but to my joy found 
it unnecessary, as the handsome marauders had de- 

Of the other eaters of sunflower seeds little need 
be said as their influence on the ultimate production 
is insignificant. Blue Jays prefer the larger seeds 
and in autumn store them for future use. House 
Sparrows and other sparrows gather them from the 
ground as do also Mourning Doves and the various 
species of blackbirds. Chickadees are almost daily 
visitors to the sunflower patch in late autumn and 
during the winter. No one, however, begrudges 
them their tiny share and that they do feed upon the 
seeds is more of interest as a means of attracting 
them than otherwise. 

This then is a brief sketch of the birds that might 
affect the industry of growing sunflowers, or their 
seeds, for agricultural purposes; none of them, how- 
ever, are particularly abundant though there is no 
gainsaying the fact that even m their present num- 
bers they might cause considerable loss on a large 
field. If the sunflower industry ever develops, as 
it promises to do, then it may be necessary to go 
further into the matter and perhaps a gun will be 
required. In our garden, where we were experi- 
menting and crossing, losses, of course, had to be 
guarded against. For the seedlings we used various 
devices for hiding the plants and placed numerous 


The Canadian Fielx)- Naturalist 


obstructions along the rows to prevent a continuous permitted to watch these little robbers day after day, 

thoroughfare. As the seeds began to ripen we cov- u i j ir i lU j 

* 6 r, , busily engaged in puUing out the seeds was to me, 

ered the heads with cheese-cloth. By these mea- ' , 

r . J t Ut.,; ,,fl;; > at least, surhcient compensation, and for those who 

sures or precaution we managed to obtain suincient ^ 

seed for our purpose, which was about a tenth of love birds and gardens, I know of few better attach- 

the total grown, the rest going to the birds. To be ments than a hedge of sunflowers. 


By a. Brooker Klugh, M.A., Biological Dept., Queen's University, 

Kingston, Canada. 

While in camp at Lake Missanog, Frontenac 
county, Ontario, from August 19 to September 19, 
1919, a chipmunk (Tamias stTiaius l^steri), had its 
abode in the vicinity of our tent. This individual 
had an unusually short tail and deep coloration, 
and consequently could be readily distinguished 
from other chipmunks in the neighborhood. 

Home range. The home range of this chipmunk 
was 100 yards by 75 yards, and she was never ob- 
served out of this area. 

Food. She was feeding on three things which I 
have not previously seen this species eating the 
fruits of the bunch-berry or dwarf cornel (Cornus 
canadensis), the fruits of the wild lily-of-the-valley 
(Maianihemum canadense), and the seeds of the 
star-flower (Trientalis americana). As far as I 
could ascertain she was not storing any of these 
articles of food. 

I tried her with various food substances and found 
that neither meat nor sweet substances, both of which 
are relished by the red squirrel, were accepted, but 
only seeds, fruits and tubers. 

By far her favorite item among the foods offered 
her was corn either raw or boiled. While she 
sometimes ate a kernel or two she carried most of 
it away in her pouches. In loading up her pouches 
she placed the kernels alternately first in one pouch 
and then in the other, and when the pouches were 
nearly full she shoved the last few kernels in with 
one of her forepaws. A full load, as tested several 
times, consisted of thirty-one large kernels of corn 
equal to two heaped-up tablespoonfuls. When full 
each pouch was as broad as the head, when viewed 
from above. 

Notes. Three different notes were used by this 
chipmunk the sharp "chip" which appeared to in- 
dicate a state of unrest, the "chip-chir-r-r" of alarm, 
and the resonant " chonJ(-chonk-chonk." The latter 
note is an intercommunication call and is rarely re- 
peated for any length of time unless a response is 
evoked. This call is frequently begun quite softly 
and slowly, but when answered in kind both tone 
and tempo are increased. In uttering this note the 

cheeks are slightly distended before each "c/ion^" 
is emitted. 

Psychology. The shortness of the period of 
observation made any detailed study of the psy- 
chology of this individual an impossibility, but I 
was able to secure accurate data on one phase of 
this subject the rapidity of the formation of as- 
sociations. After I had placed kernels of corn for 
her a few times I began to throw kernels to her. 
At the first trial the sudden motion of my arm in 
throwing naturally frightened her, as any sudden 
motion will do with any wild animal. At the 
second trial she started only slightly and came and 
picked up the kernels, and at the third trial she 
showed no alarm at the motion, but ran immediately 
towards me and picked up each kernel as it fell. 
I next threw her half-a-dozen kernels, each one 
nearer to me than the last, and then held out the 
cob near the ground, when she came up and bit the 
corn from the cob. After this she associated the 
holding out of anything with the procuring of food 
and came at once. The third test made was to 
ascertain her ability to associate sounds with the 
securing of food. I held out a cob of corn and 
made a squeaking noise with my lips, and after five 
trials ,two on one day and three on the subsequent 
day, she came running up on hearing this sound, 
even though I held nothing extended towards her. 
The rapidity v/ith which she made these associa- 
tions exceeded my anticipations very considerably. 

That associations remained for some length of 
time was shown by an incident which was not 
planned as an experiment. My Indian friend, 
Sowatis Lachance, had given me a cob of the 
peculiar hybrid corn which he grows, in which the 
kernels are of various and brilliant colors red, 
pink, purple, brown, dark grey, yellow and white. 
This I had placed on the top shelf of a set of shelves 
in the tent. Early the next morning the chipmunk 
came into the tent, climbed up to the shelf, and 
stripped the cob. For five days subsequently she 
continued to investigate that top shelf, visiting it 

November, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


regularly every morning and usually several limes 
during the day, though no more corn was placed 
there, nor anything else edible. 

After the chipmunk had learned to come and 
take corn from the cob held in my hand she would 

come after it no matter where I held the cob, 
running up my leg and sitting on my knee while 
loading up her pouches, and would sit up on a cob 
and strip off the kernels even when I lifted the cob 
up in the air. 


By Hoyes Lloyd. 

As the provisions of the Migratory Birds Ccnvcn- 
tion Act and Regulations which concern the scien- 
tific collector are perhaps not fully understood by 
all collectors in Canada, a short explanation of the 
status of the collector, with respect to this law, 
seems desirable at the present time. 

The federal bird protection law, which is known 
as the Migratory Birds Convention Act, allows 
birds protected by the Act to be taken, shipped, 
transported, or possessed for scientific purposes, but 
only by persons holding a permit from the Minister 
of the Interior. 

This permit is required by all museums or in- 
dividuals wishing to collect birds, nests, or eggs, 
protected by the Act. 

The director of a recognized museum should make 
application for each of his collectors. Individual 
collectors must furnish written testimonials from 
two well-known ornithologists before their applica- 
tion can be considered. Applications should be 
addressed to the Commissioner, Dominion Parks 
Branch, Department of the Interior, Ottawa. 

All applicants should state the province in which 
they wish to collect. They may be required to 
make returns stating the result of their work. Every 
encouragement is offered the collector, who is hon- 
estly working to extend our knowledge of Canadian 
birds, but useless waste of bird life will not be 

A package in which specimens of birds, pro- 
tected by this Act, is to be shipped must be marked 
on the outside with the number of the permit, the 
name and address of the shipper and a statement 
of the contents. It is contrary to the law to ship 
any of the protected birds, eggs or nests and the 
use of the mails is forbidden, unless the packages 
are so marked. 

So that every Canadian naturalist will under- 
stand the principles governing the issue of these 
permits, this article is concluded by repeating these 
principles in full. They are printed with and form 
a part of every scientific permit. 

\ Permits to take migratory birds, their nests and 
. \Leggs, under the Migratory Birds Convention Act 

and Regulations are granted for the sole purpose 
of scientific study and not for the collection of 
objects of curiosity or personal or hcusehold adorn- 
ment. Therefore only such persons as take a ser- 
ious interest in ornithology, and are competent to 
exercise the privilege for the advancement of know- 
ledge ,are eligible to receive such permits. 

It is expected that the holders of permits will use 
them with reasonable discretion, taking only such 
specimens as their scientific needs require and avoid- 
ing unnecessary waste of life. The habitual taking 
cf numbers of individuals for the purpose of ob- 
taining a few specially desirable ones is deprecated 
and it is urged that the collector take no more 
specimens than he has reasonable prospects of caring 
for and will conscientiously endeavor to properly 
prepare each and all when taken. 

It is also recommended that the holders of per- 
mits will, so far as is consistent wiih their object, 
be considerate of the local feeling in the neighbor- 
hood where they collect and will demonstrate both 
by actions and speech that the scientific collector is 
sympathetic towards the principles of wild life con- 
servation and not the rival of legitimate sportsmen. 
It is required as an evidence of good faith that 
holders of permits label their specimens with the 
customary scientific data and properly care for them 
not only at the time of collection but thereafter, 
giving them all reasonable protection against insect 
pests and other agencies of destruction, and will not 
permit them to be destroyed through carelessness cr 

As permits are granted for the purpose of general 
scientific advancement and not for individual benefit, 
specimens taken under them are to be regarded as 
being in the nature of public trusts, and should be 
accessible to all duly qualified students under only 
such reasonable restrictions as are necessary for 
their protection or as is consistent with the owner's 

Finally it is urged that provision be made so 
that specimens taken will ultimately find their way 
into permanent or public collections where they will 
be available for study by future generations and not 
be wasted- and lost through neglect. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


While all these conditions are not strictly man- 
datory, and their spirit will be liberally interpreted, 
they will be considered in the granting or renewal 
of each permit, and evidence of gross violation of 
them may be deemed sufficient ground for the re- 

fusal of an application or for the revocation of any 
permit already granted. 

It is hoped and expected that the justice of these 
principles will be realized and that collectors w:il 
co-operate in advancing science to the utmost with- 
out unnecessary waste of valuable bird life. 


By J. K. Henry, Vancouver, B.C. 

A few years ago Mr. George H. Knight, nursery- 
man, Mount Tolmie, Victoria, B.C., found a pecul- 
iar gooseberry growing among Ribes divaricaiuni 
Dougl. and R. Lobbii Gray, at Mill Hill, Vancouver 
Island. He removed it to his nursery and propa- 
gated it. It fruited freely, as R. Lobbii usually does, 
producing claret-colored berries of excellent flavor. 
Finally blundering workmen grubbed it up. The 
plant is now known to exist only in the nursery 
of Mr. George Eraser, Ucluelet, to whom Mr. 
Knight, remembering his friend's interest in hybrids, 
had sent cuttings. 

In April, 1919, Mr. Eraser sent me flowering 
specimens of the plant, which show pretty clearly 
that it is, as Mr. Eraser surmised, a natural hybrid 
between R. divaricaium and R. Lobbii. The com- 
bination of two such important characteristics as 
the hairy style of R. divaricatum and the glandular 
ovary of R. Lobbii is alone almost conclusive evid- 
ence of its parentage. 

In general appearance the plant looks like a 
small-flowered specimen of R. Lobbii. It has the 
pubescent shoots, the triple spines, and, in its spring 
form, the glandular leaves and the glandular-pube- 
scent petioles of that species. The pubescence of 
the mature petioles is, however, hardly at all glan- 
dular. The evidence of its hybrid nature is found 
not only in the combination of these characteristics 
of R. Lobii with the small flowers of R. divaricatum, 
but especially in the flowers and the inflorescence. 
The relationship of these plants may be further in- 
dicated by the following analysis: 

r. divaricatum. 

Elowers (ovary and calyx) 7-10 mm. long; in 
number 1-4, usually 2; peduncles smooth; pedicels 
smooth, longer than the bracts; ovary smooth; style 

hirsute; calyx-tube greenish, smooth; sepals dark 
purple, smooth; petals fan-shaped; anthers green. 

r. lobbii. 

Elowers (ovary and calyx), 14-20 mm. long; in 
number 1-4, usually 1 or 2; peduncles glandular- 
pubescent; pedicels glandular-pubescent, shorter 
than the bracts; ovary glandular; style smooth; 
calyx-tube dark red, pubescen! ; sepals dark red, 
pubescent ; petals wedge-shaped ; anthers purple. 

R. divaricatum X r. lobbii. 

Elowers (ovary and calyx) 8-10 mm. long; in 
number usually 3, (D) ; peduncles smooth or nearly 
so, (D) ; pedicels smooth or nearly so, longer than 
the bracts, (D) ; ovary grandular, (L) ; style hir- 
sute, (D) ; calyx-tube greenish, nearly smooth, (D) ; 
sepals dark red, pubescent, (L) ; petals wedge- 
shaped, (L) ; anthers green, (D). 

(D and L indicate that the characteristics are 
those of R. divaricatum and R. Lobbii respectively.) 

While this evidence is fairly conclusive, one can- 
not affirm with certainty that the plant is a hybrid 
until the character of its progeny is known. At 
Ucluelet the plant does not set fruit. At Victoria 
it fruited abundantly, the claret-colored berries be- 
ing somewhat intermediate in hue between the dark 
red of y^. Lobbii and the deep purple of R. divari- 
catum. Eurther, one hesitates to be dogmatic, since 
not only are Ribes hybrids produced with difficulty 
by the horticulturist, but natural hybrids of this 
genus are unknown in North America. This note 
is published pending further investigations in order 
that collectors on Vancouver Island and in the 
States of the Northern Pacific coast may be on the 
look-out for the plant. 

November, 1919] The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



By Harry C. Oberholser. 

The form of Peirochelidon albifrons^ inhabiting 
most of western Canada proves to be subspecifically 
distinct from the typical race. It may be described 
as follows; 

Petrochelidon ALBIFRONS HYPOPOLIA, subsp. nov. 
Chars, subsp. Similar to Peirochelidon albi- 
frons albifrons from eastern United States and Col- 
orado, but larger; frontal band paler, more whitish; 
breast more grayish (less ochraceous). 

Description. Type, adult male, No. 195055, U. 
S. Nat. Mus., Biological Survey collection; Fort 
Norman, Mackenzie, June 11, 1904; E. A. Preble, 
original number, 1830. Forehead creamy white; 
crown metallic blue black; hind neck brownish 
gray; back and scapulars, like crown, but streaked 
with brownish gray and whitish; rump cinnamon; 
upper tail-coverts light fuscous, the tips of the feath- 
ers whitish; tail fuscous; wings fuscous black, with 
a slight metallic bluish or greenish sheen, the inner 
edges of the primaries and secondaries paler and 
on terminal portion narrowly edged with brownish 
white, the outer webs of the inner secondaries and 
of the tertials margined with the same, and the 
greater wing-coverts slightly tipped with paler 
brown; lores and narial bristles, brownish black; 
sides of the head below the eyes, together with the 
upper throat, between chestnut and bay; chin and 
centre of the lower throat, black; sides of neck 
light brownish gray; breast, sides, and flanks, light 
brownish gray, the centre of the breast washed with 
pale cinnamon; remainder of the lower parts dull 
white, the crissum washed with chestnut ; lining of 
wing light brownish gray; edge of wing barred with 
dull light cinnamon and brownish gray. 

Measurements. Male:- wing, 110-115 (average, 
112.1) mm.; tail, 49-52 (50.7); exposed culmen, 
6-8 (7.2); tarsus. 11-13 (12.3); middle toe 
without claw, 10.5-12 (11.3). 

Female: wing, 108-111.5 (average, 110.2) mm.; 
tail, 49.5-51.5 (50.7); exposed culmen, 6-8-7.2 
(7.0); tarsus, 13; middle toe without claw, 12- 

12.5 (12.3). 

Geographic distribution. Breeds in northwestern 
North America, north to Mackenzie and central 
Alaska; west to central British Columbia; south to 
Montana; and east to Alberta and Mackenzie. 
Migrates through Wyoming and California. Win- 
ters probably in South America. 

iFor the change of name from Petrochelidon 
lunifrons to to PetrocheUdon albifron.s, of. Rhoade.s, 
Auk, XXIX, No. 2, April, 1912, pp. 19o-19.5. 

-'Five specimens, from Alaska, Mackenzie, and 

Mont:iii I. 

' This is the largest of the races of Peirochelidon 
albifrons, and differs from Petrochelidon albifrons 
tachina still more than from the typical Peirocheli- 
don albifrons albifrons. The difference in measure- 
ments between Peirochelidon albifrons albifrons 
and our new Canadian race may be seen by com- 
parison of the figures above given for the latter with 
the following dimensions of Peirochelidon albifrons 
albifrons taken from Colorado, Wyoming, and east- 
ern United States birds. 

Male:' wing, 105-112 (average, 107.6) mm.; 
tail, 47-51 (49.9); exposed culmen, 7-8 (7.2); 
tarsus, 12-13 (12.6); middle toe without claw, 11- 
12 (11.8). 

Female:^ wing, 102-109 (average, 107.2) mm.; 
tail, 47-51 (48.9); exposed culmen, 7-8 (7.4); 
tarsus, 11.5-13 (12.5); middle toe without claw, 
11-13 (11.9). 

Breeding birds from Dickey in southern Idaho, 
the Snake River in eastern Washington, and from 
Ashcroft in central southern British Columbia, are 
apparently referable to Petrochelidon albifrons 
albifrons. Specimens from Greybull and Saratoga, 
Wyoming, are in size about half-way between 
Petrochelidon albifrons albifrons and Petrochelidon 
albifrons hypopolia, but in color they are decidedly 
nearer the former, and are here included under that 
race. A single specimen from Pembina, North 
Dakota, indicates that the bird from at least the 
northeastern part of North Dakota is the eastern 
form. The present new race migrates through the 
western United Slates, as sprmg examples from 
Wyoming and southern California indicate. 

All the specimens of Petrochelidon albifrons 
hypopolia examined are included m the following 

Alaska. Nulato (May 24, 1867); St. Paul 
Island (about June 10, 1918). 

Arizona. Tucson (April 18, 1918). 

Mackenzie. Fort Resolution (June 23, ) ; 
Fort Gocd Hope (June 20, 1904); Fort Norman 
(June 11, 12, and 14, 1904). 

California. Laguna Station, San Diego County 
(May 4, 1894). 

Montana. Milk River at 49" north latitude (July 
25, 1874); Johnson Lake (June 3, 1910); Fort 

Wyoming. Ten Sleep (May 31, 1910). 

3Seven specimens. 

lElevcn srcc>.:ens. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 




By E. M. Kindle. 

A mud-crack horizon which has not been pre- 
viously reported occurs in the Grenville section 
on the Ottawa river. This horizon which is ex- 
posed on the north bank of the river immediately 
above the Canadian Northern railroad bridge is in 
the upper part of the Bcekmantown formation. Its 
relationship to the associated beds is indicated in the 
section below which was studied by the writer in 
company with Dr. M. E. Wilson. 

Section above C.N.R. bridge al Hawkesbury. 

a. Sandstone with coarse sand and fine gravel 
in upper part and fine sand in lower. Num- 
erous vertical worm tube impressions (Base 
of Chazy) 2 

b. Thin bedded limey shale (top of Beekman- 
town) 2 

c. Dark grey fine grained limestone with 
botryoidal fracture 8' 

d. Coarse textured grey limestone full of small 
fossils 1 6 

e. Thin bedded shaly limestone 3' 

/. Heavy bedded grey limestone and covered 10' 
g. Thin bedded grey argillaceous and mag- 

nesian limestone with mud-crack throughout 
the upper 4' Resembles sandstone when 
weathered 6 

Between a and b of this section there is probably 
a disconformity. All of the Ottawa valley sections 
show a rather abrupt change in lithology at this 
horizon. The change in fauna is equally marked. 

The very sharp and clearly defined character of 
the fossil mud-crack in bed g of this section is its 
most noteworthy feature. The mud-crack polygons 
exhibit a rather unusual and significant feature in 
their upturned margins. Many examples of this 
mud-crack show the unwarped margins of the poly- 
gons rising above the centre as much as !4 inch. 
Associated with these is a surface structure suggest- 
ing raindrop impressions. 

It has been shown experimentally' that this type 
of mud-crack results from the dessication of fresh 
water mud and that flat or slightly downwarped 
polygons develop from saline mud. Since mud- 
crack with upwarped margins is produced only in 
fresh or brackish water muds we must conclude that 
this mud-crack horizon represents intertidal mud- 
flats which were covered at high tide by relatively 
fresh waters comparable perhaps with those of the 
upper Baltic sea. The reappearance of a marine 
fauna in the section a few feet above the mud- 
crack horizon appears to indicate the return of 
normal marine conditions. The relatively fresh 
or slightly brackish water conditions under which 
these mud-cracks were formed point toward their 
development in lagoons near a shore which contri- 
buted an abundance of river water to partially land- 
locked arms of the sea. Such a land must have had 
a moist climate or at least not an arid one. 

Another mud-crack horizon occurs about 100 
feet higher in the Ontario Ordovician section al 
Kingston in the Pamelia limestone. Cushing- has 
reported this horizon in New York and the writer 
has described its peculiar features at Kingston. '' 
Attention is directed to it here because it suggests 
climatic conditions near the close of Pamelia sedi- 
mentation just the opposite of those indicated by the 
Grenville mud-crack. The flat polygons of the 
Pamelia mud-crack horizon show features which 
have been interpreted^ as the product of a highly 
saline condition of the calcareous mud in which they 
were developed. Sea water would be likely to de- 
velop the high degree of salinity represented by the 
Kingston mud-crack only in an arid climate. 

It seems therefore that a relatively arid climate 
prevailed during late Pamelia time in the lands 
adjacent to the Ontario sea. This arid climate suc- 
ceeded a cycle of moist climate in late Chazy time 
if the inference which has been drawn from the 
character of the mud-crack is correct. 

Published with the permission of the Director 
of the Canadian Geological Survey. 

1 Kindle, E. M. Some factors "affecting the de- 
ve]i)i)m<iit of mud-cracks .Toiirn. Geo!., vol 2,5 
1!117. pp. 140-H2. " ' 

Separation of salt and saline water and mud 
Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. 29, pp. 479-483, 1918. 

-Bull. N.Y. State Mus. Nat. Hist. No. 145, p. 76. 
1917, pp. 13.5-144. 

3The Ordovician Limestones of the Kingston 
Area. Rept. of the Ontario Bureau of Mines, vol. 
25, pt. 3, p. 8, 1916. 

4Kindle, E. M. Some factors affecting the de- 
velopment of mud-cracks. Journ. Geol., vol. 25. 
1917, pp. 140-142. 

November. 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



By H. Mousley, Hatley, Que. 

It has been said in one of the handbooks on ferns 
that if you begin your search for them in March 
you will hardly be rewarded by finding any but the 
evergreen species, and even these are not likely to 
be especially conspicuous at this season. If this is 
so, what e.xcuse I am going to make for searching 
for them in December I hardly know except that my 
enthusiasm for all natural history pursuits knows no 
bounds ,and refuses to be curbed by conventional 
ideas. I search almost as eagerly for rare War- 
blers' nests late in the fall as I do in the summer, 
and having just taken up the study of ferns I was 
anxious to see whether it was not possible even in 
the depths of winter to locate and name quite a 
number by means of their dead and dried fruiting 
fronds. Now I do not wish to pose as a kind of 
super-human person, for had not nature in the 
present instance ccme to my aid in the shape of a 
very rapid thaw during the second week in Decem- 
ber, I am afraid this paper would never have ap- 
peared in print, nor would I have obtained very 
many evidences of the existence of even dead fruit- 
ing fronds ,as most of these in the natural order of 
things would have been buried under a heavy coat- 
ing of snow, which in these parts is gen.-fally in 
evidence (more or less) for seven months out of the 

However, this winter (1918-19) has been par- 
ticularly kind and from December 1 5 to 23 (owing 
to the afore-mentioned thaw) the fields were prac- 
tically clear of snow, and the woods had compara- 
tively little in them as compared with other years. 
This state of things made it possible, therefore, to 
indulge in winter fern hunting, and for a week I 
spent a good deal of my time in visiting spots where 
I had previously noticed some of the large Osmun- 
das, Onocleas and others, whose fruiting fronds are 
so very different from the sterile ones, and which as 
a rule can generally be found even in winter, wnen 
there is hardly a vestige of the latter left. During 
the above week I found the following species and 
varieties, viz: Maiden hair (Adianium pedatum). 
Common Brake or Bracken (Plcris aquilina). 
Silvery Speenwort (Asplenium acrostichoides), 
Christmas Fern (Polystrichum acrostichoides). 
Marsh Fern (Aspidium ihelypleris). Crested Shield 
Fern (Aspidium crislalum), Clinton's Wood Fern 
(Aspidium cristatum var. Clinionianum), Boott's 
Shield Fern (Aspidium Bootlii), Spinulose Wood 
Fern (Aspidium spinulosum var. intermedium), 
Hay-scented Fern (Dicksonia punctilobula), Sensi- 
tive Fern (Onoclea sensibilis,) Ostrich Fern (Ono- 
clea struthiopteris). Royal Fern (Osmunda regalis), 

Interrupted Fern (Osmunda claytoniana), and last 
but by no means least the Ternate Grape Fern 
(Botrychium ohliquum), and the var. dissectum, 
both of which form the title of this paper. 

Little did I think when I set out on the morning 
of December 21, that I was going to add an ad- 
ditional species and variety to the list of Quebec 
ferns, yet such was the case, as Mr. J. M. Macoun 
tells me that there are no records at Ottawa of the 
two ever having been found in the province before, 
nor are there any examples in the Herbarium of 
the Geological Survey from this section of Canada. 

Of B. ohliquum, however, there are examples 
from two localities in Nova Scotia, and from several 
around Niagara Falls, whilst of the var. dissectum 
some are from New Brunswick, and some from 
localities also around Niagara Falls. In Gray's 
Manual, 7th edition, p. 49, there are several illus- 
trations of the varieties of B. ohliquum, including 
one of the var. dissectum, and seeing that the species 
is polymorphous there are no doubt many others 
yet to be found, so that it is altogether quite an in- 
teresting plant and one well worth looking for. 
As a matter of fact neither of my examples are 
quite typical, and do not agree exactly either with 
those from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick or Niagara 

I only found one example of each in a very shel- 
tered spot under a cedar tree on the outskirts 
of a large wood about two miles to the south of 
Hatley village ,this wood forming part of the farm 
originally known as the Poole farm, but now be- 
longing to Mr. Will Hunter. The specimens were 
quite fresh and green when found, and after having 
been duly pressed and preserved they were subse- 
quently presented to the Herbarium at Ottawa. Of 
the var. dissectum. Gray in his Manual says: "Often 
found with the typical form in New England," and 
so I found it here, the two not being more than 
twelve inches apart from one another, which fact 
I imagine is all in favor of dissectum being pro- 
nounced a variety of B. ohliquum and not a separate 
species as some are still inclined to consider it I 

In conclusion I may say that besides the species 
already enumerated I had previously found the fol- 
lowing additional ones, viz: Long Beech Fern 
(Phegopteris polypodioides), and Oak Fern (Phe- 
gopteris dryopteris), these two bringing my list up 
to a total of eighteen, which may be considered very 
satisfactory, I think, for the amount of time so far 
spent on the subject. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 



Remarks on the metamorphosis of the 
Scallop (Pedcn Icnuicostaius). After hatching, 
the young scallops attach themselves to rocks, scallop 
shells, or other objects to which they remain as fix- 
tures for a year or two. I can tell this from num- 
erous young specimens obtained which possess an 
aperture through which a portion of the creature 
protrudes for attachment, and from a few speci- 
mens I came across which possess an elastic byssus 
for attachment, which protrudes from the so-called 
foot, and also from the margins of growth, the 
striations, and other points of structure which under- 
go a modification. 

In the earlier stages the byssal attachment appears 
to agree with that of Anomia throughout the life- 
history of that genus; that is, there is an aperture 
near the apex of the under valve through which a 
portion of the mollusk itself protrudes, so that it is 
directly attached to the object. But its agreement 
with Anomia in this respect is only temporary, for 
in time the scallop develops a byssus which is of 
elastic constituency, such as the mussel (Mytilus) 
possesses throughout its life-history. In the instance 
of the scallop again this provision is only temporary, 
for in time as it continues to grow the byssus dis- 
appears, and the scallop is free and can then move 
about by the flapping of its valves. 

Sometimes I was able to determine a stage of 
development from a single example. For instance, 
the fact that at one time in its life-history the scallop 
develops an elastic byssus secreted from the fool for 
attachment to an external object. This I know 
from only one specimen which had such a byssus. 
Two other specimens of the same character were 
obtained, but the byssus of one of them had been 
broken off in the raking, and it was found lying 
loose, and the other, a much smaller one, was also 
detached from the object. 

Considering that the byssus always occurs on 
the same side of the scallop, and that the aperture 
of the more immature form extends to the margin of 
the valve, it is evident that the elastic elongation 
simply evolves from the original attachment, and 
that the aperture of the under valve as it becomes 
obliterated, leaves the scallop, except that it is now 
moored to an external object, otherwise free. 

Judging from an illustration from Parker and 
Haswell, these zoologists seem to regard the pectens 
as hermaphrodite, as they show one part of the gonad 
in the same individual as male and the other as 
female. But this is not so, at least in the case of 
the scallop. The sexes are distinct, and out of 209 
scallops specially examined by me in my observa- 
tional work, 100 were males, 108 females, and in 

one the sex was indeterminable. The gonad of this 
last mentioned was completely empty, not that I 
consider the scallop hcd spawned, for it was im- 
poverished generally, and apparently in a sickly 
condition. I might have been able, had I known 
it at the time, to determine the sex by the digestive 
organs, but this was a later discovery. This fact, 
however, helps to emphasize what I say as to the 
sexes being distinct. The gonad of the male is 
cream-colored and the stomach and its appendages 
gray, whereas the gonad of the female is a sort 
of brick-red color and the stomach and its append- 
ages brown. 

Andrew Halkett. 

A Robin's Mistake. A pair of robins have 
for some years been in the habit of building their 
nest among the creepers which grow on the side of 
my house, having for neighbors a pair of crow 
blackbirds. This year the two nests were placed 
on either side of a bay window, only a couple of 
yards apart. Both young families left the nest at 
about the same time, and this circumstance evidently 
led to complications. The parent crow blackbirds 
showed no lack of interest in their young family. 
On the contrary, for the first day or two after the 
latter left the nest the old birds resented the appear- 
ance of anyone on the lawn where the young were, 
complaining loudly and making savage darts at the 
intruder, as though intending to do him grevious 
bodily harm. Nevertheless, in spite of all this 
parental solicitude, one of the young crow black- 
birds was adopted by one of the parent robins. 
How it originally came about I do not know; but a 
few days later, when all of the other members of 
both familes had disappeared, I was attracted by 
the novel sight of the robin working industriously 
early and late to satisfy the voracious appetite of 
his adopted progeny, who followed him about con- 
tinually demanding more. This proceeding con- 
tinued for about three weeks and as the pair re- 
mained all that time in my garden, I was able to 
keep close watch on them and to note the gradual 
growth of the young blackbird, until when I last 
saw them he was fully plumed and almost indis- 
tinguishable from an adult. There was, therefore, 
no doubt whatever as to the correctness of the 
identification. It was not, as some might be in- 
clined to suggest, a cow bird, but unquestionably 
a crow blackbird. Once, on the second or third 
day of my observations a pair of adult crow black- 
birds ^possibly the real parents arrived on the 
scene and for a time evinced considerable excite- 
ment over their "lost heir," but as the latter took 

November, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


no notice of them whatever, but stuck to the robin 
and as he, poor bird, was much too busy hunting 
worms to notice anything else, the blackbirds pres- 
ently calmed down and flew away, no doubt con- 
cluding that it must be a case of mistaken identity. 
Has any reader of The Field-Naturalist ever 
heard of such a curious mix-up as this? It is, I 
suppose, just possible that the explanation may be 
that a crow blackbird's egg was laid in the robin's 
nest. The nest was so situated close to the glass of 
a window that one could look into it quite easily 
from one of the rooms of my house. Nevertheless 

I did not examine if until the eggs were hatched, 
and then only very cursorally. It is, therefore, 
possible, though I think unlikely, that the young 
crow blackbird was in the nest and escaped my 
notice. Naturally I was not expecting that any 
question would arise as to the identity of the young 
robins. Still I think the more likely explanation to 
be that by some curious chance the robin accident- 
ally adopted one of his neighbor's children soon 
after the two families had simultaneously left their 
respective nests. W. L. ScOTT. 

Tredinnock, Ottawa. 


The Birds of Middle and North America. 
By Robt. Ridgway, Part VIII, Continuation of 
Bulletin 50, U.S. National Museum, Washington, 
Government Printing Office, 1919. 

The monumental task of monograpliing all the 
birds of North and Middle America was begun 
by this veteran ornithologist, now probably the Dean 
of the science in America, many years ago. The 
first volume covering the Finches and Sparrows ap- 
peared in October, 1901. Since then the follow- 
ing parts have appeared. The contents covering 
Canadian species only is given here. 

Part II, 1902, The Tanagers, Troupials (black- 
bird and orioles) and Wood Warblers. 

Part III, 1904, Pipits, Swallows, Waxwings, 
Vireos, Shrikes, Crows and Jays; Titmice, Nut- 
hatches, Creepers, Wrens, and Dippers. 

Part IV, 1907, Thrushes, Mockingbirds, Star- 
lings, Larks and Tyrant Flycatchers. 

Part V, 1911, Hummingbirds and Swifts. 

Part VI, 1914, Woodpeckers, Kingfishers, Goat- 
suckers, and the Barn and Eared Owls. 

Part VII, 1916, Cuckoos and Pigeons. 

This present volume now appearing includes 
Oyster-catchers, Turnstones, Surf Birds, Plovers, 
Snipes, Phalaropes, Avocets, Skimmers, Terns, 
Gulls, Skuas and Auks. 

The next Part, namely IX, now in course of 
preparation, will contain Cranes, Rails, Gallinules 
and Coots; Turkeys, American Partridge, Grouse, 
Falccns, Hawks and Eagles and American Vultures. 

It is contemplated that Part X will complete the 

The magnitude of this work can be partially 
appreciated by the fact that each volume runs from 
550 to 875 closely printed pages, many of them 
consisting of masses of abbreviated bibliographical 
references and synonomy requiring immense research 
and exact transcription and proofreading. Dr. El- 
liott Coues said that bibliography required the work 
of an "inspired idiot." On these grounds alone the 

Birds of Middle and North America would be 
notable, but as each species and subspecies is ac- 
companied by the fullest detailed description and 
each has been subjected to the strictest scrutiny as 
to taxonomic standing and relationship by one of 
the keenest observers in America it is evident that 
this will stand as a monument to the author for many 
years. It will be noted that the classification does 
not follow that of the A.O.U. Check list and is not 
familiar to the majority of American ornithologists. 
In this it probably shows a considerable step in 
advance. The latter is acknowledged to be faulty, 
but it has not been thought expedient to change it 
until a system can be presented that wlli meet a 
more general approval than any hitherto advanced 
receives. The work is not popular, but confines 
itself to strictly scientific aspects of taxonomy, nom- 
enclature, identification and distribution. The 
purely popular nature student has little interest in 
it except as a reservoir of ascertained facts to guide, 
control and direct his esthetic impressions and 

P. A. Taverner. 

Hamilton M. Laing. Whilst it is not the cus- 
tom to treat newspapers as serious scientific publica- 
tions it seems that some attention should be called 
to the series of excellent articles on popular orn- 
ithology appearing more or less regularly in the 
Toronto Globe. These are from the pen of Ham- 
ilton M. Laing, who is taking the place of the late 
lamented Sam Woods who conducted this nature 
column with but scanty recognition for a long 
period. Mr. Laing is a Canadian, of considerable 
experience in Manitoba, now resident in Portland, 
Oregon. During the latter days of the war he was 
in the aviation corps and assisted in training many 
of our fliers who later made a good account of 
themselves at the front. 

The subject of these papers cover such a range 
of subjects as "The Shore Birds in Autumn," 


The Canadian Field- Naturalist 


"Hawks Everyone Should Know," "The Wood 
Warblers," etc. The subjects are treated in a 
popular, entertaining manner, in a style that more 
than occasionally warrants the term "fine writing", 
sympathetically but with an absence of gush and 
with a good substratum of personal knowledge and 
common sense. We can stand many more of such 
popular science writers in Canada as well as else- 
where. P. A. Taverner. 

In the Auk for April, 1919, appears the fol- 
lowing titles of especial interest to Canadians: 

Winter robins in Nova Scotia, by Harrison 
F. Lewis, pp. 205-217. This records the unusual 
appearance of robins in widely separated localities 
of Nova Scotia, in late December, January, Febru- 
ary and early March. The interesting point 
brought out is that the number of robins increased 
during the season of greatest cold, culminating in 
early February in weather below zero and dis- 
appearing when the temperature moderated. It is 
suggested that these winter visitors are not unsea- 
sonably early migrants from the south, but a col- 
lection of winter lingerers from the north or in- 
terior gathered together by the unusual inclement 

Problems suggested by nests of wabblers 
of the Genus Dendroica, by John Tredwell 
Nichols, pp. 225-228, raises some interesting ques- 
tions as to the nest-building instinct and the facility 
or otherwise with which birds substitute new mater- 
ials of civilization for their ancestral supplies. 

On the popular names of birds, by Ernest 
Thompson Seton, pp. 229-235, is a plea for more 
characteristic common names for birds, advocat- 
ing terms of spontaneous and natural origin over 
those of more clumsy manufacture. 

The reality of species, by Leverett Mills 
Loomis, pp. 235-237. This is a short paper dis- 
cussing the subspecies question. The conclusion 
of the author (quite in harmony with the ideas of 
this reviewer) is that whilst the species with its 
component races is a reality, the lesser subspecific 
subdivision is but a concept. 

Geographical variations in the black- 
throated loons, by A. C. Bent, pp. 238-242. 
This is a brief discussion of the occurrence of these 
allied species in America. The writer lumps four 
forms Gavia arctica, the Black-throated Loon, G. 
pacifica, the Pacific Loon, G. viridigularis, the 
lately described Green-throated Loon, and G. 
suschkini, the Asiatic form, in one species as geo- 
graphical races of G. arciica. Pacifica appears to 
be the common North American form with viridi- 
gularis of erratic occurrence on the Pacific coast. 
He questions the specific, even the subspecific dis- 

tinction of this form as he can limit it to no 
geographical range. It does not appear that true 
G. a. arctica, in spite of repeated records to the 
contrary, has even been satisfactorily recorded from 

Reasons for discarding a proposed race of 
THE glaucus gull (Larus h})perboreus) by John- 
athan Dwight, pp. 242-248. In this paper Dr. 
Dwight brings his keen analytical pen to bear on 
H. C. Oberholser's proposal (Auk, 1918, p. 472) 
to recognize the rejected northwestern American 
form Larus barrovianus as a subspecies of the 
Glaucus Gull. By a series of graphic diagrams 
he shows that the size distinctions upon which the 
form is based are too variable for recognition, fur- 
ther driving his argument home by superimposed 
cutlines of the average bills of the two supposed 
races in which the distinction of size is shown to 
be absuidely small. In conclusion, he says: 

"In our gropings after the truth it is wasteful of 
too m.uch time to spend so much of it stumbhng over 
names of groups so poorly defined that they convey 
only a vague meaning to a few specialists and none 
at all to evcrybcdy else. Decking the subspecies in 
all the glittering panoply of diagnosis, dimensions and 
distribution makes it an impressive spectacle, but this 
does not necessarily make of it a good subspecies." 

These are sentiments of which the reviewer heart- 
ily approves. 

The birds of Red Deer river, by P. A. Taver- 
ner, pp. 248-265. This is the last half of a paper 
begun in a previous number. Including an addenda 
it brings the number of species annotated to 194. 

Fourth annual list of proposed changes in 

the a. O. U. check list of north AMERICAN BIRDS 
by Harry C. Oberholser, pp. 266-273. In this are 
gathered together all the various proposals of the 
past year that may affect American Ornithological 
nomenclature. It dsals with about seventy-two 
names. Without doubt some of these will be ac- 
cepted according to the canons of our Code of 
Nomenclature, but it is a matter of some congratu- 
lation to us that this lengthy list is one of mere 
proposal and not accepted fact. These late lists 
of proposals show that the genus splitter is in full 
action. It is to be hoped that the committee on 
nomenclature will bear in mind that the genera is 
but a conception adopted for convenience and that 
it defeats iis own end when each genus approaches 
the monospecific and in place of simplifying our 
system but adds to its complexity. 

Under General Notes, Harry G. Oberholser, pp. 
282-283, in Status of the Generic Name Archibuieo 
decides that Archibuieo is a nomen nudum and 
therefore untenable and that the next name applic- 
able for the genus of the Rough-legged Hawks is 




The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Trtorchis Kaup. This would change the accepted 
name of both our Roughlegs. 

In the Division of Correspondence, P. A. Taver- 
ner writes urging that caution be used in identifying 
birds subspecifically by either geography or sHght 
characters alone cdvccating, except where the case 
is clear or indisputable, that the specific binomial 
be used leaving subspecific status open until such 
times as more evidence is available. This is re- 
plied to by Witmer Stone, the editor, with a quali- 
fied assent, but advancing a negative argu- 
ment that the present reviewer (the author of the 
original letter) regards as dodging the question. 

Information of peculiar interest to us is the report 
upon the J. H. Fleming, Toronto, Ontario, col- 
lection of birds, on page 321, which is also copied 
by the Ibis for July. It reads: 

"This is one of the largest private collections 
and covers the birds of the entire world a most 
commendable feature. We learn that it comprises 
about 25,000 specimens representing 5,377 species 
and 1 ,925 genera, as recognized in Sharpe's Hand 
List.* When we note that there are, according to 
this authority, some 17,000 species of birds and 
2,647 genera, we realize that Mr. Fleming has 
about one-third of the known species and three- 
fourths of the genera represented, the latter being 
evidence of the painstaking care that he has ex- 
ercised in bringing together this notable series of 

This is one of the really notable private collec- 
tions in English-speaking America; in some direc- 
tions, as in the thoroughness with which it covers 
its broad field, equalling or even outranking those 
of the larger American museums. 

The gathering of this monumental series has been 
results of a life time and if the future Canadian 
student of ornithology in its broader aspects, finds 
the working tools for his investigations within this 
Dominion it will be entirely due to Mr. Fleming's 

This is by far the largest collection of birds in 
Canada, outranking even in mere point of numbers 
its nearest rival, that of the Museum of the Geolog- 
ical Survey at Ottawa, representing the Dominion 
Government's national collections, which though 
practically confined to the Canadian field, numbers 
barely 14,000 specimens. Whilst these figures may 
seem large to the unitiated they are really small in 
comparison with the more notable collections abroad. 
There are a number of private collections in the 
United States ranging in the neighborhood of 
60,000. The collection of the United States Na- 
tional Museum, a comparable institution to ours, 
has, exclusive of large collections of the Biological 
Survey which are practically amalgamated with it, 

reached 200,000, whilst the British Museum 
bird collections passed the half-million milestone ten 
years ago. These comparative figures are merely 
given here to indicate that while Canada may be 
congratulated on having made a healthy start in 
this branch of scientific investigation, she has still 
a long way to go before she can compete on a par 
with other countries which have had a longer start 
in the field of zoological research. 

P. A .Taverner. 

Wild Animals of Glacier National Park. 
The Mammals, with notes on Physiography and 
Life Zones, by Vernon Bailey, Chief Field Natur- 
alisi. Bureau of Biological Survey, Department of 
Agriculture. The Birds, by Florence Merriam 
Bailey, author of Handbook of Birds of the West- 
ern United States. Dept. of the Interior, Franklin 
K. Lane, Secretary. National Park Service, 
Stephen T. Mather, Director. Washington: Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, 1918. (Pp. 1-210, with 
21 halftone plates of mammals and 16 of birds, 18 
text figures of mammals, and 78 of birds. Copies 
may be procured from the Superintendent of Docu- 
ments, Government Printing Office, Washington, 
D.C., at 50 cents per copy). 

Glacier National Park lies in northwestern Mon- 
tana, along the main range of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, the "Continental Divide," from the Canadian 
boundary, where it adjoins one of our own Cana- 
dian national parks, the Watertcn Lakes Park, on 
the north, to the line of the Great Northern Rail- 
way on the south. Glacier Park, though one of 
the more recently established United States parks, 
is rapidly becoming famous as a region of great 
scenic beauty, celebrated by painters and photo- 
graphic artists. The present volume is a praise- 
worthy effort of the United States park manage- 
ment, during the recent turning of the movement of 
vacation tourists to "See America First," resulting 
in many new visitors to the national parks, to set 
forth some of the less known natural advantages of 
these great national playgrounds to a large and 
constantly growing class of people. The scenic 
mountain-peaks, icy glaciers, and mirroring lakes 
scarcely need to be pointed cut, but other fascinating 
possibilities are not so obvious. Interest in wild 
life is growing everywhere, and nothing adds to the 
interest of our parks more than glimpses of ani- 
mated life. A few squirrels or sprightly chip- 
munks obviously add a touch of life even to a 
city park, and a sight of the picturesque and rapidly 
disappearing large game animals of the Rockies in 
their native habitat is worth going far to see. Soon 
the parks may be the only place where we shall 
have this privilege. 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


Glacier Park has a wonderful natural variety 
of plants and animals, containing within its bound- 
aries areas ranging from the lower Transition Zone 
of its open plains borders, through the dense forests 
of lodgepole pine, spruce and fir in the Canadian 
Zone at the base of the mountains, the narrow belt 
of dwarfted timber at or near timberline in the 
Hudsonian Zone, and the Arctic-Alpine Zone of 
the higher mountain-tops. Mr. Bailey has sketched 
briefly the botanical wealth of these varied climatic 
and life zones, but the book deals mainly with 
mammals and birds, and no one is better qualified 
to treat them than Mr. Bailey with his lifetime of 
experience in field work in the West, accompanied 
on many trips by the accomplished "bird woman" 
who is his wife. While the book is of aid to every 
beginning naturalist or enquiring tourist who may 
visit the region, it will prove useful as a Baedeker 
for the most expert, telling him where the species 
he is most interested in may be found at the proper 
time. A good assortment of interesting life-his- 
tory notes on each species is given, with sug- 
gestions of many things which may be of value for 
succeeding visitors to the park to watch for and add 
to our knowledge. Most of the mammals are il- 
lustrated by photographs from life. The bird sec- 
tion is well illustrated by new life photographs from 
various sources, and well-selected reproductions of 
photographs, sketches, and paintings which have 
been used in other publications. A systematic key 
is given for the classification of the commoner sum- 
mer birds of the park which will be useful in other 

places in the northern Rockies. 

In addition to the pleasure and profit which this 
book gives to a person already interested in natural 
history, and its value as a strictly biological report, 
its chief value will probably lie in introducing the 
fascinating possibilities of wild life study to the 
average citizen, the casual tourist and park visitor, 
whose numbers are increasing from year to year. 
When this interest is developed, and the parks need 
only be entered and intelligent attention called to 
their advantages for the interest to be kindled, a 
new force is added to the protection of wild life, 
rational conservation, cind public recreation, the 
influence of which can not be overestimated. 

The Canadian National Parks offer similar if 
not greater possibilities. Waterton Lakes Park (just 
north of Glacier Park), Rocky Mountains Park at 
Banff, Jasper Park in Alberta, Point Pelee Park 
in Ontario (the most southerly point in Canada, 
on the great migratory bird route along the shore 
of Lake Erie) and the Perce and Bonaventure re- 
servation for the protection of the great seabird 
rookeries at the tip of the Gaspe peninsula of 
Quebec, have their own peculiar attractions to the 
nature lover, and are bound to be still more at- 
tractive when their wild life attractions are more 
generally known to the public. For such areas, the 
little books which teach the eye to know what it 
sees, as well as to notice what is often hidden to 
the unseeing eye, have an increcising function in 
popular education. 

R. M. Anderson. 

(The October Number was mailed on November 18, 1919.) 



DECEMBER, 1919. 

No. 6. 


By Charles Macnamara, Arnprior, Ontario. 

The astrolabe was an instrument for measuring 
the altitude and relative positions of heavenly bodies. 
It was probably invented by those eminent astron- 
omers of antiquity, the Chaldeans; at any rate it 
was well known to the Greeks and Orientals long 
before Christ. Essentially it consisted cf a grrdu- 
ated circle, across the diameter of which was a 
moveable bar, pivoted at the centre. In use the 
instrument was hung plumb, and the body whose 
altitude it was desired to ascertain, was sighted 
along the bar, the angle above the horizon being 
read on a scale at the edge of the circle. The name 
of the instrument, derived from the Greek, may be 
translated as "star-taker." 

The astrolabe gradually developed into two dif- 
ferent types: a large stationary spherical apparatus 
that was the chief instrument in observatories even 
into the 17th century, and a small circular model 
that could be conveniently carried by travellers. 
This portable type was often richly ornamented, and 
engraved with elaborate graduations and scales, but 
about 1480 a simple form was designed for the use 
of mariners, and it was apparently this model that 
Columbus used on his voyages of discovery. It 
proved, however, an awkward instrument on a pitch- 
ing vessel, and shipmen generally seem to have pre- 
ferred another device known as the cross-staff. 
Nevertheless, the astrolabe continued in use until 
well into the 18th century, when it was displaced 
by the quadrant. 

In 1867 an astrolabe was found near Cobden, 
Ontario, on the old portage route which cuts off 
the great elbow that the Ottawa river makes to the 
north between its expanses known as Allumettc 
lake and Lac des Chats; and as first noticed by the 
late A. J. Russell of Ottawa, in a pamphlet pub- 
lished in 1879, evidence points strongly to the instru- 
ment having been lost by Champlain on his journey 
up the Ottawa in 1613, more than 250 years before. 

Champlain was induced to undertake this ex- 
pedition by the lying story of one Nicholas de 
Vignau, whom he had entrusted with some minor 
explorations in Canada, and who had spent a win- 
ter with the natives there. On de Vignau's return 

to France in 1612, he told Champlain a wonderful 
tale of how he had reached the North Sea by way 
of the River of the Algcnnuin? ctherwise. the 
Ottawa. One cculd travel, de Vi<rn"u said, from 
the Falls of St. Louis (Lachine) to this sea and 
back again in 17 days; and he amplified his story 
by asserting that he had seen the wreck of an English 
ship on the shore, and that the Indians there could 
show the scalps of the crew of 80 men that they 
had killed, sparing only one English boy whom 
they were keeping for Champlain. 

Deceived by this fabrication to which de Vignau 
actually made affidavit before two notaries at La 
Rochelle Champlain, on Monday, the 27th May, 
1613, to the sound of a parting salute from his 
ships, set out with five companions from Isle Ste. 
Helene (opposite the present city of Montreal) 
to seek the mythical sea. The party travelled in 
two canoes, and at starting consisted of Champlain, 
de Vignau and three other Frenchmen with one 
Indian; but later on one of the Frenchmen was 
sent back and a second Indian took his place. 

A saying of the late Mr. Lindsay Russell, one 
time Surveyor General of Canada, was that "a mul- 
tiplicity of apparatus is the hall-mark of the 
amateur." Champlain was an old experienced tra- 
veller, to whom voyages of discovery had become 
so much a matter of course that his journals never 
make any particular mention of his equipment, and 
we may be sure that he carried no "multiplicity of 
apparatus." But he certainly must have been pro- 
vided with an astrolabe, for at three different places 
along his route he took observations for latitude. 
The first was near the foot of Lake St. Louis on 
the St. Lawrence, the position of which he gives as 
45 18'. Considering the crudeness of his instru- 
ment, his observation was remarkably accurate, for 
the correct latitude is about 45 25'. 

In these days of swift and luxurious travel, it is 
interesting to note that it took the explorer eight 
days to cover the distance between Montreal and 
Ottawa; and that on the way he was nearly 
drowned in the Long Sault rapids. Thus, he 
reached the Chaudiere Falls on the 4th of 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

June, and after determining the latitude of the 
portage on the Hull side as 45 38' (actually 
45 26) he proceeded up Lake Deschenes the same 
day. The barren Eardley hills on the one side 
and the sandy shores of Constant Bay on the other 
gave him a poor opinion of the surrounding country, 
and he puts it down as "very unpromising." The 
party passed the night "on a very pleasant island"^ 
doubtless Mohr island and on the 5th June they 
portaged at the Chats falls and paddled up Lac des 
Chats. Champlain speaks of the Madawaska river 
as a tributary at this point, but says nothing of the 
Mississippi or the Bonnechere. His remark that 
"the lands about the before-mentioned lake are 
sandy" shows that he must have gone up by the 
Quebec shore, and was struck by the long arid 
stretches of Kilroy's bay and Norway bay. In Lac 
des Chats they camped as usual on an island, evid- 
ently for safety, as the Algonquins were always des- 
perately afraid of a surprise attack by the Iroquois. 
On this island Champlain recounts that he "saw 
a number of fine red cypress [cedars] the first I had 
seen in this country, out of which I made a cross, 
which I planted at one end of the island on an 
elevated and conspicuous spot, with the arms of 
France, as I had done in other places where we 
had stopped. I called this island Sainte Croix." 
Red cedar has been extinct for many years on Lac 
des Chats, and there is no island in the lake with 
any marked elevation on it, so it is impossible to 
identify Holy Cross island with any certainty ; but 
probably it is one of the Braeside islands, or per- 
haps the island opposite Norway bay. 

Next day, Thursday, 6th June, they ascended 
the Chenaux rapids to within about a mile of the 
present village of Portage du Fort, and landed on 
the Ontario side at a point known in after years 
as Gould's Landing. Champlain took the latitude 
of this place and says he found it 46 40'. In 
reality the place is about 45 34'; and in some way 
he had made a mistake of a degree in his calcula- 
tion. "Here," Champlain says, "our savages left 
the sacks containing their provisions and their less 
necessary articles in order to be lighter for going 
over-land and avoiding several falls which it was 
necessary to pass." And here de Vignau, who 
must have been contemplating the approaching ex- 
posure of his falsehood with ever increasing anxiety, 
tried to persuade Champlain that the best route was 
up the Ottawa, his hope, evident in the sequel, being 
that the long succession of rapids above Portage du 
Fort would bring disaster on the expedition, or at 
least discourage Champlain and cause him to 
turn back. But "our savages said to him, you are 
tired of living, and to me that I ought not to believe 
him, and that he did not tell the truth." Convinced 

that the Indians knew the best way, Champlain 
took their advice, and the party climbed to the higher 
land above the river, and travelled southward a 
couple of miles to the first of a chain of long narrow 
lakes that lie across the base of the large peninsula 
formed by the great swing of the Ottawa river to- 
wards the north. Until railways extended into this 
part of Ontario in the seventies of the last century, 
the route here followed by Champlain was still the 
principal road to the upper Ottawa. Steamboats 
plied on Lac des Chats from the head of the Chats 
rapids to Gould's Landing, and thence traveller.*: 
were conveyed by stage to Muskrat lake where 
they embarked on a steamboat that carried them 
to within a few miles of Pembroke. 

This was the longest and hardest portage the ex- 
pedition had struck yet. Champlain himself carried 
three arquebuses and three paddles, his cloak and 
"some small articles," among which it is safe to say 
was the famous astrolabe. The others, he says 
"were somewhat more heavily loaded, but more 
troubled by the mosquitoes than by their loads." 
They passed through the string of four small lakes, 
the first three of which are known as Coldingham, 
Town and Catherine, the fourth being apparently 
nameless, and stopped for the night on the shore of 
the more important Olmsted lake. 

"Ncus nous reposasmes sur le bord d'vn estang 
qui estoit assez agreable, & fismes du feu pour chasser 
les mousquites, qui nous molestoient fort, I'lmportu- 
nite desquels est si estrange, qu'il est impossible d'en 
pouuoir faire la descriptio." Thus Champlain: If 
he returned to-day, he would see many and as- 
tounding changes in the country he discovered; but 
amcng all that was new and wonderful, he would 
again find in the month of June the same old mos- 
quitoes, the importunity of which is as extraordinary 
as ever. 

In the morning (Friday, June 7th), they paddled 
down Olmsted lake, and on foot crossed the three 
miles or so of country that separates it from Muskrat 
lake, as the connecting streams are not navigable 
even by a bark canoe. A small lake about a mile 
long, now called by the popular name of Green 
lake, lay in their way, and although Champlain does 
not mention it, it is very likely that the Indians 
were glad to take advantage of even such a short 
piece of water as this in their long portage. It was 
on the right bank of the small stream flowing out 
of Green lake, and some 200 yards from the foot 
of the lake, that the astrolabe was found. Some- 
where between Olmsted lake and Muskrat lake, 
Champlain and his men encountered what foresters 
know as a windfall. The thick growth of pines 
had been blown down by a tornado, and it was 
with great difficulty that the party made their way 

December. 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


"now over now under these trees." The ways in 
which the astrolabe may have been lost are of 
course numberless, but there is at least a strong 
probability that this windfall occurred around Green 
lake, and that in climbing through the confusion of 
trees, the instrument was dropped unnoticed in the 

Near Muskrat lake they found a settlement of 
Indians who received them kindly, and fitted out 

what sterile soil. Neither the site of this village 
nor the extensive cemetery nearby, described at 
length by Champlain, has ever been discovered. A 
rich find awaits some lucky archeologist on AUu- 
mette island. 

For our present purpose it is important to notice 
what Champlain says about the latitude of this place. 
The text of the 1632 edition of his journal reads: 
"Elle est par les 47 degrez." In "Voyages of 

Champlain's Astrolabe: actual size is .5% in. in diameter. From photograph kindly 

supplied by Mr. Samuel V. Hoffman. 

two canoes to convey them on their way. From the 
foot of the lake they portaged once more, this time 
to the Ottawa, where they were met by the Chief 
Tessouat, and with him crossed to Allumette island. 
Protected by the long portages and numerous rapids, 
the Algonquins, feeling comparatively safe from the 
dread Iroquois, had established here a considerable 
village of wigwams and were cultivating the some- 

Samuel de Champlain," edited by W. L. Grant 
(New York, 1907), the translator, missing the point 
of this expression, renders it simply as: "It is in 
latitude 47." The real meaning of the phrase is 
perhaps best expressed in colloquial form: "It is 
somewhere around 47 degrees." Champlain says 
nothing of the loss of his astrolabe, but it is clear 
that he made no observation here presumably be- 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

cause he was without the means and merely esti- 
mated the position by dead reckoning from his last 
observation at Gould's Landing. 

And now the fatal hour for de Vignau had come. 
His story of the North Sea seems to have been sug- 
gested by some vague report he had heard of Eng- 
lish explorations in Hudson's Bay. But he knew 
nothing about Hudson's Bay, and in order to give 
his imaginary sea a local habitation and a name, he 
connected it with Lake Nipissing, which he had no 
doubt heard spoken of by his Indian hosts as a 
large body of water not many days' journey dis- 
tant. Thus Champlain was led to ask Tessouat 

raised loud cries, and Tessouat said: "You are a 
downright liar, you know well that you slept at my 
side every night with my children ; if you were 
among the people mentioned it was while sleeping." 
For a while the impostor brazened it out, but at 
last gave in and made full confession. "After 
meditating by himself he fell on his knees, and asked 
my pardon, declaring that all he had said both in 
France and in this country in respect to the sea in 
question was false, that he had never seen it, and 
that he had never gone farther than the village of 
Tessouat." His anxiety to return to Canada, he 
said, had caused him to concoct the story Cana- 

Green lake, near Cobdeii, UuL.; uullcl Hows 

for canoes and men to visit the "Nebicerine" (Nip- 

At first agreeing very reluctantly for they were 
not on good terms with the Nipissings at a later 
council the Indians decided that the road was too 
hard and dangerous, and refused to go. To over- 
come these objections, Champlain pointed to de 
Vignau as a young man who had travelled to the 
Nipissings without encountermg such great difficul- 
ties or finding the people so unfriendly. Aston- 
ished, Tessouat asked: "Nicholas, is it true that you 
say you were among the Nebicerine?" It was long 
before de Vignau answered; then he said hesitat- 
ingly: "Yes, I was there." At this the Indians 

tliruugh rustles at lower right-hand corner. 

dians will forgive him a little for the imphed com- 
pliment to their country and he trusted to the 
hardships and hindrances of the road to turn Cham- 
plain back before the lie was discovered. 

The Indians were greatly pleased that de Vig- 
nau's avowals had vindicated them, but they tried 
to wreak vengeance on the wretched liar. "Give 
him to us, and we promise you that he shall not lie 
any more," they cried, and all set after him shout- 
ing "their children shouting still more." But 
Champlain, to clear himself of the failure of the 
expedition, desired to have the impostor repeat his 
confession before the Frenchmen at the ships, and 
so he saved de Vignau from the wrath of the 

December. 1919] 

The Canadian Fielx)-Naturalist 


Regretting the waste of time and the hardships 
endured to no purpose, but patient under his dis- 
appointment, Champlam started on his return jour- 
ney on the 10th June, accompanied by forty canoes, 
which number was later increased to eighty by ac- 
cession of parties along the way, all eager to trade 
their furs at the Falls of St. Louis for the wonderful 
wares of the white man. Champlain did not re- 
cross the Muskrat lake portage, but ran the rapids 
down the main stream. At the Chaudiere the In- 
dians threw an offering of tobacco into the falls with 
appropriate ceremony, "by which means they are 
ensured protection against their enemies, that other- 

to do with him, and Champlain says: "As for our 
liar, none of the savages wanted him, notwithstand- 
ing my request to them to take him, and we left 
him to the mercy of God." And so de Vignau 
disappears from history. 

Anyway his troubles were all over when our story 
begins again after an interval of 254 years. From 
1613 we jump to 1867, in which year John Lee, 
a farmer living in the Township of Ross, near 
Cobden, Ontario, took a job of clearing land for 
Captain Overman, of the Jason Could, the Ottawa 
Forwarding Company's steamboat on Muskrat lake. 
Captain Overman had located lot 12 in the second 

t.r- - 


Stream from Green lake flows through alders on the right. Astrolabe was found near where 

figure is standing. 

wise misfortune would befall them." But in his 
heart, man has seldom any real faith in a propitia- 
tory sacrifice the gods are not so easy to turn 
aside and in spite of this solemn rite, several times 
the Indians were thrown into a panic at night by 
false alarms of an Iroquois attack. 

Arrived at the ships on the 17th June, Champlain 
called his chief men together, and had de Vignau 
"make declaration of his maliciousness" before 
them. The wretch pleaded hard for forgiveness, 
"and in view of certain considerations" Champlain 
pardoned him. The subsequent fate of the impostor 
is not on record. The French would have nothing 

concession of Ross, about two miles from the town 
of Cobden ; and it was here that the astrolabe we 
must attribute to Champlain, was found in August, 
1867, by John Lee's son, Edward George, at that 
time a boy of 14 years, and now a well known 
resident of the third line of Fitzroy, a few miles 
from Arnprior. How he discovered the astrolabe 
cannot be better told than in Mr. Lee's own words, 
as he related it to me in August last: 

"One day we were working just below Green 
lake in a bush of mixed hardwood and pine. I 
don't remember the number of the lot now, but il 
was afterwards occupied by John Sammcn, father 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

of Mr. Sammon, of the Copeland House, Pem- 
broke. When noon came, pa sent me home for his 
dinner, and when I got back with it he sat down 
to eat it, while I went on drawing the logs with our 
team of oxen, Buck and Brin, to the heaps where 
they were being burned. We burned timber those 
times that would make a man's fortune now-a-days. 
There was an old fallen red pine that lay down- 
hill with its top in the little creek that comes out of 
Green lake. Pa had chopped the trunk of this 
tree info three logs, and I drew two of them away 
with the oxen, but the third log, just below the 
branches was not chopped clean off, and I hitched 
the oxen to it and pulled it around sideways so as 
to break it off. I had to dig away the moss and 
marl that the old tree lay in so as to get the chain 
around the log, and when the log swung around it 
rolled back the moss like a blanket, and there on 
the ground I saw a round yellow thing, nine or 
ten inches across, with figures on it, and an arm 
across it, pointed at one end and blunt at he other. 
Alongside of it was a lump of rust that might have 
been chains or something like that, but I did not 
pick it up. I showed the compass to pa, and he 
put it on a stump a little way up the hill. Just 
then Captain Roverman (sic) came along to see 
how the work was going, and old Captain Cowley 
was with him. Pa showed them the compass and 
they took it away, and pa said they promised to 
give me $10.00 for it, but I never got a farthing nor 
saw hide or hair of the compass since. Poor pa let 
them have it, but if I had got it up to the house, 
ma would not have give it to them that easy. The 
compass was lying about two or three rods from the 
edge of the creek. I never saw water enough in 
creek to float a canoe." 

Considering that it was more than fifty years 
since Mr. Lee had found the astrolabe and that he 
had never seen it or any reproduction of it since, 
his description of the instrument, while not quite 
correct, is remarkably close to the reality, and 
does great credit to his memory, as well as giving 
his story the undoubted stamp of truth. It will be 
noticed that as a plain man making no pretence to 
book learning, Mr. Lee never ventures on the 
name "astrolabe," but always speaks of the in- 
strument as a "compass." Sometimes in conversa- 
tion, with a real feeling for style, to avoid iteration, 
he refers to it as "the item." 

Captain Overman eventually gave the astrolabe 
to Mr. R. W. Cassels, of Toronto, president of the 
Ottawa Forwarding Company, but this priceless relic 
of the founder of Canada was so lightly appreciated 
by Canadians that it was permitted to leave the 
country, and in 1901 an American connoisseur, Mr. 

Samuel V. Hoffman, of New York, added it to 
his large collection of astrolabes. It is still in Mr. 
Hoffman's possession, and to him I am much in- 
debted for the photograph of it illustrating this 

In comparison with the exquisitely finished in- 
struments of precision carried by the modern ex- 
plorer, Champlain's astrolabe is a very rough pro- 
duction. A careful description of it is given by 
Russell in his pamphlet already referred to. The 
instrument, which has the date 1603 engraved on it 
near the bottom, is of brass, and is of 554 inches 
diameter. The metal is ! g inch thick at the 
top and increases to Vs inch at the bottom, the 
extra weight below being intended to give stead'.ness 
in use. A ring at the bottom, to which, Russell 
surmises, a weight was to be hung for additional 
stability on shipboard, was accidently broken off 
before the astrolabe came into Mr. Hoffman's hands. 
The suspension ring at the top has a double hinge 
to ensure the instrument hanging plumb. (The fine 
statute of Champlain in Major's Hill Park, Ottawa, 
shows the great explorer holding his astrolabe up- 
right in his hand, but this is an artistic license; in 
making an observation, the instrument was held sus- 
pended from the top.) The circle is divided into 
single degrees, and it was possible, as Champlain's 
observations prove, to determine latitude by aid of 
the instrument to within 1 5 minutes of a degree or 
even less. 

Last October under Mr. Lee's guidance, I visited 
the place where the astrolabe was picked up. Lee 
had not been there for many years, yet he had no 
difficulty in finding the place, and the surround- 
ings agreed accurately with the description he had 
given me two months before. Naturally, tremen- 
dous changes have taken place in the 300 years 
since Champlain and his men, heavily laden, "et 
plus greuez de mousquites que de leur charge, " 
forced their way through the primeval woods. The 
sombre pine forest that then rolled unbroken over 
the ridges and valleys has long disappeared, and 
the somewhat hilly land is now laid out in well 
cultivated farms with clumps of hardwood bush 
here and there. Hardwoods grow to the water's 
edge around Green lake, except at its foot, where 
there are some old farm buildings, and a large 
sloping field, along the bottom of which the small 
stream that issues from the lake flows through alders 
and poplars. It was on the right bank of this 
"creek" a few yards from the water, and about 
200 yards below the lake, that Lee found the astro- 
labe in the moss. There is no prominent object in 
the landscape to mark the exact spot, and where 
the instrument lay is now cultivated ground. But 

December, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


to fix the position as nearly as may be, it should 
be noted that the slope of the field becomes a little 
steeper just here and forms a slight shoulder, and 
the stream begins a small deviation towards the 
south. The stream is not nearly large enough to 
navigate a canoe, and there is nothing to show that 
it was ever any larger. But its valley leads in an 
approximately direct line to Muskrat lake, and there 
is no doubt that Champlain and his party portaged 

along it both for the guidance of the flowing water 
and because it was their shortest road. 

In the preparation of this article I have to thank 
Mr. A. F. Hunter, secretary of the Ontario His- 
torical Society, for bibliographical references and 
other assistance ; and I am also under obligation 
to Mr. L. P. Sylvain, of the Library of Parlia- 
ment, Ottawa, for ready permission to consult the 
Government's rare Canadiana. 


By J. H. Fleming. 

Almost the first knowledge we have of the orn- 
ithology of the Saskatchewan region is contained 
in a series of papers published in the Ibis of 1861- 
62-63, by Capt. Blaikston, who spent the winter of 
! 857-58 at Fort Carlton, on the Saskatchewan 
river, and in 1858 collected at various points in 
what is now the Province of Saskatchewan. In 
these papers Capt. Blakiston incorporated much in- 
formation from Vol. II of the Fauna Boreali- 
Americana of Richardson- and Swainson, and other 
published sources. Since then our knowledge of the 
birds of southern Saskatchewan has been con- 
stantly enlarged, but strangely enough the ornithol- 
ogy of the great region drained by the Churchill 
river and lying to the north of what was till 1912 
the northern boundary of the province, has had little 
or no attention paid to it. Notes on its birds were 
made by James M. Macoiin, who in 1888 travelled 
fiom Lesser Slave lake east by way of the Atha- 
basca and Churchill rivers to Lake Winnipeg; these 
notes were eventually published by John Macoun 
in his "Catalogue of Canadian Birds." Less than 
a dozen birds are in the U.S. National Museum 
collected at Du Brochet lake in 1890, and Pelican 
Narrows in the Churchill river in 1891 ; probably 
collected by Henry MacKay, and Joseph Hourston 
for Roderick MacFarlane; these are the only skins 
I have seen from this region taken before 1914. 
During the years 1892-93-94, J. Burr Tyrrell in 
the course of his explorations of the Barren Grounds 
more than once traversed the Churchill river, and 
his official reports^ contain the best description we 
have of this region; in these reports there are short 
references to birds. When Edward A. Preble 
wrote his great report on the Natural History of the 
Athabasca-Mackenzie region- he included all that 

lAnnual Report, Geological Survey of Canada 
VIII (new series) Part D, pp. 5D to 120D, Ottawa, 
1896. Ibid., IX, 1896, Part F (-1897). 

-A Biological Investigation of the Athabasca- 
Mackenzie Region. North American Fauna No. 27. 
Bureau of Biological Survey, Washington, 1908. 

was known of the birds of the Churchill river up 
to 1908. 

When the boundaries of Saskatchewan were, in 
1912, extended north to include a part of the old 
Northwest Territory, so little was known by the 
Provincial Government of the natural history of the 
northern part of the country that Angus Buchanan 
determined to investigate the country lying between 
the Saskatchewan river and the Barren Grounds. 
He left Prince Albert on May 6. 1914, and des- 
cended the Beaver river to Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, and 
the Churchill river, thence continuing upstream on 
Reindeer river, and Reindeer lake, entering the 
Cochrane river on July 18, and Lake Du Brochet 
on August I . His base camp was made north of this 
lake, and here he proposed to winter, but hearing 
of the outbreak of the war in late October, he de- 
decided to return, reaching Regina on January 15, 
1915, after an absence of eight and a half months, 
during which he travelled nearly two thousand 
miles by canoe and dog-sleigh. The birds col- 
lected during this expedition were divided, part were 
deposited in the Provincial Museum at Regina, and 
the rest handed over to me ; they form a very im- 
portant addition to our knowledge of the birds of 
the region drained by the Churchill river, and are 
in fact the first collection made in northern Sas- 

After making a short report' of his trip, to the 
Provincial Museum at Regina, Mr. Buchanan re- 
turned to his home in Scotland, enlisted in the 
Legion of Frontiersmen (25th Royal Fusiliers) as 
a private, was sent to East Africa, and served 
throughout that campaign, rising to the rank of 
captain, and received the Military Cross, and on 
being invalided home requested me to prepare a list 
of the birds collected in 1914. I had already ex- 
amined the birds in the Museum at Regina in 1915 

sReport of the Chief Game Guardian, 1914, pp. 
33-34, 37-39, Regina, 1915 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

and I am indebted to Mr. H. H. Mitchell, of the 
Provincial Museum, Regina, for the loan of any 
that were needed for comparison. The data on the 
birds themselves is exceedingly full, and Capt. 
Buchanan has furnished me w^ith a list of the 
specimens together v^^ith notes on the colors of 
the soft parts, food, etc., from this I have quoted 
when necessary, but except in three instances have 
not used the sight records, which will be given fully 
in a forthcoming book by Capt. Buchanan. 
Columbus holboelli, Holboell's Grebe. 

Set of five eggs taken on Churchill river, June 6; 
bird seen at close range. 
Cavla immer. Loon, Great Northern Diver. 

An adult taken on Reindeer lake, July 8. 
Larus hrachyrhynchus. Short-billed Gull. 

An adult female taken on Reindeer lake, July 9; 
one more seen on same date; this is very far east 
for this gull. "Iris, clear blackish-grey; edge of 
eyelid surrounding eye, deep orange chrome; cor- 
ners of mouth, pure orange chrome; feet, pale whit- 
ish-yellow." Dr. Oberholser regards this gull as 
a subspecies of Larus canus.^ 
Larus delarvarensis. Ring-billed Gull. 

A male taken on Ile-a-la-Crosse lake. May 23 ; 
adult except for the black primaries and terminal 
black band of the tail, probably a non-breeding 
bird. "Bill, medium dark greenish-yellow, with 
strong black ring around bill a short distance from 
tip; eyelids, and corners of mouth, deep orange- 
chrome; feet, pale greenish-yellow." Seventeen 
others seen with this bird. 
Larus Philadelphia, Bonaparte's Gull. 

Four specimens, one adult male (thought by the 
collector to be a non-breeding bird), taken on the 
Cochrane river, July 20. "Iris dark; bill black; 
legs and feet, orange-chrome." One adult female, 
taken on Cochrane river, July 25, "Iris dark; eye- 
ring, dark crimson; bill, black; corners of mouth, 
reddish-flesh color; legs whitish orange-chrome; 
feet, more rich chrome." Two juvenile birds taken 
on Lake Du Brochet, Cochrane river, August 1, 
one of these, a female, is marked "Iris, dark; bill, 
medium dull blackish-grey; both mandibles dark 
from nostril out; legs, feet, and webs, whitish skin 
color with pale brown joints." This species is be- 
lieved to breed in trees, and it is unfortunate in 
view of the young birds taken, that the nesting site 
was not found. 
Xema sabini, Sabine's Gull. 

Three seen and a pair of adults taken on Sandy 
lake, Churchill river, June 9; the female is marked 
"Iris, black; pure red eye-ring; bill, black to one- 
eighth beyond nostril, remainder of tip medium dull 
lemon yellow; feet, black." 

4Auk. XXXVI, 1919, pp. 83-84. 

Sterna hirundo. Common Tern. 

A juvenile female with primaries not fully grown, 
taken on Cochrane river, August 14. Seen in com- 
pany with parents and another young bird. 
Mergus amcricanus. Merganser. 

A male in very worn immature plumage, taken 
on the Churchill river, June \. "Iris, dark; bill, 
medium deep crimson, crown of upper mandible, 
black; feet, bright orange-chrome." 
Mergus serralor. Red-breasted Merganser. 

An adult female taken on Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, 
May 23. "Iris, clear deep umber brown; bill, all 
red except along crown of upper mandible which is 
dark horn-brown ; legs and feet, rich reddish or- 

A downy young female, length 14.75 in., taken 
on the Cochrane river, August 15. "Iris, pale clear 
brownish sage-green; bill, blackish-brown over 
crown of upper mandible for entire length, except 
tip, sides of upper mandible and entire lower man- 
dible pale dull huffish yellow; legs and feet, dull 
brownish-grey ; webs, dull umber-brown. Bird in 
company with mother and about a dozen young." 
Set of twelve eggs taken on rocky island in Rein- 
deer lake, July 12. "Nest, found on ground con- 
cealed beneath ledge of rock; eggs almost hard on 
rock and rim of nest composed of small leaves and 
twigs profusely mixed with blackish-grey down." 
Nettion carolinense. Green-winged Teal. 

A pair taken on the Beaver river. May 18. 
Oidemia perspicillata. Surf Scoter. 

Three specimens, one adult male, taken at Lake 
Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 31 ; two adult females taken 
on the Reindeer river, June 30. "Flock of about 
twelve scoters together, all in pairs." 
Phalaropus fulicarius, Red Phalarope. 

A male taken on Sandy Fly lake, Churchill river, 
June 1 \. 
Steganopus tricolor, Wilson's Phalarope. 

Two specimens, an adult female taken on 
Crooked lake, May 13. "Bird alone, resting as if 
tired out, perhaps migrating." The other an adult 
male taken on the Beaver river. May 19. "Male 
and female together on floating weeds, on edge of 
small lake off Beaver river; birds in company with 
pair of Dowitchers and Lesser Yellow-legs." 
Callinago delicata, Wilson's Snipe. 

Nest taken near Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 31. 
"Four eggs, slightly incubated, nest of damp grasses 
on ground among low snow-berry bushes. Flushed 
bird off nest three or four times to-day and yester- 
Macrorhamphus griseus griseus, Dowitcher. 

Five specimens, a pair taken on Crooked lake, 
May 13, have been compared with a series of this 
form and of M. g. scalopaceus. Another pair 

December, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

taken on the Beaver river, May 19, and a male on 

Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 23. 

Pisohia fuscicollis, White-rumped Sandpiper. 

A female taken on Sandy lake, Churchill river, 
June 10, and a male taken on Sand Fly lake. 
Churchill river, June II. 
Pisohia bairdi, Baird's Sandpiper. 

Four specimens, a female taken near Fort Du 
Brochet, Reindeer lake, July 17; and a male and 
two females taken on the Cochrane river, July 23. 
Pisohia minutilla. Least Sandpiper. 

Four specimens, a female. Reindeer lake, July 
13. "Bird alone breeding on island, apparently 
had nest." A female taken July 29, and a pair 
taken on the Cochrane river, July 30. 
Pelidna alpirta sa}(halina. Red-backed Sandpiper. 

A female, Churchill river, June 8. "Shot on 
small stony island, in company with seven Semi- 
palmated Sandpipers." 
Ereunetes pusillus, Semipalmated Sandpiper. 

Two pairs taken on the Churchill river, June 
2, from a flock. 
Calidris leucophaea, Sanderling. 

Three specimens taken from a flock of four, 
Cochrane river, July 21 ; "probably non-breeding 
Helodromus solitarius solitarius, Solitary Sandpiper. 

"A female with large egg in oviduct;" Beaver 
river, May 18. 
Actitis niacularia. Spotted Sandpiper. 

Two adults ,a male, Crooked river. May I 5, and 
a female. Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 23. Two 
sets of four eggs each, taken on the Churchill river, 
June 10 and 13, also a downy young taken on the 
Cochrane river, July 29. 

Charadrius dominicus dominicus, American Golden 

An adult female taken when in company with 
Kildeer Plover, on the Churchill river, June 2. 
"Eye, bill, and feet black." 
Oxeyechus vociferus, Kildeer. 

Seen in company with the Golden Plover, but no 
specimens taken. 
Aegialitis semipalmata, Semipalmated Plover. 

Four specimens, a male. Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, 
May 23; a pair, Cochrane river, July 23, and a 
female taken July 29, also on the Cochrane river. 
Arenaria interpres morinella. Ruddy Turnstone. 

Four specimens, a female found alone on Lake 
Ile-a-la-Crosse, on May 22; a male also found 
alone on the same lake on the 23rd ; and two females 
taken from large flock on June 9, on the Churchill 

Canachiies canadensis canadensis, Hudsonian 
Spruce Partridge. 

Eight specimens, six adults and two downy young. 

A pair with nest and eggs taken at Lake Ile-a-la- 
Crosse, May 25; male not preserved. "Eggs, six 
in number, fresh; nest on ground close in at foot 
of alder bush; site, dry open poplar knoll, surround- 
ed by dense spruce and tamarack swamp; nest of 
dry leaves, same as carpet of surrounding ground, 
a few feathers lining nest." A male, same locality, 
May 29. A female in moult, and a downy young. 
Reindeer lake, July 10, the female has pin feathers 
on the sides of the head, and new tail feathers are 
appearing. A downy young, Cochrane river, July 
20, was with other young and female parent when 
taken. A male taken August 3, a female, August 
4, and a male, August 7, all adults. Lake Du 
Brochet. The young could fly, though the first 
was only five inches in length. 
Lagopus lagopus lagopus. Willow Ptarmigan. 

One specimen. Fort Du Brochet, Reindeer lake, 
November 4. "Same day first Barren Land Car- 
ibou of the season were shot." 
Accipiter velox. Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

An adult male. Otter lake, Churchill river, June 
Asiur atricapillus atricapillus, American Goshawk. 

A female, and set of three eggs, Beaver river, 
May 16. 
Buleo platypierus, Broad-winged Hawk. 

Three specimens, a melanotic male. Crooked 
river. May 14, is chocolate brown except for the 
tail bars, which are normal ; a male taken in same 
locality on the 1 5th, and a female taken on Beaver 
river. May 16. 

Haliaectus leucocephalus alascanus. Northern Bald 

An adult male, taken on the Churchill river, June 
12; three downy young taken on Reindeer lake, two 
on the 7th and one on the 10th of July. These 
latter are marked, "Iris, dark umber brown; bill, 
dark horn color; cere, slightly more light brown, 
corner of mouth, pale whitish-yellow; legs and feet, 

Falco columharius columharius, Pigeon Hawk. 

Seven specimens, an adult female (two other 
birds seen). Reindeer lake, July 13; a female in 
company with four or five almost fully fledged 
young, three of which were taken, Lake Du Brochet, 
August 3 ; the young have wings and tail not fully 
grown and traces of down on the head ; the old 
bird is in very worn plumage with one fresh blue 
tail feather, but showing no other signs of the blue 
plumage. Two fully fledged young birds (two 
others seen), Lake Du Brochet, August 7. 
Pandion halia'elus carolinensis, American Osprey. 

Three specimens, a female. Crooked lake. May 
13; a male, taken with nest. Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, 
May 25. "Nest containing single egg on very top 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

of broken-off dead jack pine; nest mainly built of 
twigs, inside thickly lined with damp mud, grass 
and moss; fish scales on edge of nest; the male bird 
was bringing both talons full of damp moss to nest 
when shot." A female taken with nest and two 
eggs, Churchill river, June 6. 
Surma ulula caparoch, American Hawk Owl. 

A male taken on Lake Du Brochet, August I. 
Picoides arcticus, Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker. 

An adult male, Cochrane river, July 13; yellow 
crest, much worn, exposing the white bases of the 

Picoides americanus fasciatus, Alaskan Three-toed 

An adult female. Fort Du Brochet, October 22. 
Sph^rapicus varius varius, Yellow-bellied 

Two males, Big river. May 7 and II. 
Colaptes auritus borealis. Boreal Flicker. 

One female, Cochrane river, July 21 ; the male 
seen. There is another adult female in the United 
States National Museum taken at Lake Du Brochet, 
September 26, 1890. This form is included in the 
range of luteus in the A.O.U. Check List. 
Sa})ornis phoebe, Phoebe. 

A male, Reindeer river, June 30. 
Nuttallornis borealis, Olive-sided Flycatcher. 

Two males. Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 27 and 


Empidonax trailli alnorum, Alder Flycatcher 

Three specimens, a male, Churchill river, June 
6; two from the Cochrane river, July 27 and 28, 
the latter a female. All taken in willows at edge of 
Empidonax minimus. Least Flycatcher. 

A female. Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 29, and a 
male, Remdeer river, June 28. 
Perisoreus canadensis canadensis, Canada Jay. 

One immature bird. Reindeer lake, July II, is 
somewhat difficult to place; it compares well with 
one of about the same age from 40 miles south- 
west of Calgary, Alberta, August 4, 1895; and is 
not so dark above as a younger bird from near 
Latchford, Ontario, June 10, 1906. Preble refers 
to a breeding bird from Pelican Narrows, Church- 
ill river, in the United States National Museum,' 
and in fact Reindeer lake is well within the known 
range of canadensis. 
Corvus corax principalis. Northern Raven. 

Five specimens; three from Churchill river; a 
young bird taken from the nest, June 2; an adult 
female, June 18, and a young bird fledged and in 
company with parent and two other young; two 
adult males taken December 15, one on Lake Du 
Brochet, the other on Reindeer lake. 

oNorth American Fauna No. 27, 1908, p. 402. 

Corvus brachyrhynchos subsp? American Crow. 

An immature female taken on the Reindeer river, 
June 29; this bird compares well with a breeding 
female from Craven, Saskatchewan, much better 
than it does with Ontario birds, and may better be 
placed with the Western Crow, C. b. hesperis, but 
owing to lack of material of comparable age I 
hesitate to do so. 
Euphagus carolinus. Rusty Blackbird. 

Three specimens from Lake Du Brochet, 
August 7, an adult male, "Iris, clear yellowish- 
white," an immature (female?) "Iris, medium clear 
umber brown;" and an immature male, "Iris, pale 
sage green." 
Carpodacus purpureus purpureus. Purple Finch. 

Two adult males. Big river. May 9; a female 
seen with these. 
Acanthis linaria linaria. Redpoll. 

Three specimens, an adult male with rosy breast, 
Cochrane river, July 21, "Bird in company with 
one young; bill, dark brownish." Two males, an 
adult and young. Lake Du Brochet, August 10; 
"bill, flat black" in the young. 
Plectrophenax nivalis nivalis, Snow Bunting. 

One specimen. Reindeer lake, October 23. "Large 
flocks of these birds for the past fortnight." 
Passerculus sandivichensis subsp? Savannah 

Three specimens, one from Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, 
May 27; an adult male from Fort Du Brochet, 
July 17; and a juvenile female, Cochrane river, 
July 28. These are very dark birds, much more 
so than alaudinus should be, and very different from 
the light race that breeds in southern Saskatchewan 
which is, no doubt, nevadensis. 
Passerberbulus leconiei, Leconte's Sparrow. 

Two specimens, one of a pair, Churchill river, 
June 2; a male, Haultaine river, June 6. "Birds 
breeding here." 
Zonotrichia querula, Harris's Sparrow. 

Seven specimens, an adult female, and a juvenile 
male, Cochrane river, July 26; an adult male, Coch- 
rane river, July 30. "Male and female with fledged 
young." A female and young bird, Cochrane river, 
July 31 ; a female, Cochrane river, August 3. 
"Bird in company with others, probably her fully 
fledged young." An adult female, Lake Du Bro- 
chet, August 6. Adult's "bill, dull senna brown," 
juvenile's, "bill blackish-brown, yellow along edges 
of mandibles and at corners of mouth." So little 
is known of the early plumages of this sparrow that 
a description of the young of July 31, may not be 
out of place: length 3.75 in., pileum with feathers 
brownish-black, indistinctly edged with grayish-buff, 
producting a dark crown with a few grayish-buff 
spots ; throat and chin grayish-buff, throat with a 




The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


few blackish-brown spots; chest brownish-buff 
streaked with brownish-black; flanks buff with 
brown streaks, rest of under parts buffy-white ; above 
brown streaked with black, upper tail coverts 
brownish-buff darker than in adult; wing 
coverts tipped with buff. 
Zonalrichia leucophr^s gambelii, Gambel's Sparrow. 

Three specimens, an adult male and a juvenile 
male. Reindeer lake, July 16; and a young male, 
Cochrane river, July 26. 
Spizella monticola monlicola. Tree Sparrow. 

A male. Reindeer lake, July II. "Two pairs 
breeding on an island, first seen on trip." A female. 
Fort Du Brochet, July 17. "Bird had young al- 
most fully fledged." 
Spizella passerina passerina. Chipping Sparrow. 

A male. Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 27. 
Melospiza melodia melodia. Song Sparrow. 

A pair. Reindeer river, June 28. 
Melospiza lincolni lincolni, Lincoln's Sparrow. 

A male, Reindeer river, June 29. 
Melospiza georgiana. Swamp Sparrow. 

A male, Churchill river, June 6. "Small colony 
of these birds breeding at this place." 
Passerella iliaca iliaca, Fox Sparrow. 

Four specimens, all males, one Reindeer lake, 
July 11; three, Cochrane river, July 18 and 24, 
and August 3. The July 24 bird was carrying 
food to fledged young. 
Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons, Cliff Swallow. 

Two females, Churchill riv'er, June 9; a pair, 
Cochrane river, August 6, fully fledged young in 
company with these last. 
Iridoprocne bicolor. Tree Swallow. 

Two specimens, a female, Crooked river. May 
15; a young male. Lake Du Brochet, August 6. 
Two sets of eggs taken on the Churchill river, 
June 1 I ; nests in old woodpecker holes in dead 
Riparia riparia. Bank Swallow. 

A male, Sandy lake, Churchill river, June 9. 
Bombycilla garrula, Bohemian Waxwing. 

Two specimens from Cochrane river, a juvenile 
male taken July 28. "Iris, dark, not reddish-brown, 
like adult." An adult female, July 30. 
Bomhycilla cedrorum, Cedar Waxwing. 

A male, Key lake, June 25. 
Lanius borealis. Northern Shrike. 

A male, Cochrane river, October 19. 
Vireos])lva olivacea, Red-eyed Vireo. 

A male, Dead lake, Churchill river, June 17. 
Lanivireo solitarius solilarius, Blue-headed Vireo. 

A male. Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 28. 
Mniotilla varia, Black and White Warbler. 

A male, Beaver river. May 17. 
^x Vermivora peregrina, Tennessee Warbler. 
M|\ Three males, two from Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, 

ay 27, and June 2 ,one from Dead lake, Churchill 
ver, June 1 7. 

Dendroica aestiva aestiva, Yellow Warbler. 

Two males, one Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 27, 
the other Reindeer lake, July 4; this latter is only 
a little more worn than the May bird. 

Dendroica coronata. Myrtle Warbler. 

Three specimens, two adult males, from Big 
river. May 7 and 8; a juvenile, Cochrane river, 
July 27. Hoover's Warbler, D. c. hooveri has 
recently been revived by Dr. Oberholser and the 
range of this western race of the Myrtle Warbler 
is given as reaching east to central Mackenzie, but 
the adult taken May 8, which I have been able to 
compare with a series of both the supposed races; is 
nearer to coronata. 

Dendroica striata, Black-poll Warbler. 

A male, Beaver river. May 18. 
Dendroica palmarum palniarum, Palm Warbler. 

A male, Beaver river, May 18. 
Seiurus noveboracensis noveboracensis, Water- 

Three specimens, a female, Beaver river. May 
20; a male, Knee lake, Churchill river, June 6; 
and a female, Reindeer river, June 28. These are 
close to Grinnell's Water-Thrush, S. n. notablis, in 
IVilsonia pusilla pusilla, Wilson's Warbler. 

A male, Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 26. 

Sitta canadensis, Red-breasted Nuthatch. 

A male. Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 25. 
Penthestes hudsonicus hudsonicus, Hudsonian 

Three specimens, a pair taken at Big river. May 
8; and a young bird, Cochrane river, July 24. This 
last is interesting though full-grown (length 5 in.), 
the pileum instead of being soft grayish-brown is 
blackish-brown, forming a distinct cap, while the 
hind neck and back are brownish-gray. 

Regulus calendula calendula, Ruby-crowned 
Three specimens, a male. Lake Ile-a-la-Crosse, 
May 28; a female taken with nest containing young, 
Churchill river, July 3 ; and a male taken. Reindeer 
lake, July 9. The nest taken July 3 is described 
as follows: "Nest in young spruce tree about ten 
feet high, nest against limb and about eight feet 
up. Nest contained seven young, about fourteen 
days old." 

Hylocichla aliciae aliciae. Gray-cheeked Thrush. 

Two males. Big river, May I 1 ; Churchill river, 
June 18. This latter is in very worn plumage. 
"Bird in company with mate." 

H^locicbla ustulata srvainsoni, Olive-backed 
Two males, Ile-a-la-Crosse, May 25; and Black 

Bear island, Churchill river, June 14. 
Hylocichla guttata pallasi. Hermit Thrush. 
A male, Beaver river. May 18. 




By Bro. M. Victorin, Longueuil College, Que. 

For the purpose of furthering phytogeographical 
researches bearing upon the semi-halophytic section 
of the St. Lawrence river, and with the special aim 
of collecting specimens of Carex for monographical 
work, we alighted by noontide on June 22, 1917, 
on the Baie St. Paul wharf; our plant-press and 
other botanical outfit, though not imposing too much 
on the sturdy shoulders of the natives, nevertheless 
excited their curiosity to the utmost. 

ically and botanically. We have given elsewhere'^ 
the impressions gathered from that quaint romantic 
spot which has preserved to an almost incredible 
degree, the language, customs and traditions of the 
1 7th century and which, moreover, retains the most 
remarkable originality of not being spoiled by tour- 
ists. The following lines intend only to record 
briefly the botanical data collected. 

Isle-aux-Coudres is of about fifteen miles' cir- 

S^. LAWRENCE BiVXTl . |3jtt 




Like most of the members of the botanical fratern- 
ity, we have never succeeded in making clear to 
the average guide, driver or paddler, the point of 
view of the botanist. Notwithstanding this failure 
and through the good offices of Francois Bouchard, 
we crossed the channel and landed on Isle-aux- 
Coudres towards four o'clock. At the west end 
of the island, there is no other sort of wharf than 
Francois Bouchard's back, but this is as sure as a 
cantilever bridge. One who takes a strong hold 
about the fellow's neck crosses the wide e.xpanse of 
mud and Fucus stretching at low tide between the 
water and the shore proper without injury to his 

A full week was spent visiting the island histor- 

cumference and lies in the course of the St. Law- 
rence river about fifty miles below Quebec city. 
Though the inspection of a map would make one 
think that it belongs to the north shore, from which 
it is separated only by a relatively narrow channel, 
yet, like most probably all of the St. Lawrence 
islands it is on the southeastern side of Logan's fault, 
and is really a detached part of the south shore, 
showing the same inclined strata of shale and lime- 
stone as the near-by Cambrian Sillery of L'Islet. 
The whole island is an upland of from 50 to 100 
feet elevation surrounded by a narrow alluvial 

iFr. Marie-Victorln, Croquis laurentiens: Isle- 
aux-Coudre.s. Le F'ailer Frangais, Vol. XVI. No. 
1, lip. 164-171. 1917. 




The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


prairie. The centre is slightly depressed and oc- 
cupied by an extensive bog which suggests that the 
place was, in geologically recent times, somewhat 
atoll-shaped. The river waters are decidedly fresh, 
less so at the lower end. The wave action very 
powerful, save on the northern side sheltered by the 
high Laurentian cliffs of the mainland has pro- 
duced a noticeable bar of sand and gravel behind 
which has developed a continuous lagoon generally 
transformed into a marsh by the invasion of halo- 

The leading plant in this particular habitat is the 
polymorphic CaTex acuta L. ( = C. goodenoughii 
J. Gay) ; the abundant rhizomes form a felted en- 
tanglement about as troublesome to farmers as the 
familiar couch grass. It is locally called "teigne," 
a very expressive word with the French Canadians, 
indicating something not easy to get rid of. Various 
sedges and flowering plants help C. acuta in filling 
the lagoons: Carex recta Boott, Carex canescens L., 
var. disjuncta Fernald, C. Tucf^ermani Dewey, C. 
crhiita Lam., C. maritinm Miiell., Caltha palustris 
L., Spathyema foetida (L.), Raf., which occurs also 
in dry ground, Men^anthes trifoliata L., Taraxacum 
officinale Weber, var. palustre (Sm.) Blytt., Carda- 
mine penns^lvanica Muhl., Pedicularis palustris L., 
Sis^rinchium angustij olium Mill., Galium palustre 
L., Triglochim maritima L. Myosotis laxa Lehm., 
and true Viola cucullata Ait., a name regarding 
which there has been some confusion m recent years. 

No botanist would neglect a favorable opportun- 
ity to visit a northern bog. So, we started one fine 
morning with a party of barefooted youngsters roused 
to a high pitch of enthusiasm by trout prospects in 
the "Rouisseau Rouge." "Rouisseau Rouge," which 
derives its name from the dark color of the acid 
waters, is a brook discharging the bog waters into 
the St. Lawrence. 

The Isle-aux-Coudres bog does not seem to differ 
materially from those of Rimouski and Temiscouata. 
As far as we have been able to see there is no free 
water in it. At this early season the water table 
was so high that we were able to inspect only the 
cuter zone. With the usual Kalmia augustifolia 
L. Kalmia polifolia L. and Ledum groenlandicum 
Oeder, we were glad to see for the first time the 
fine flowers of Rubus Chamaemorus L. The amber- 
colored fruits are known everywhere in this district 
as "blacf(bieres" an obvious corruption of the Eng- 
lish word "blackberry." All those who have seen 
the ripe fruit of this plant will, no doubt, wonder 
at such a linguistic feat. 

The genus Carex is always worthy of investiga- 
tion in northern bogs. Here were found C. tris- 
perma Dewey, a small form of C. pauciflora Lightf., 
and a new variety of C. paupercula Michx., which 

Mr. M. L. Fernald of the Gray Herbarium has re- 
cently described' as follows: 

"Carex paupercula Michx., var. brevisquama n. 
var., squamis 3-4 mm. longis perigynium subaequan- 
tibus. Scales 3-4 mm. long, about equalling the 
perigynium. Quebec: Isle-aux-Coudres, Charle- 
voix Co., June, 1917, Bro. M. Victorin, No. 4021 
(type in Gray Herbarium). 

Remarkable for its very short scales which give 
the plants a distinctive aspect, the long-acuminate 
scales of typical C. paupercula being 5-8 mm., in 
length and much exceeding the perigynium. M. L. 
Fernald, Gray Herbarium." 

The departure from the typical form is indeed 
striking and in the light of more abundant material 
might prove specific. The plant grew in a dense 
mass forming a small tussock. 

Mr. M. L. Fernald had already made a detailed 
study of C. paupercula and its allies,-' indicating 
clearly that the plant described by Michaux^ is in 
reality a northern extreme of the C. irrigua of J. E. 
Smith.' Consequently, Michaux's name has prior- 
ity. Furthermore, Michaux's plant, collected at 
Lake Mistassini has been shown to be of restricted 
boreal distribution, the species being represented 
southward by three distinct variations which may 
be summarized as follows: 

Carex paupercula and allies. 

Pistillate spikes short-oblong, 4-10 mm. in length. 
Pistillate scales 2-3 times as long as the 

1. C. paupercula. 

Pistillate scales about equalling the perigynium. 

2. C. paupercula var. brevisquama. 
Pistillate spikes cylindric, 10-18 mm. in length. 

Pistillate scales dark, castaneous; culms 

3. C. paupercula var. irrigua. 
Pistillate scales green with brown border; 
culms scabrous. 

4. C. paupercula var. pallens. 
Carex paupercula Michx. Northern Quebec ; 

Lake Mistassini and the Shikshocks Mountains of 

Carex paupercula Michx., var brevisquama Fer- 
nald Quebec; known only from the type locality, 

Carex paupercula Michx., var. irrigua (Wah- 
lemb.) Fernald Boreal and alpine Europe, sub- 
arctic regions and cold bogs of America: Quebec, 
Ontario, Nova Scotia, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, 

Carex paupercula Michx., var. pallens Fernald 
Nova Scotia, Maine, New Hampshire, Massachu- 

2Rhodora XX: 152. 1918. 

KRhodora VIII: 73, l'.i06 

4Flora I^oreali-Americana II: 172, 1S03. 

"'Hoppe, Caric. Germ.: 72. 1826. 


The Canadian Field- Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

setts, Ccnnerticut, New York, Michigan, Vermont, 
Minnesr^a. British Columbia, Ontario. 

To finish with the sedges, we will mention C. 
slipala Muhl., C. brunnescens (Pers.) Poir., and 
Carex angustior Mackenzie found here and there 
on the island, s-ivinR a total of thirteen species met 
with a rather small number. 

In June very few grasses are suitable for collect- 
ing and only Poa praiensis L. and Poa alsodes Gray 
were gathered. 

Among early-flowering genera, the often assoc- 
iated Viola and Antennaria hold an important place 
The collection of true Viola cucullaia Ait. in damp 
ground has already been mentioned. In the woods 
outside the bog zone, Viola renifolia Gray, var. 
Brainerdii (Greene) Fernald, is abundant. On 
shaded ledges near the water, Viola septentrionalis 
Greene was growing profusely with the snow-white 
Antennaria canadensis Greene. No other Anten- 
naria not even the ubiquitous A. neodioica was 
detected on the island. 

Nobody who has read the history of this country 
can leave Isle-au-Coudres without paying a visit to 
Cap a La Branche where in the times of Wolfe, 
Nicette Dufour and Franqois Savard captured the 
grandson of Admiral Durrell. Cap a La Branche 
is naturally but a low cliff covered with bushes and 
with a few white cedars which are supposed to have 
been Dufour and Savard's hiding-place a snug 
one indeed. A brooklet runs down and supplies 
sufficient moisture to induce a gorgeous growth of 
Saxifraga virginiensis Michx. and Draba arabisans 

At the Pointe-de-L'Islet, on exposed ledges fac- 
ing the sea, the short grass was strewn with the in- 
numerable white flowers of Cerasiium arvense L., 
and the strict rose-tinted inflorescences of Arabis 
brachycarpa (T. and G.) Britton. 

Close observers have already remarked that the 
older settlements in Quebec exhibit unusual floristic 
features which should be attributed to historical fac- 
tors. The first settlers, the missionaries, the "Me- 
decins du Roi," the nuns, were far from being 
minus habens and the gardens inside the palisade 
usually contained the best drug plants in favor at 
the time. When cultivation happened to cease on 
that particular spot, the plants had very often gained 
a strong foothold and were able to persist for cen- 
turies. A striking example of this is the abundance 
and pcrsistance to date of Serapias helleborine L., 
on Mount Royal, Montreal Island, the only in- 
stance of an introduced orchidaceous plant that I 
know of. 

On Isle-aux-Coudres we have observed an ex- 
traordinary abundance of Boraginaceae: Echium 
vulgare L., Cynoglossuni officinale L., Echinosper- 

mum Lappula Lehmm., Myosotis laxa Lehm., Lith- 
ospermum arvense L. and others. The peculiarity 
can be noted about Quebec city and Mr. M. L. 
Fernald finds the same to be true of the old Gaspe 

H^osc^amus niger L. which we found rooted in 
the beach gravels on the southern side is evidently 
another introduction traceable to the drug-garden of 
early days. Singularly enough our field experience 
with this plant in Quebec has shown it to occur 
mainly on island beaches of historical famj: Ih des 
Soeurs (Chateauguay), He Sainte-Helene (Mont- 
real), Isle-aux-Coudres. Moreover, it has been 
noted that this weed introduced into New England 
by early settlers and recorded there as far back as 
1672, has almost completely disappeared. It is a 
remarkable fact, adds Mr. M. L. Fernald,'' that 
in Quebec, all along the St. Lawrence river, it is 
maintaining its own and its weed-character. 

Tragopogon pratensis L. is common about build- 
ings at Isle-aux-Coudres. It seems to be an intro- 
duction of the same class. The only other locality 
I know of in Quebec is about the base of Beloeil 
Mountain where it thrives in the old orchards. 

Owing to the lack of sodium chloride in the sur- 
rounding waters the halophytes are few. Fucus 
vesiculosus L., however, is very abundant on the 
slanting rocks of the tidal shores, and is almost 
wholly relied upon as a fertilizer for potato fields. 
A scanty colony of Cakile edentula (Bigel) Hook., 
and a few bluish rosettes of Mertensia maritima 
(L.) S. F. Gray, were found among purpoise offal 
at the Pointe-de I'lslet. 

We have as yet said nothing of the trees and 
shrubs; these have intentionally been kept for the 
end. The first thing a botanist is likely to look for 
when setting foot on Isle-aux-Coudres is the Hazel- 
nut (Corylus rostrata Ait.^ from which the place 
(Vysle es Coudres of Cartier) has derived its name. 
And yet, we have searched in vain for it all around. 
My friend, Jean-Bautiste Desgagne a most im- 
portant man, simultaneously farmer, postmaster, cap- 
tain and sexton informs me that he faintly re- 
members having seen one small bush in his youth 
but he is not sure! There is some dif- 
ficulty to reconcile this fact with Jacques Cartier's 
assertion which runs thus: . . . . et entre au- 
tres il l; a plusieurs couldres tranches fort chargees 
de noisilles aussi grosses et d'une meilleure saveur 
que les notres, mais un peu plus dures. Et par cela 
nommasmes ^sle-es-couldres."^ 

Abbe Casgrain, presumably solely on Cartier's 
authority reasserts the same: "Comme au temps 

cFernald, M. L., Notes from the Phaenogamic 
Herbarium, I. Rhodora XII: 191, 1910. 

TCf. Brief recit et succincte narration, etc., of 
Cartier, 1545. Manu.script in tlie British Museum. 

December, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 


jadis, cette plage est encore pleine de beaux ei 
grands arbres de plusieurs sortes, et il n'p a qua 
etendre la main pour cueuillir sur les couldres 
franches, les grappes de noissilles."'^ 

Cartier's landing place, the so-called "Ruisseau 
a la lessive" is yet in its natural state, and it is very 
hard to believe that ecological conditions have 
changed enough in four centuries to expel the hazel- 
nut from the island. Were it not for the express 
mentioning of the fruits, our opinion would be that 
Cartier was simply mistaken as to the identity of 
the shrub, and that his hazelnut was nothing else 
than the Common Northern Alder [Alnus incana 
(L.) Moenchl which is very abundant in the damp 
places about "Ruisseau a la lessivc." The Euro- 
pean Hazelnut is taller than ours and in this re- 
spect much like our Alder. 

The sloping gravels that lead from the tableland 
to the beach are occupied by an association of trees 
and shrubs very likely as hinted above in their 
natural state. At the time of our visiting the white 
corymbs of a thorn (Crataegus flabellata (Bosc.) K. 
Koch.) were to be seen all over together with the 
ripe catkins of Salix rostrala Richardson var. luxur- 
ians Fernald. Others were Nemopaalhes mucro- 
nata (L.) Trel., Amelanchier sanguinea (Pursh) 
DC, var. gaspensis Wiegand, and the northern var- 
iety of the Balsam Poplar (Populus balsamifera L., 
var. Michauxii Henry). This interesting tree ex- 
hibited its peculiar short cordate leaves. 

Pointe-a-la-Baleine, the lower end of the island. 

sCasgrain, Abbe R. H., Excursion k I'lle-aux- 

is occupied by a flat and low gravel barren where 
only isolated patches of Juniperus siberica Burgsd., 
and stunted white spruce have been able to main- 
tain their own. Not a blade of grass, not a weed, 
not a dandelion. The dwarfed trees assume the 
peculiar short conical shape and the densely felted 
habit observed on Anticosti. Sometimes the lower 
branches have developed and lie flat on the ground, 
and in a few instances, the tree, after ending in a 
point spreads anew giving to the whole the appear- 
ance of two superposed trees. This restricted 
growth and accompanying modifications is no doubt 
due to the continuous stress of the prevailing wind, 
the well-knownd nord-esl of the lower St. Lawrence 

One of the most puzzling things we collected 
during our short stay at Isle-aux-Coudres was a 
striking seminal variation of the Sugar Maple (Acer 
saccharum L.) It is known as distinct by the 
natives and Mr. Desgagne calls it "Erable blanche." 
There is a grove of these trees at the Pointe-aux- 
Sapins, past "Ruisseau Rouge" and not far from 
the church. While taking a walk over there after 
supper in search of sunset effects, we noticed the 
peculiar appearance of the thin leaves, glaucous un- 
derneath some of which are perfectly three-lobed, 
and the remarkable fruit with wings curving in- 
wards. The tree is clearly the var. glaucum of 
Sargent in its essential characteristics. We do not 
think it is necessary, however, in the absence of 
material from somewhere else, to impose upon the 
plant a new name, as it may be but a freak of a 
teratological instance. 


Breeding of Mourning Dove Near Ottawa, 
Ontario. On the afternoon of July 3, 1919, it 
was reported to me that a Passenger Pigeon was 
nesting in the orchard of Mr. R. T. Richardson, of 
Woodroffe Farm, near Britannia. I went out in 
the evening and Mr. Richardson showed me the 
nest, on a horizontal branch of an apple tree, on 
the northeast side, about six feet from the ground. 
The bird remained quietly on the nest and allowed 
us to examine her from all sides, first from a dis- 
tance with field glasses, and later from a distance 
of only three or four feet. The bird had the 
typical light buffy grayish head and neck, with paler 
throat, and a small dark spot on each side of the 
head; wings with some dark spots an undoubted 
specimen of the common Mourning Dove, Zenaidura 
macroura caroUnensis (Linnaeus). The lack of 
slaty blue on head and upper throat and the small 
size easily proved that the bird was not the Pas- 

senger Pigeon. The Mourning Dove is rare this 
far north in the east, although it ranges well to the 
northward in the prairie provinces. Mr. Richard- 
son said that the dove had been sitting on eggs for 
about two weeks ,and when she finally fluttered off 
to the ground and away over the grass, we saw two 
blackish pin-feathered squabs on the scanty plat- 
form of a nest. The Passenger Pigeon is now be- 
lieved to be extinct, but all of the many supposed 
occurrences of this species which have been in- 
vestigated carefully have proved to be Mourning 
Doves. The two species have a general resem- 
blance to each other, in shape, color, and propor- 
tions, and may be confusing when seen alone. The 
observer who will remember that the Mourning 
Dove averages only about 12.5 inches in total length 
while the Passenger Pigeon averages 17.0 inches as 
well as being fully twice the bulk of the former 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

species, as well as the distinctive color differences 
mentioned above, need make no mistake. 

Mr. Richardson stated that he had caught as 
many as eighteen pigeons in a net at one time in 
the early days near Ottawa, and that the pigeons 
would soon clean up a field of peas, alighting along 
the rows and rapidly moving along, making short 
flights over each others' heads as soon as the spot 
was cleared of peas. 

R. M. Anderson. 

Bachman's Sparrow an Addition to the 
Canadian Fauna. One does not often have an 
opportunity of making an addition to the list of 
birds found in Canada, but when such an accom- 
plishment is sought, the best place for the focus of 
effort is Point Pelee, where there is the maximum 
of chance to get southern stragglers. In the Bird 
Book, at Camp Coues, the headquarters of orni- 
thological enthusiasm at the Point, there is a list of 
the species not yet recorded there, but regarded as 
among the immediate probabilities. In that list 
along with Pine Grosbeak, Red-bellied Wood- 
pecker, Carolina Chickadee, and others, stood the 
name of Bachman's Sparrow, but on April 16, 1917, 
that name was erased. On that day, as the writer 
in company with Prof. J. W. Crow, was examining 
a lot of shrubbery at the north end of Mr. Langell's 
large orchard, our ears were met with a peculiar 
trilling song divided into two periods, the first at a 
lower pitch and much more rapidly delivered, than 
the second. The difference in pitch was one-fifth, 
and the speed of the first phrase was almost exactly 
twice that of the second. Neither of us recognized 
the song, and we were delighted on shootmg it to 
find that we had the first Bachman's Sparrow to be 
recorded for Canada. The bird was a male and 
measured as follows: length 154 mm., wing 65, 
tail 63, tarsus 18. Records for northern Ohio are 
scanty, but there is a recent one for a locality op- 
posite Point Pelee, recorded, I believe, in the 
Wilson Bulletin. The specimen is number 4140 in 
my collection. 

W. E. Saunders. 

The Status of Bewick's Wren in Ontario. 
The record of occurrence of this species in On- 
tario is brief and the number of observers concerned 
still briefer. It has been regarded as strictly casual, 
and the following statement of our knowledge of it 

is made with the hope of changing the present 

The first specimen was taken by the writer on 
Dec. 12, 1908, about 25 miles west of London. The 
day was fairly mild, with a little snow on the 
ground, and the wren was found in the roots of a 
fallen tree, busily hunting for food. Recognizing it 
as an unusually dark wren, it was collected with 
the hope of gaining some knowledge about the fam- 
ily. When it proved to be a Bewick's a new species 
for Canada, interest was increased, but further 
search was unproductive until on April 24, 1909, 
one was heard singing, and was collected, from a 
tree immediately beside the "shack" at Point Pelee. 
The addition of another specimen on the 26th, from 
a different part of the Point, was the first real hint 
received that the bird was anything but a casual. 
Then our knowledge stood still for years. Stories 
came to our ears of large dark wrens, seen near 
the edge of the marsh in the winter and there was 
always the surmise that one of these might be taken, 
and prove to be a Berwick's, thereby .>upporting the 
idea that it was a regular inhabitant of the province. 
That hope has not been realized, and the identity 
of those so-called marsh wrens, wintering at the 
Point, is still a mystery. But on Apr'l I, 1917, 
another Bewick's Wren was seen and heard to 
sing within 25 yards of the hjuse. The next day, 
Sunday, he was still around, and on Monday came 
the great event in the world of wrens, when we 
saw and heard no less than five birds, and felt that 
we would not be too destructive in taking one of 
them, which we did. 

Our experience at the Point is that every so 
often (a phrase that succinctly expresses the exact- 
ness of our knowledge in the matter) there comes 
a day when some species has its day of migration. 
We have seen the days of Bluebirds, Blue Jays, 
male Marsh Hawks, Black Poll Warblers, etc., 
and, here, at last, seemed to be the day of Be- 
wick's Wren. Five in one day of a species of 
which all the previous years had disclosed but three, 
was truly a great number, and tells in terms not to 
be denied, that Bewick's is a regular resident of 
Ontario, whose exact domicile in summer is yet to 
be disclosed. Time alone will tell if this theory is 
correct, and it may easily prove that the insta:ice 
is one of varying abundance, so often exhibited 
in the case of species studied at or near their 
northern limit. 

W. E. Saunders. 




December, 1919] 

The Canadian Field-Naturalist 




Acanthis linaria linaria 1 12 

Accipicr velox III 

Acipenser transmontanus^^ 50 

Actitis maculata 5, 111 

Aegialiiis semipalmata 111 

A^elanius phoeniceus 13 

Ammodramus bairdii 15 

Ammodytes americanus 21 

dubius 21 

personalus 21 

Anas boschas 5 

rubripes 20 

sponsa 20 

Anderson, R. M., articles 

by 86, 101, 117 

Animals, Wild, of Glacier 

Nat. Park 101 

Antrostomus vociferous 12 

Anthus rubescens 18 

spraguei 18 

A.O.U. check list, 4th an. 

list, proposed changes 100 
Archaeology as an aid to 

Zoology 63 

Archibuteo, Status of 100 

Archilochus colubris 12 

Arenaria interpres morin- 

dla 111 

Astragalinus tristis 15, 91 

Astur atricapillus atrica- 

pillus 111 

Aulf, articles in _ lOO 

Auk, Prehistoric Range o'^ 

Great 70 

Birds of California, Game_ 82 
Birds in Relation to Sun- 
flower Growing in 

Manitoba 90 

Birds, Migratory, Conven- 
tion 58 

Bird Migration 37 

Birds, Popular Names of_ 100 
Birds of Northern Saskat- 
chewan and N. Mani- 
toba, collected in 1914 
by Capt. Buchanan. _ 109 
Bid Protection in Canada. 36 
Birds of Red Deer River__ 100 
Bird Sanctuary, an On- 
tario 62 

Bird Study from a Duck 

Blind 79 


Blackbird, Brewer's 14 

Red-winged 13 

Rusty 14, 112 

Yellow-headed__ 13 

Bluebird, Mountain 21 


Bobolmk 5, 13 

Bombycilia cedrorum 5, 17, 113 

garrula 113 

Book Notices and Reviews 

22, 41, 82 99 
Botanical Notes Isle-aux- 

Coudres 114 

Bolrychium obliquum dis- 

sectum 97 

Bittern, Least 20 

Bunting, Snow 15, 112 

Burbot 54 

Burwash, Armon, article 

by 61 

Buteo plaiypterus 111 

Calcarius lapponicus 15 

ornalus 15 

Calidus leucophaea III 

Canachites canadensis cana- 
densis 111 

Canada How an Algon- 
quin Country Receiv- 
ed an Iroquois Name_ 61 
Canoes, Canadian Abor- 
iginal 23 

Carex paupercula 115 

Carices, Types of Cana- 
dian 72 

Carpodacus purpureas^ A A, 112 

Catostomus commersonii 53 

casosiomus 53 

griseus 53 

Catbird 18 

Certhia familiaris 19 

Ceryle alcyon 12 

Champlain's Astrolabe 103 

Charadrius dominicus dom- 

inicus 111 

Chclydra serpentina 61 

Chickadee, Hudsonian 113 

Black-capped__ 19 

Chipmunk, Behavior of 92 

Chordeiles virginianus 5, 12 

Chr\)sem^s m. marginata.. 61 

Clangula c. americana 57 

islandica 57 


Cistothorus stellaris 19 

Cleinm})s guttata 61 

Coccyzus erythrophthalmus 12 

Colaptes auratus 12 

a. borealis 112 

Coluber c. constrictor 60 

Col])mbus holoelli 110 

Coregonus labradoricus 51 

n'illiamsi 50 

Cornus corax I3 

c. principalis 112 


5, 13, 112 

Couesius dissimilis 53 

Cowbird |3 

Creeper, Brown 19 

Cristivormer namaycush 52 

Criddle, N., articles by_41, 90 

Crossbill, Red 91 

White-winged- _ 91 

Cro talus horridus 61 

Crow, American 5, 13, 112 

Cuckoo, Black-billed 12 

Cyanocitta cristata 13 

Dace, Long-nosed 53 

Saskatchewan 53 

Davidson, J., article by__ 6 

Dendroica a. aesiica^S, 17, 113 

blacl(burniae __ 5 

castanea 17 

coronata 17, 1 13 

jusca 17 

magnolia 17 

palmar um 18, 113 

Pennsylvania 17 

striata 17, 113 

tigrina 17 

virens 17 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus 5, 13 

Douglas Fir Sugar 6 

Dore 54 

Dove, Mourning, near 

Ottawa 117 

Dowitcher j 10 

Dryobates pubescens 12 

villosus 12 

Duck, Black 20 

Scaup 3 

" Wood 20 

Dumatella carolinensis 18 

Eagle, Northern Bald 111 

Eater, Spawn 53 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 


Elaphe vulpina 60 

Etnpidonax flaviveniris 12 

minimus 13, 112 

irailli 13 

alnoTum__ 1 12 

Em^s blandirigii 61 

Ereunetes pusillus 111 

Emphagus carolinus 14, 112 

c^anocephalus__ 14 
Fabre. J. H., Works of__ 41 

Falco c. columbarius 1 1 1 

Farley, F. L., article by__ 38 

Finch, Gold 15, 91 

" Purple 14, 112 

Fishes of Alberta 50 

Flicker 12, 112 

Fleming, J. H., Collection 

of Birds 101 

Fleming, J. H., article by__ 109 

Flycatcher, Alder 112 

Crested 12 

Least 12, 112 

01ive-sided__12, 112 

Traill's 12 

Yellow-bellied- _ 12 

Callinago delicata 110 

Cavia immer 110 

Ceothlypis Irichas 18 

Gibson, A., notes by 22, 41 

Goldeneye, American 57 

Barrow's 57 

Western 50 

Goshawk, American 111 

Gowanlock, J. N., article by 1 

Grackle, Bronze 14 

Grebe, Holboell's 110 

Grizzly, Barren Ground__ 77 

Grosbeak, Evening 14 

Rose-breasted __ 16 

Groh, H., note by 40 

Gull. Bonaparte's 110 

Herring 4 

" Ring-billed 5, 110 

" Short-billed 110 

Sabine's 110 

Glaucus, reasons for 
discarding proposed 

race of 100 

Haliaecius I. alascanus 1 1 1 

Halkett, A., notes by 

21, 22. 40, 98 
Hawk, Broad-winged 11 

" Night 5, 12 

INDEX Con/inueJ. 


Hawk, Pigeon 111 

Sharp-shmned 111 

Helodromus s. soliiarius 111 

Hewitt, C. G., article by__ 62 

Henry, J. K., article by 94 

Hesperiphona vesperiina 14 

Heterodon contortrix 60 

Hirundo oythrognster 16 

Holm, Theo., article by 12 

Homarus americanus 22 

Hummingbird, Ruby-throated 12 
Hydrochelidon n. surina- 

mensis 5 

Iridoprocne bicolor 16, 113 

fuscescens 19 

guttata 19 

pa//asL_ 1 13 

ustulata 19 

sivainsonii 1 13 

Hyodon chr^sopsis 50 

Icterus galbula 14 

Ixobrychus exilis 20' 

Jaeger, Parasitic 1 

Jay, Blue 13 

" Canada 13, 40, 112 

Junco h^cmalis 16 

Junco, Slate-colored 16 

Kapuskasing, Flora of 33 

Kildeer 111 

Kindle, E. M., article by__ 96 

Kingbird 12 

Kingfisher, Belted 12 

Kmglet, Ruby-crowned_19, 113 

Kinosternon odoratum 61 

Kirkconnell, T. W., article 

by 33 

Klugh, A. B., article by___ 92 

Lagopus, I. lagopus 111 

Lambart, H. F. J., article 

by 77 

Lanius borealis 113 

ludovicianus 17 

Lanivereo solitarius 17, 113 

Lark, Horned 13 

Western Meadow__ 14 

Larus argentatus 4 

brachyrhynchos 110 

delawaren&is 5, 110 

Philadelphia 110 

Laing, H. M., articles by_ 99 
Latchford, Hon. Mr. Jus- 
tice, article by 83 


Lewis, H. F., article by 58 

Ling, Fresh water 54 

Lobster, notes on 22, 40 

Lochhead's Class Book of 

Economic Entomology 41 

Longspur, Lapland 15 

Chestnut-colored 1 5 

Lota maculosa 54 

Loon 110 

Loons, Geographical varia- 
tions in the Black- 
throated 100 

Lloyd, Hoyes, article by__ 93 

Lucius lucius 53 

Macnamara, C, article by_ 103 

Macoun, J. M., note by___ 42 
M acrorhamphus griseus 

griseus 110 

Magpie 13 

Mallard 5 

Mammalogists, American 

Society of 21 

Mammals, Field Studies of 

Life-histories of 86 

Martin, Purple 16 

Marila affinis 5 

marila 5 

Mergus americanus 110 

serrator 110 

Melanepres er^throcephalus 12 

e. erythrophthalmus 48 

Meleagris gallopavo 68 

Melospiza georgiana 16 

Imcolni 16 

melodia 1 6 

Merganser 110 

Red-breasted __ 110 

Minotilta varia 17, 113 

Minnow, Praiiie 53 

Molothurus ater 13 

Monostorria lesueuri 53 

Mousley, H., articles by_37, 97 
Mud-Crack Horizons, Cli- 
matic interpretation of 

new early Ordovician 96 

Munro, J. A., article by__ 79 
Museums as Educational 

Institutions 10 

Mustela cicognanii 12 

longicauda 43 

novaboracensis 45 

rixosa 43 

Myiochanes virens 12 

Decembes. 1919] 

The Canadian Field- Naturalist 



M^ilochanes virens 12 

N annus hiemalis hiemalis-- 19 

Nelt'ton carolinense 110 

Nuihallornis borealis 12, 112 

Nuthatch, Red-breasted J 9, 113 
Notes and Observations 

40,61,98, 117 

Notropis jordani 53 

hudsoniu^ 53 

scopifcr 0) 

Oberholser, H. C, articles 

by 48, 95 

O'Donoghue, C. H., article 

by 1 

Ottawa Fieid-NaLuraiisis' 
Club, Rep. year end- 
ing March, 1918 20 

Oldemia deglandi 5 

perspicillaia 110 

Oncoih\;nchus f(ennerl})i 51 

Oporornh ugilis 18 

Oriole, Baltimore 14 

Ornithclogical coUcClCi e..^ 

the law 93 

Osprey, American 111 

OlocoTis alpeslris 13 

Ovenbird 18 

Owl, American HawA 112 

Oxcyechus vociferus 111 

Pandion haliaetus carolin- 

ensis 111 

Pantosteus jordani 53 

Partridge, Hudscnian 

spruce 111 

PasseTella itiaca 16, 113 

Passerberbulus leconiei^ 15, 112 

nelson: 15 

Passerculus sandlvichensis 

5, 15, 112 

lecontei 112 

Patch, C. L., articles by^40, 60 

Payne, F. F., article by 40 

Pecten tenulcostaius 98 

Pelidna alpina saf(halma-- 1 1 1 

Pelican, White 5, 38 

Penlhesies airicapillus 19 

hudsonicus hud- 

sonicus 113 

Pelecanii5 crylhrorynchus.- 38 

Perca flavesccns. 54 

Perch. Pike 54 

American 54 

" Yellow 54 

INDEX Continued. 

Perisoreus canadensis 

13, 40, 112 
Peirochelidon alhijrous 

hypopolia-- 95 
/iini7rom_16, 113 

Pewee, Wood 12 

Phalaropus fulicarius 110 

Phalarcpe, Red -- '10 

Wilson's 110 

Picoides arclicus 112 

americanus fascaius 1 1 2 

Phoebe 12, 112 

Pica pice 13 

Pickerel 34 

Pike, Common ... 53 

' Wall-eyed __ 54 

Pipit, American 18 

Spraeue's - 18 

Pipilo eTyihrophlhaimu^ 16 

Pisobia fuscicollis 111 

bairdii 111 

minutdla ^-'j. 111 

maculata 5 

Plaiygobio gracilis 33 

Planesticus migralorlu^ 19 

Plestiodon fasciatus 60 

Pleclophenax nivalis . j, 112 

Plover, American Golden. _ 1 1 1 

Semipalmated 111 

Poocaetes gramineus 15 

Progne subis 16 

Ptarmigan, Wiiiow 111 

Pseudotsuga taxifoia 6 

Quisculus quiscula 14 

Raven 13 

" Ncrlhcrn __ 112 

Redpoll 112 

Redfish, Littie 51 

Redstart 18 

Reese's Outlines cf ILccn- 

omic Zoology 22 

Regulus calendula 19, 113 

Ribes divaricatum 94 

" Lobbii . .._ 94 

Ridgway's Biids cr IVii^J.e 

N.A. Part VIII 99 

Riparia riparia 16, 113 

Rhinichlhys cataraclae 

dulcis 53 

Robin, American 19 

Robins, Winter in N.S.___ 100 

Robin's Mistake 98 

Roup, Epidemic of in Crow 

Roosts 40 


Rydberg's Key to the 

Rocky Mountain Flora 42 

Salmo clarkii 51 

rivularis 51 

l(amloops 51 

Salmon, Kennerly's - 51 

Salvclinus fontinalis 52 

parkii 52 

Sand Launces 21 

Sanderling - - 111 

Sandpiper, Baird's __ 111 

Least 3, 11 1 

Red-backed ._ Ill 

Pectoral 5 

Spotted 5, 111 

" Semipalmated _ 111 

Solitary lU 

White-rumped 111 
Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied 

12, 112 

Sauger 54 

Saunders, W. E., articies 

by 55, 118 

Sa^ornis phoebc 12, 1 12 

Scallop, Metamorphosis of 98 

Scoter, White-winged 5 

" Surf 110 

Scott, W. L., note by 98 

Sereirus aurocapillus 18 

novafcoracensiS- lo, 113 

Seiophaga rusticilla 18 

Shoal Lake, Man., Birds of 12 

Shirke, Loggerhead 17 

" Northern 113 

Sialia currucoides 21 

sialis 19 

Siskin, Pine .J, 90 

Sitta canadensis 19, 113 

Skink, Blue-tailed 60 

Snake, Hog-nosed 60 

" Black Racer 60 

" Fox 60 

" Garter 60 

" Rattle 61 

Snipe, Wilson's 110 

Soper, J. D., arlicie by 43 

Sparrow, Baird's 15 

Bachman's 118 

Clay-colored 16 

Chipping lu, 113 

Fox 16, 113 

Gambel's 113 

Harris's 15, 12 


The Canadian Field-Naturalist 

[Vol. XXXIII. 

INDEX -Continued. 


Sparrow, Leconte's 15, 112 

Nelson's 15 

Savanna 5, 15, 112 

Swamp 16, 113 

Song 16, 113 

Tree 16, 113 

Vesper 15 

White-crowned- _ 15 

White-throated __ 16 

Species, Reality of 100 

Sphaerium sulcatum 84 

Sphaeriidae, Canadian 83 

Shiner, Jordan's 53 

Sph\)rapicus varius vafiUi-- 112 

Spinus plnus 15, 91 

Spizella m. monticola 16 

monticola 113 

passerina ^ 16 

passerina passerina 1 1 3 

pallida 16 

Steganopua tricolor 1 10 

Sterna caspia 1 

forsteri 5 

hirundo 5, 110 

Sternella neglecta 14 

Stercorarius parasiticus I 

Stizostedion vitreum 54 

canadense 54 

Sturgeon, White 50, 53 

Sucker, Common 53 

Gray 53 

Moun.ain 53 

" Northern 53 

Surnia ulula caparoch 1 12 

Swallow, Barn 16 

Cliff 16, 113 

Tree 16, 113 

New Cliff, from 

Canada 95 

S])phrapicus varius 12 

Tamias strialus l^steri 92 

Taverner, P. A., articles by 

12, 57,82,99, 100 

Teal, Green-winged 1 10 

Telmatodyies palustris 19 

Tern, Caspian, Notes on__ 1 

" Black 5 

in Georgian Bay 55 

Common 5, 110 

Forster's 5 

Thamnophis s. sirtalis 60 

Thrasher, Brown 19 

Thrush, Alice's 19 


Thrush, Gray-cheeked 

" Hermit 19, 

Northern water 

" Olive-backed. J 9, 



Thymallus tricolor mou- 


Totanus fiavipes 


Townsend, Chas. W., 

Letter from 

Toxostorna rufum 

Trout, Brook 



Dolly Varden 

Great Lake 




Turnstone, Ruddy 

Turkey, Wild 

Turtle, BlandJng's 

" Mush 




Tyrannus t^rannuj 

Ursus inter nationalis 

Vermivora celata 

peregrina^Al , 
ruhricapilla _ 

Vireo, Blue-headed 


" Red-eyed____5, 17, 



Vireosylva gilva 

olivacca-5, 17, 


Victorin, Bro. M., article 


Warbler, Black and white 



Black-poll _J7, 



Cape May 

Warbler, Chestnut-sided 
Connecticut __ 


















Warbler, Mangolia 17 

Mourning 18 

Myrtle 17, 113 

Nashville 17 

Orange-crowned- 1 7 

Palm 18, 113 

Tennessee 17, 113 

Yellow __5, 17, 113 

Wilson's 18, 113 

Warblers of genus Den- 

droica. Problems sug- /a 

gested by nests of 100 /X 

Washburn's Injurious In- / ^^ 

sects and Useful Birds 22 ^^ 

Waugh, F. W., article by 23 ^ 

Waxwing, Bohemian 113 f^ 

Cedar __5, 17, 113 ^i 

Weasel, Least 43 "" 

Long-tailed 43 

New York 43 

Short-tailed 46 

Whip-poor-will 12 

Whitefish, Labrador 51 

Rocky Mountain 50 
Whitehouse, F. C, article 

by 50 

Williams, M. Y., articles 

by 10, 40 

Wilsonia canadensis 18 

pusilla 18, 113 

Wintemberg, W. J., article 

by 63 

Woodpecker, Alaskan 

three-toed 1 12 

Arctic three-toed 112 

Downy 12 

Hairy 12 

Red-headed__12, 49 

Wren, House 19 

" Long-billed 19 

" Short-billed 19 

" Winter 19 

Bewick's in Ontario. 118 

Xema sabini 110 

Xanfhocephalus xanthoce- 

phalus 13 

Yellow-throat, Maryland. _ 18 

Zamelodia ludoviciana 16 
Zenaidura macroura 

carolinensis 117 

Zonotricha albicollis 16 

leucophrys 15 

gamhelii 1 13 

gucrcula 15, 112 


APRIL, 1919 

#* ^^ - 

1 * 

ISSUED JULY 3, 1919. 
Entered at Ottatpa Post Office as second class matter. 



Ottawa, Ont. 

Editor : 

Arthur Gibson, 

Entomological Branch, Department of 

Agriculture, Ottawa. 

E. Sapir 

M. O. Malte 


Associate Editors: 
Anthropology P. A. Taverner 

Botany E. M. Kindle 

Geology R. M. Anderson 

Secretary : 
Clyde L. Patch, 
Geological Survey. 




Treasurer : 
F. W. Waugh, 

Geological Survey. 



Introductory I 

Notes on the Caspian Tern and the Parasitic Jaeger in Manitoba. By C. H. O'Donoghue 

and J. N. Gowanlock 1 

Douglas Fir Sugar. By J. Davidson 6 

Museums as Educational Institutions. By M. Y. Williams 10 

The Birds of ShocJ Lake, Man. By P. A. Taverner 12 

Brief Report of the O.F.N.-C. for Year Ending March 18, 1919 20 

Notes and Observations: 

American Soc. of Mammalogists 21 

Remarks Concerning Sand Launces. A. Halkett 21 

Mountain Blue Bird and its Irregular Appearance. F. L. Farley 21 

On the Early History of the American Lobster. A. Halkett 22 

Book Notices and Reviews: 

Washburn's Injurious Insects and Useful Birds 22 

Reese's Outlines of Economic Zoology 22 

THE CANADIAN FIELD-NATURALIST,, lately The Ottawa Naturaust, estab- 
lished thirty-two years ago, "to publish the results of original research or investigation in all 
departments of natural history," is issued monthly, excepting for the months of June, July and 

Papers, notes and photographs should be addressed to the Editor. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, Mr. F. W. Waugh, Geologicd Survey, 
Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa. The price of this volume is $1.00. 



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Grow Good Crops Seeds Plants Bulbs 

Our rigorous system of testing eliminates loss 
and disappointment from your garden. 




Seed and Bulb Merchants. 

Market Square, OTTAWA. 




We Have a Modern Repair Department. 

329 Sussex Street, Ottawa. 

Phone Q. 8028. 


CAPITAL ....... $9,700,000. 


TOTAL ASSETS OVER 220,000,000 





Manufacturers of the genuine Schmitt boxes, exhibition cases and cabinets, also of the 
American Entomological Company's insect pins. 

Rlker Mounts and botanical mounts always on hand, also Riker botanical presses. 
Send for our supply catalogue and other lists of interest to collectors. 



Memorial Tablets in Brass and Bronze. 

Church Brass Work. 

264 Sparks Street, Ottawa. 


CAPITAL. $1 .500,000. RESERVE, $2,000,000. 

Successful administration of ESTATES ranging in value from $500 to $5,000,00 each, is the 
best guarantee that you may confidently name as your ExECUTOR and TRUSTEE this Corporation. 

JAMES DAVEY. Manager. Otlarva Branch: Cor. SPARKS and ELGIN STS. 



Lithographers, Engravers, Bookbinders, Creators of Advertising Literature. 



* ^JDevlin G.fei^a 

Vl^C Home o/the"Fur beautiful" 

Men's Hats 








Gold and Silversmiths 
101-105 Sparks Street 



The Membership Committee of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club is making a special effort 
to increase the subscription list of The Canadian Field-Naturalist. Every member of the 
Club is urged to assist in this campaign by showing this number to a possible subscriber and 
endeavoring to have the attached blank filled in and forwarded to the Treasurer. 

F. W. WAUGH, Treasurer, O.F.-N.C, 

Geological Survey, Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa. 
I enclose herewith One Dollar, subscription to The Canadian Field-NaTURALIST for 
one year. 








410-412 Bank St. - Ottawa 

PHONES Queen 1023-1024. 

Fine Builders' Hardware 
Refrigerators and Hammocks. 

Inspected Milk. 
Ice Cream. 

Fresh Butter. 


Booksellers, Stationers, 
Bookbinders, Printers. 



THE 2 MACS, Limited 



THE C. C. RAY Co., Limited 

Best Quality. COAL Lowest Prices. 

46 Sparks St., Ottawa. Phone Q. 461. 


When ordering any Books in the NATURE 
COURSE. Don't send money away! 

A. H. JARVIS, "The Bookstore." 

See our Garden Books. OTTAWA. 




All as near as Your Nearest Phone or 

Post Office. 



We make everything we sell and guarantee 
everything we make. 



The Ottawa Gas Co. 
The Ottawa Electric Co. 


Dentist to certain of 

the cognoscenti. 


Phone Queen 2438. 

WANTED Back Numbers of The Ottawa Naturalist. 

The following back numbers of The Ottawa NaTURALIST are wanted to complete sets 
ordered by scientific institutions: 

JANUARY and FEBRUARY, 1895, and MARCH, 1896. 

The Secretary of the Club, MR. C. L. PATCH, Geological Survey, Ottawa, would be 
pleased to hear from anyone having the above numbers to dispose of. 



Hon. President: HoN. DuNCAN Marshall. 

Hon. Vic^residents: J, J. Gaetz, M.P.P., H. A. Craig. 

President: F. C. Whitehouse. 

Vice-Presidents: Mrs. Cassels, Dr. Henry George. 

Secretary-Treasurer : Miss R. E. Fyson, Red Deer. 

Directors: Mrs. George, Red Deer; Mrs. Pamely, Red Deer; Mrs. Root, Wetas- 
kiwin; Miss GouDiE, Red Deer; Miss Cole, Calgary; E. Wilton, Red Deer; K. Bowman, 
Edmonton; F. S. Carr, Edmonton; D. MackiE, Edmonton. 
Members qualified to ansyfer enquiries: 

Birds: Mrs. W. A. Cassels, Red Deer; Dr. H. George, Red Deer. 

Mammals : Dr. H. George, Red Deer. 

Fishes : F. C. Whitehouse, Red Deer. 

Insects: Coleopiera, Mr. F. S. Carr, 11050 123rd St., Edmonton; Lepidoptera, K. 

Bowman, 9914 115th St., Edmonton; Odonata, F. C. Whitehouse, Red Deer. 
The meetings of this Society are held in Red Deer on the last Friday of each month, except 
during July and August, and perhaps September. The annual meeting is held on the last 
Friday in November, also in Red Deer. 


President: JoHN C. Middleton Secretary: Chas Watson. 

Members qualified to answer enquiries: J. F. CaLVERT, Tecumseth Ave., London; E. M. S. 
Dale, Hyman St., London; C. Watson, q/q Elliott, Marr & Co., London; W. E. 
Saunders, 352 Clarence St., London. 


Hon. President: I. GaMMELL. 

President: L. M. Terrill. 

Vice-Presidents: F. Abraham, Miss Edith Morrow. 

Hon. Corresponding Secretary: Mrs. W. E. E. Dyer, 12 Willovvr Ave., Westmount. 

Hon. Recording Secretary : Miss Jean McConnell. 

Hon. Treasurer: Miss M. Hadrill. 

Directors: Miss Mary Armitage, Miss Louise Murphy, Miss Emily Luke, Mrs. F. 
Abraham, Mr. and Mrs. C. F. Dale, Mr. Alex. McSween, Mrs. J. T. Ayers, Mr. W. A. 
Oswald, Miss Harriett Stone, Mr. Napier Smith. 

Members qualified to ansTver questions: L. M. Terrill, 44 Stanley Ave., St. Lambert, 
Que.; W. A. Oswald, 301 Wilson Ave., Notre Dame de Grace, Montreal; Napier SmiTH, 
Apt. 21, 46 Cote des Neiges Road, Montreal; C. N. ROBERTSON, 4010 Montrose Ave., Montreal; 
Dr. Arthur Willey, McGill University, Montreal; Dr. D. W. Hamilton, Macdonald 
College, Que.; W. J. Brown, 250 Oliver Ave., Westmount, Que.; Miss EIdith Morrow, 
c/o Secretary; Miss Emily Luke, c/o Secretary. 


Hon. President: Dr. F. F. Wesbrook. 

President: JoHN Davidson, University of British Columbia. 

Vice-President: J. S. GoRDON. 

Hon. Secretary: H. J. McLatchy, 952 Twenty-first Ave. West, Vancouver, B.C. 

Hon, Treasurer: Jas. Lyall, Bank of Hamilton, Vancouver, B.C. 

VOL. XXXIII. No. 2. 

MAY. 1919. 

Issued August II, 1919. 
Entered at Ottatva Post Office as second class matter. 



Ottawa, Ont. 

Editor : 

Arthur Gibson, 

Entomological Branch, Department of 

Agriculture, Ottawa, 

Associate Editors: 

E. Sapir - - Anthropology) P. A. Taverner - - - Ornit/io/ogj; 

M. O. Malte - - Botan]f E. M. Kindle - - - Palaeontology) 

M. Y. WiLUAMS - - Ceolog]} R. M. Anderson - - - - Zoology^ 

Secretary: Treasurer: 

Clyde L. Patch, F. W. Waugh, 

Geological Survey. Geological Survey. 



Canadian Aboriginal Canoes. By F. W. Waugh 23 

The Flora of Kapuskasing and Vicinity 33 

Bird Protection in Canada 36 

Bird Migration. By H. Mousley i- 37 

The White Pelican in Alberta. By F. L. Farley - 38 

Notes and Observations: 

Bird Notes. C. L. Patch 40 

An Hermaphrodite Lobster. A. Halkett 40 

Bird Note. H. Groh 40 

Canada Jay. F. F. Payne 40 

Epidemic of Roup in the Crow Roosts of the Lower Thames River. 

M. Y. Williams 40 

Book Notices and Reviews: 

Lochhead's "Economic Entomology." A. Gibson 41 

Works of J. Henri Fabre. N. Criddle . 41 

Rydberg's "Key to the Rocky Mountain Flora." J. M. Macoun 42 

THE CANADIAN FIELD-NATURALIST,, lately The Ottawa Naturaust, estab- 
lished thirty-two years ago, "to publish the results of original research or investigation in all 
departments of natural history," is issued monthly, excepting for the months of June, July and 

Papers, notes and photographs should be addressed to the Editor. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, Mr. F. W. Waugh, Geological Survey, 
Victoria Memoriad Museum, Ottawa. The price of this volume is $1.00. 









1 32 Sparks Street 



Manufacturers of 



^ \s7 ^^ 


Write for Catalogues. 

%& ^' 


^/.. V ..<!^ 

47 Albert Street 

Ottawa, Canada 



Dealers in Fine Diamonds, Sterling Silver, 
Electro Plated Ware and Rich Cut Glass. 

''The Store of MODERATE PRICES." 

208 Sparks St., OTTAWA. 

Phone Queen 1 430. 




246 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ont. 

Phone Oueen 3993. 

LYMANS, Limited 

(Established 1800) 

344 St. Paul Street West, MONTREAL. 

Manufacturing Chemists 

Importers and Dealers in 



Grow Good Crops Seeds Plants; Bulbs 

Our rigorous system of testing eliminates loss 
and disappointment from your garden. 


resTTD stfos 

Seed and Bulb Merchants. 

Market Square, OTTAWA. 





We Have a Modern Repair Department. 

529 Sussex Street, Ottawa. Phone Q. 8028. 


CAPITAL $9,700,000. 


TOTAL ASSETS OVER 220,000,000 





Manufacturers of the genuine Schmitt boxes, exhibition cases and cabinets, also of the 
American Entomological Company's insect pins. 

Riker Mounts and botanical mounts always on hand, also Riker botanical presses. 
Send for our supply catalogue and other lists of interest to collectors. 



Memorial Tablets in Brass and Bronze. 

Church Brass Work. 

264 Sparks Street, Ottawa. 


CAPITAL, $1 ,500,000. RESERVE, $2,000,000. 

Successful administration of ESTATES ranging in value from $500 to $5,000,00 each, is the 
best guarantee that you may confidently name as your ExECUTOR and TRUSTEE this Corporation. 

J AMES DAVEY, Manager. Ottawa Branch: Cor. SPARKS and ELGIN STS. 



Lithographers, Engravers, Bookbinders, Creators of Advertising Literature. 




RTDevlin G).h^^ 

v3C Home o/the "Fur Beautiful" 

Men's Hats 







Gold and Silversmiths 
101-105 Sparks Street 



The Membership Committee of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club is making a special effort 
to increase the subscription list of The CANADIAN Field-NatURALIST. Every member of the 
Club is urged to assist in this campaign by showing this number to a possible subscriber and 
endeavoring to have the attached blank filled in and forwarded to the Treasurer. 

F. W. WAUGH, Treasurer, O.F.-N.C, 

Geological Survey, Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa. 
I enclose herewith One Dollar, subscription to The Canadian Field-Naturalist for 
one year. 






410-412 Bank St. - Ottawa 

PHONES Queen 1023-1024. 

Fine Builders' Hardware 

Refr gerators and Hammocks. 

Inspected Milk. 
Ice Cream. 


Fresh Butter. 


Booksellers, Stationers, 
Bookbinders, Printers. 


THE 2 MACS, Limited 



THE C. C. RAY Co., Limited 

Best Quality. \^ \j J\ ]_, Lowest Prices. 

46 Sparks St., Ottawa. Phone Q. 461. 


When ordering any Books in the NATURE 
COURSE. Don't send money arcay! 

A. H. JARVIS, "The Bookstore." 
See our Garden Books. OTTAWA. 




All as near as Your Nearest Phone or 
Post Office. 



We make everything we sell and guarantee 
everything we make. 



The Ottawa Gas Co. 
The Ottawa Electric Co. 


Dentist to certain of 
the cognoscenti. 


Phone Queen 2438. 

WANTED Back Numbers of The Ottawa Naturalist. 

The following back numbers of The Ottawa NATURALIST are wanted to complete sets 
ordered by scientific institutions: 

JANUARY and FEBRUARY, 1895, and MARCH. 1896. 

The Secretary of the Club, MR. C. L. PATCH, Geological Survey, Ottawa, would be 
pleased to hear from anyone having the above numbers to dispose of. 



Hon. President: HoN. Duncan Marshall. 

Hon. Vice-Presidents: J. J. Gaetz, M.P.P., H. A. Craig. 

PriJen/; F. C Whitehouse. 

Vice-Presidents: Mrs. Cassels, Dr. Henry George. 

Secretary-Treasurer : Miss R. E. Fyson, Red Deer. 

Directors: Mrs. George, Red Deer; Mrs. Pamely, Red Deer; Mrs. Root, Weta- 
kiwin; Miss Goudie, Red Deer; Miss CoLE, Calgary; E. WiLTON, Red Deer; K. BoWMAN, 
Eldmonton; F. S. Carr, Edmonton; D. Mackie, Edmonton. 
Members qualified to answer enquiries: 

Birds: Mrs. W. A. Cassels, Red Deer; Dr. H. George, Red Deer. 

Mammals: Dr. H. George, Red Deer. 

Fishes: F. C. Whitehouse, Red Deer. 

Insects: Coleoptera, Mr. F. S. Carr, 11050 123rd St., Edmonton; Lepidoptera, K. 

Bowman, 9914 115th St., Edmonton; Odonata, F. C. Whitehouse, Red Deer. 
The meetings of this Society are held in Red Deer on the last Friday of each month, except 
during July and August, and perhaps September. Tlie annual meeting is held on the lat 
Friday in November, eJso in Red Deer. 


President: JoHN C. MiDDLETON Secretary: Chas Watson. 

Members qualified to ansrver enquiries: J. F. CalverT, Tecumseth Ave., London; E. M. S. 
Dale, Hyman St., London; C. Watson, c/o Elliott, Marr & Co., London; W. E. 
Saunders, 352 Clarence St., London. 


Hon. President: I. Gammell. 

President: L. M. Terrill. 

Vice-Presidents : F. ABRAHAM, MiSS Edith Morrow. 

Hon. Corresponding Secrdtary: Mrs. W. E. E. Dyer, 12 Willow Ave., Westmount. 

Hon. Recording Secretary : Miss Jean McConnell. 

Hon. Treasurer: MiSS M. Hadrill. 

Directors : Miss Mary Armitage, Miss Louise Murphy, Miss Emily Luke, Mrs. F. 
Abraham, Mr. and Mrs. C. F. Dale, Mr. Alex. McSween, Mrs. J. T. Ayers, Mr. W. A. 
Oswald, Miss Harriett Stone, Mr. Napier Smith. 

Members qualified to answer questions: L. M. Terrill, 44 Stanley Ave., St. Lambert, 
Que.; W. A. Oswald, 301 Wilson Ave., Notre Dame de Grace, Montreal; Napier SmiTH, 
Apt. 21, 46 Cote des Neiges Roa'd, Montreal; C. N. ROBERTSON, 4010 Montrose Ave., Montreal; 
Dr. Arthur Willey, McGill University, Montreal; Dr. D. W. HAMILTON, Macdonald 
College, Que.; W. J. Brown, 250 Oliver Ave., Westmount, Que.; MiSS EdiTH Morrow, 
c/o Secretary ; Miss Emily Luke, c/o Secretary. 


Hon. President: Dr. F. F. Wesbrook. 

President: JoHN Davidson, University of British Columbia. 

Vice-President: J. S. Gordon. 

Hon. Secretary: H. J. McLatchy, 952 Twenty-first Ave. West, Vancouver, B.C. 

Hon. Treasurer: Jas. Lyall, Bank of Hsunilton, Vancouver, B.C. 

VOL. XXXIII. No. 3. 


Issued October 4, 1919. 
Entered at Ottaiva Post Office as second class matter. 



Ottawa, Ont. 

E. Sapir 

M. O. Malte 

M. Y. Williams 

Editor : 

Arthur Gibson, 

Eintomological Branch, Department of 

Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Associate Editors: 
Anthropology P. A, Taverner 

Botany E. M. Kindle 

Geology R. M. Anderson 




Secretary : 
Clyde L. Patch, 
Geological Survey. 

Treasurer : 

F. W. Waugh, 

Geological Survey. 



Notes on Canadian Weasels. By J. Dewey Soper 43 

An Unrecognized Subspecies of Melanerpes erythrocephalus. By Harry C. Oberholser 48 

Notes on Some of the Fishes of Alberta and Adjacent Waters. By F. C. Whitehouse 50 

Nesting of the Caspicui Tern in the Georgian Bay. By W. E. Saunders 55 

An Important Distinction Between Our Two Goldeneyes. By P. A. Taverner 57 

The Migratory Birds Convention. By H. F. Lewis 58 

A Rattlesnake, Melano Garter Snakes and Other Reptiles from Point Pelee, Ont. 

By C. L. Patch 60 

Notes and Observations: 

Canada How an Algonquin Country Received an Iroquois Name. Armon 

Burwash 61 

An Ontario Bird Sanctuary. C. Gordon Hewitt 62 

THE CANADIAN FIELD-NATURALIST,, lately The Ottawa Naturaust, estab- 
lished thirty-two years ago, "to publish the results of original research or investigation in all 
departments of natural history," is issued monthly, excepting for the months of June, July eind 

Papers, notes and photographs should be addressed to the Editor. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, Mr. F. W. Waugh, Geological Survey, 
Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa. The price of this volume is $1.00. 




1 32 Sparks Street OTTAWA 


ManujactuTCTs of 




/} Write for Catalogues. ^ Yv,^/ ^ 

^ \s/ # ! ^ W # 

1 47 Albert Street Ottawa, Canada 



Dealers in Fine Diamonds, Sterling Silver, 
Electro Plated Ware and Rich Cut Glass. 

"The Store of MODERATE PRICES." 

208 Sparks St., OTTAWA. Phone Queen 1 430. 




246 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ont. Phone Oueen 3993. 

LYMANS, Limited 

(Established 1800) 

344 St. Paul Street West, MONTREAL. 

Manufacturing Chemists 

Importers and Dealers in 



Grow Good Crops Seeds Plants Bulbs 

Our rigorous system of testing eliminates loss 
and disappointment from your garden. 


Seed and Bulb Merchants. 

Market Square, OTTAWA. 





We Have a Modern Repair Department. 

529 Sussex Street, Ottawa. Phone Q. 8028. 


CAPITAL ------- $9,700,000. 


TOTAL ASSETS OVER 220,000,000 




SUPPLIES AND SPECIMENS. I\^V.niLO 1 crx, IN.!., W.O.rt. 

Manufacturers of the genuine Schmitt boxes, exhibition cases and cabinets, also of tlie 
American Entomological Company's insect pins. 

Riker Mounts and botanical mounts always on hand, also Riker botanical presses. 
Send for our supply catalogue and otlier lists of interest to collectors. 



Memorial Tablets in Brass and Bronze. 

Church Brass Work. 

264 Sparks Street, Ottawa. 


CAPITAL, $1 ,500,000. RESERVE, $2,000,000. 

Successful administration of ESTATES ranging in value from $500 to $5,000,00 each, is the 
best guarantee that you may confidently name as your ExECUTOR and TRUSTEE this Corporation. 

J AMES DAVEY, Manager. Ottawa Branch: Cor. SPARKS and ELGIN STS. 



Lithographers, Engravers, Bookbinders, Creators of Advertising Literature. 




fe RTDevlin G.fei 

v3C Home o/the'Tur Beautiful" 









Hats ]| 


Gold and Silversmiths 
101-105 Sparks Street 



The Membership Committee of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club is making a special effort 
to increase the subscription list of The CANADIAN Field-NatURALIST. Every member of the 
Club is urged to assist in this campaign by showing this number to a possible subscriber and 
endeavoring to have the attached blank filled in and forwarded to the Treasurer. 

F. W. WAUGH, Treasurer, O.F.-N.C, 

Geological Survey, Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa. 
I enclose herewith One Dollar, subscription to The Canadian FielX)-NaTURALIST for 
one year. 







410-412 Bank St. - Ottawa 

PHONES Queen 1023-1024. 

Fine Builders' Hardware 
Refrigerators and Hammocks. 

Inspected Milk. 

Ice C 


Fresh Butter. 


Booksellers, Stationers, 
Bookbinders, Printers. 



THE 2 MACS, Limited 



THE C. C. RAY Co., Limited 

Best Quality. COAL Lowest Prices. 

46 Sparks St., Ottawa. Phone Q. 461. 


When ordering any Books in the NATURE 
COURSE. Don I send mone^ an>a\)! 

A. H. JARVIS, "The Bookstore." 
See our Garden Books. OTTAWA. 




All as near as Your Nearest Phone or 
Post Office. 



We make everything we sell and guarantee 

everything we make. 



The Ottawa Gas Co. 
The Ottawa Electric Co. 


Dentist to certain of 
the cognoscenti. 


Phone Queen 2438. 

WANTED Back Numbers of The Ottawa Naturalist. 

The following back numbers of The OtTAWA NaTURALIST are wanted to complete sets 
ordered by scientific institutions: 

JANUARY and FEBRUARY, 1895, and MARCH, 1896. 

The Secretary of the Club, MR. C. L. PATCH, Geological Survey, Ottawa, would be 
pleased to hear from anyone having the above numbers to dispose of. 



Hon. President: HoN. DuNCAN Marshall. 

Hon. Vice-Presidents: J. J. Gaetz. M.P.P., H. A. Craig. 

President: F. C. WhitEHOUSE. 

Vice-Presidents: Mrs. Cassels, Dr. Henry George. 

Secretary-Treasurer : MiSS R. E. Fyson, Red Deer. 

Directors: Mrs. George, Red Deer; Mrs. Pamely, Red Deer; Mrs, Root, Weta- 
kiwin; MiSS GoUDlE, Red Deer; Miss Cole, Calgary; E. WiLTON, Red Deer; K. BoWMAN, 
Edmonton; F. S. Carr, Edmonton; D. Mackie, Edmonton. 
Members qualified to answer enquiries: 

Birds: Mrs. W. A. Cassels, Red Deer; Dr. H. George, Red Deer. 

Mammals : Dr. H. George, Red Deer. 

Fishes: F. C. WhiTEHOUSE, Red Deer. 

Insects: Coleoptera, Mr. F. S. Carr, 11050 123rd St., Edmonton; Lepidoptera, K. 

Bowman, 9914 115th St., Edmonton; Odonata, F. C. WhiTEHOUSE, Red Deer. 
The meetings of this Society are held in Red Deer on the last Friday of each month, except 
during July and August, and perhaps September. The annual meeting is held on the la^t 
Friday in November, also in Red Deer. 


President: JoHN C. MiDDLETON Secretary: Chas WaTSON. 

Members qualified to answer enquiries: J. F. Calvert, Tecumseth Ave., London; E. M. S. 
Dale, Hyman St., London; C. Watson, c^o Elliott, Marr & Co., London; W. E. 
Saunders, 352 Clarence St., London. 


Hon. President: I. Gammell. 

President: L. M. Terrill. 

Vice-Presidents: F. Abraham, Miss Edith Morrow. 

Hon. Corresponding Secretary^: Mrs. W. E. E. Dyer, 12 Willow Ave., Westmount. 

Hon. Recording Secretary): Miss Jean McConnell. 

Hon. Treasurer: Miss M. Hadrill. 

Directors: Miss Mary Armitage, Miss Louise Murphy, Miss Emily Luke, Mrs. F. 
Abraham, Mr. and Mrs. C. F. Dale, Mr. Alex. McSween, Mrs. J. T. Ayers, Mr. W. A. 
Oswald, Miss Harriett Stone, Mr. Napier Smith. 

Members qualified to answer questions: L. M. Terrill, 44 Stanley Ave., St. Lambert, 
Que.; W. A. Oswald, 301 Wilson Ave., Notre Dame de Grace, Montreal; Napier Smith, 
Apt. 21, 46 Cote des Neiges Road, Montreal; C. N. ROBERTSON, 4010 Montrose Ave., Montreal; 
Dr. Arthur Willey, McGill University, Montreal; Dr. D. W. Hamilton, Macdonald 
College, Que.; W. J. Brown, 250 Oliver Ave., Westmount, Que.; Miss Edith Morrow, 
c/o Secretary ; MiSS Emily Luke, c/o Secretary. 


Hon. President: Dr. F. F. Wesbrook. 

President: JOHN DAVIDSON, University of British Columbia. 

Vice-President: J. S. Gordon. 

Hon. Secretary): H. J. McLatchy, 952 Twenty-first Ave. West, Vancouver, B.C. 

Hon. Treasurer: Jas. Lyall, Bank of Hamilton, Vancouver, B.C. 

VOL. XXXIII. No. 4. 

OCTOBER, 1919. 

Issued November 18, 1919. 
Entered at Ottatva Post Office as second class matter. 


Presideni: M. Y. Williams 
Vice-Presidents: L. D. BuRLiNG; P. A. Taverner 

Secretary: Treasurer: 

Clyde L. Patch F. W. Waugh 

(Geological Survey) (Geological Survey) 

Additional Members of Council: HoYES Lloyd; W. T. Macoun; G. A. MiLLER; R. 
M. Anderson ; J. M. Macoun ; Miss M. E. Cowan ; Miss Crampe ; C. B. Hutchings ; 
C. M. Sternberg ; H. I. Smith ; H. McGillivray ; H. B. Sifton. 


Editor : 

Arthur Gibson, 

Entomological Branch, Department of 

.Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Associate Editors: 

E. Sapir - - Anthropology P. A. Taverner - - - Ornithology 

M. O. Malte - - Botany E. M. Kindle - - - Palaeontology 

M. Y. Wiluams - - Geology R. M. Anderson - . - - Zoology 



Archaeology as an Aid to Zoology. By W. J. Wintemberg 63 

TsTJes of Canadian Carices. By Theo. Holm 72 

Hunting the Barren Ground Grizzly on the Shores of the Arctic. By H. F. J. Lambart__ 77 

Bird Study from a Duck-blind. By J. A. Munro 79 

Book Notices and Reviews: 

The Game Birds of CaHfornia. P. A. Taverner 82 

THE CANADIAN FIELD-NATURALIST,, lately The Ottawa Naturalist, estab- 
lished thirty-two years ago, "to publish the results of original research or investigation in all 
departments of natural history," is issued monthly, excepting for the months of June, July and 

Papers, notes and photographs should be addressed to the Editor. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, Mr. F. W. Waugh, Geological Survey, 

Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa. The price of this volume is $1.00. 






1 32 Sparks Street 



Manufacturers of 




^ Vvy/ }0 Write for Caialosues. ^ V^S/ to 

# : ^ W # 

1 47 Albert Street Ottawa, Canada 




Dealers in Fine Diamonds, Sterling Silver, 
Electro Plated Ware and Rich Cut Glass. 

"The Store of MODERATE PRICES." 

208 Sparks St., OTTAWA. 

Phone Queen 1 430. 




246 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ont. Phone Oueen 3993. 


LYMANS, Limited 

(Established 1800) 

344 St. Paul Street West, MONTREAL. 

Manufacturing Chemists 

Importers and Dealers in 



Grow Good Crops Seeds Plants Bulbs 

Our rigorous system of testing eliminates loss 
and disappointment from your garden. 



Seed and Bulb Merchants. 

Market Square, OTTAWA. 




We Have a Modern Repair Department. 

329 Sussex Street, Ottawa. Phone Q. 8028. 


CAPITAL $9,700,000. 


TOTAL ASSETS OVER . . . . . 220,000,000 





Manufacturers of the genuine Schmitt boxes, exhibition cases and cabinets, also of the 
American Entomological Company's insect pins. 

Riker Mounts and botanical mounts always on hand, also Riker botanical presses. 
Send for our supply catalogue and other lists of interest to collectors. 



Memorial Tablets in Brass and Bronze. 

Church Brass Work. 

264 Sparks Street, Ottawa. 


CAPITAL, $ 1 ,500,000. RESERVE, $2,000,000. 

Successful administration of ESTATES ranging in value from $500 to $5,000,00 each, is the 
best guarantee that you may confidently name as your ExECUTOR and TRUSTEE this Corporation. 

J AMES DAVEY, Manager. Ottawa Branch: Cor. SPARKS and ELGIN STS. 



Lithographers, Engravers, Bookbinders, Creators of Advertising Literature. 




fe RTDevlin Q).h^^ 

\l>\J\ome o/the fur beautiful" 

Men's Hals 







Gold and Silversmiths 
101-103 Sparks Street 



The Membership Committee of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club is making a special effort 
to increase the subscription list of The Canadian Field-Naturalist. Every member of the 
Club is urged to assist in this campaign by showing this number to a possible subscriber and 
endeavoring to have the attached blank filled in and forwarded to the Treasurer. 

F. W. WAUGH, Treasurer, O.F.-N.C, 

Geological Survey, Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa. 
1 enclose herewith One Dollar, subscription to The CANADIAN FlELD- NATURALIST for 
one year. 






410-412 Bank St. - Ottawa 

PHONES Queen 1023-1024. 

Fine Builders' Hardware 
Refrigerators and Hammocks. 

Inspected Milk. 
Ice Cream. 


Fresh Butter. 


Booksellers, Stationers, 
Bookbinders, Printers. 



THE 2 MACS, Limited 



THE C. C. RAY Co., Limited 

Best Quality. \^ \J /\ L Lowest Prices. 

46 Sparks St., Ottawa. Phone Q. 461. 


When ordering any Books in the NATURE 
COURSE. Dont send money afvay! 

A. H. JARVIS, "The Bookstore." 
See our Garden Books. OTTAWA. 




All as near as Your Nearest Phone or 
Post Office. 



We make everything we sell and guarantee 
everything we make. 



The Ottawa Gas Co. 
The Ottawa Electric Co. 


Dentist to certain of 
the cognoscenti. 

Phone Queen 2438. 

WANTED Back Numbers of The Ottawa Naturalist. 

The following back numbers of The Ottawa NATURALIST are wanted to complete sets 
ordered by scientific institutions: 

JANUARY and FEBRUARY, 1895, and MARCH, 1896. 

The Secretary of the Club, MR. C. L. PATCH, Geological Survey, Ottawa, would be 
pleased to hear from anyone having the above numbers to dispose of. 



Hon. President: Hon. Duncan Marshall. 

Hon. Vice-Presidents: J. J. Gaetz, M.P.P., H. A. Craig. 

President :'. C. Whitehouse. 

Vice-Presidents: Mrs. Cassels, Dr. Henry George. 

Secretary-Treasurer : Miss R. E. Fyson, Red Deer. 

Directors: Mrs. George, Red Deer; Mrs. Pamely, Red Deer; Mrs. Root, Wetas- 
kiwin; Miss Goudie, Red Deer; Miss Cole, Calgary; E. WiLTON, Red Deer; K. Bowman, 
Edmonton; F. S. Carr, Edmonton; D. Mackie, Edmonton. 
Members qualified to ansv/er enquiries: 

Birds: Mrs. W. A. Casseus, Red Deer; Dr. H. George, Red Deer. 

Mammals : Dr. H. George, Red Deer. 

Fishes: F. C. Whitehouse, Red Deer. 

Insects: Coleoptera, Mr. F. S. Carr, 11050 123rd St., Edmonton; Lepidoptera, K. 

Bowman, 9914 115th St., Edmonton; Odonata, F. C. Whitehouse, Red Deer. 
The meetings of this Society are held in Red Deer on the last Friday of each month, except 
during July and August, and perhaps September. The zinnual meeting is held on the last 
Friday in November, zJso in Red Deer. 

McILWRAITH ornithological club, LONDON, ONT.: 

President: JOHN C. MiDDLETON Secretary: Chas WaTSON. 

Members qualified to answer enquiries: J. F. CalverT, Tecumseth Ave., London; E. M. S. 
Dale, Hyman St., London; C. Watson, c^o Elliott, Marr & Co., London; W. E. 
Saunders, 352 Clarence St., London. 


Hon. President: I. Gammell. 

President: L. M. TerrILL. 

Vice-Presidents : F. ABRAHAM, MiSS EdiTH MorROW. 

Hon. Corresponding Secretary: Mrs. W. E. E. Dyer, 12 Willow Ave., WestmounL 

Hon. Recording Secretary: Miss Jean McConnell. 

Hon. Treasurer: Miss M. Hadrill. 

Directors: Miss Mary Armitage, Miss Louise Murphy, Miss Emily Luke, Mrs. F. 
Abraham, Mr. and Mrs. C. F. Dale, Mr. Alex. McSween, Mrs. J. T. Ayers, Mr. W. A. 
Oswald, Miss Harriett Stone, Mr. Napier Smith. 

Members qualified to ansjver questions: L. M. Terrill, 44 Stanley Ave., St. Lambert, 
Que.; W. A. Oswald, 301 Wilson Ave., Notre Dame de Grace, Montreal; Napier Smith, 
Apt. 21, 46 Cote des Neiges Road, Montreal; C. N. RoBERTSON, 4010 Montrose Ave., Montreal; 
Dr. Arthur Willey, McGill University, Montreal; Dr. D. W. Hamilton, Macdonald 
College, Que.; W. J. Brown, 250 Oliver Ave., Westmount, Que.; MiSS Edith Morrov/, 
c/o Secretary ; MiSS Emily Luke, c/o Secretary. 


Hon. President: Dr. F. F. Wesbrook. 

President: JOHN Davidson, University of British Columbia. 

Vice-President: J. S. Gordon. 

Hon. Secretary: H. J. McLatchy, 952 Twenty-first Ave. West, Vancouver, B.C. 

Hon. Treasurer: Jas. Lyall, Bank of Hamilton, Veincouver, B.C. 

VOL. XXXIII. No. 5. 

NOVEMBER, 1919. 

Issued January 3, 1920. 
Entered at Ottatva Post Office as second class matter. 


President: M. Y. WiLLlAMS 
Vice-Presidents: L. D. Burung; P. A. Taverner 

Secretary: Treasurer: 

Clyde L. Patch F. W. Waugh 

(Geological Survey) (Geological Survey) 

Additional Members of Council: HoYES Lloyd; W. T. Macoun; G. A. Miller; R. 
M. Anderson; J. M. Macoun; Miss M. E. Cowan; Miss Crampe; C. B. Hutchings; 
C. M. Sternberg; H. I. Smith; H. McGillivray; H. B. Sifton. 


Editor : 

Arthur Gibson, 

ElntomologicEJ Breinch, Department of 

Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Associate Editors: 

E. Sapir - - Anthropology P. A. Taverner - - - Ornithology 

M. O. Malte - - Botany E. M. Kindle . - - Palaeontology 

M. Y. WiLUAMS - - Geology R. M. Anderson - - . . Zoology 



Canadian Sphaeriidae. By Hon. Mr. Justice Latchford 83 

Field Studies of Life-Histories of Canadian Mammals. By Rudolph Martin Anderson 86 

Birds in Relation to Sunflower Growing in Manitoba. By Norman Criddle 90 

Notes on the Bahavior of the Chipmunk. By A. Brooker Klugh 92 

The Ornithological Collector and the Law. By Hoyes Lloyd 93 

Ribes divaricatum X Ribes Lobbii. By J. K. Henry 94 

A New Cliff Swallow from Canada. By Harry C. Oberholser 95 

The Climatic Interpretation of Two Early Ordovician Mud-crack Horizons. By E. M. 

Kindle 96 

Botrychium obliquum Muhl., and var. dissectum (Spreng.) new to the Province of 

Quebec. By H. Mousley 97 

Notes and Observations: 

Remarks on the Metamorphosis of the Scallop, Andrew Halkett 98 

A Robin's Mistake. W. L. Scott 98 

Book Notices and Reviews: 

Ridgway's Birds of Middle and North America. Part VIII. P. A. Taverner. _ 99 

Contributions of Hamilton W. Laing. P. A. Taverner 99 

Articles in The Auk. P. A. Taverner 100 

Wild Animals of Glacier National Park The Mammals. R. M. Anderson 101 

THE CANADIAN FIELD-NATURALIST., lately The Ottawa Naturalist, estab- 
lished thirty-two years ago, "to publish the results of original research or investigation in all 
departments of naturcJ history," is issued monthly, excepting for the months of June, July and 

Papers, notes and photographs should be addressed to the Elditor. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, Mr. F. W. Waugh, Geological Sorvejr, 

Victoria Memorid Museum, Ottawa. The price of this volume is $1.00. 




1 32 Sparks Street - - - - - OTTAWA 


Manufacturers of 



Write for Catalogues. ^ Yo^ o^ 

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Dealers in Fine Diamonds. Sterling Silver, 
Electro Plated Ware and Rich Cut Glass. 

"The Store of MODERATE PRICES." 

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LYMANS, Limited 

(Established 1800) 

344 St. Paul Street West, MONTREAL. 

Manufacturing Chemists 

Importers and Dealers in 


Grow Good Crops Seeds Plants Bulbs 

Our rigorous system of testing eliminates loss 
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TOTAL ASSETS OVER 220,000,000 




SUPPLIES AND SPECIMENS. l\w^l IL-O 1 LI\, I'M.!., U.O.rt. 

Manufacturers of the genuine Schmitt boxes, exhibition cases and cabinets, also of the 
American Entomological Company's insect pins. 

Riker Mounts and botanical mounts always on hand, also Riker botanical presses. 
Send for our supply catalogue and other lists of interest to collectors. 



Memorial Tablets in Brass and Bronze. 

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Successful administration of ESTATES ranging in value from $500 to $5,000,00 each, is the 
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JAMES DAVEY, Manager. Ottawa Branch: Cor. SPARKS and ELGIN STS. 



Lithographers, Engravers, Bookbinders, Creators of Advertising Literature. 



* ^-TDevlin G).fei?^ 

VDvH oiTie o/the"Fur beautiful " 

Mens Hats 







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The Membership Committee of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club is making a special effort 
to increase the subscription list of The CANADIAN Field-Naturalist. Every member of the 
Club is urged to assist in this campaign by showing this number to a possible subscriber and 
endeavoring to have the attached blank filled in and forwarded to the Treasurer. 

F. W. WAUGH. Treasurer, O.F.-N.C, 

Geological Survey, Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa. 
I enclose herewith One Dollar, subscription to The Canadian Field-Naturalist for 
one year. 






410-412 Bank St. - Ottawa 

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Booksellers, Stationers, 
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Best Quality. COAL Lowest Prices. 

46 Sparks St., Ottawa. Phone Q. 461. 


When ordering any Books in the NATURE 
COURSE. Don I send mone^ awa\)! 

A. H. JARVIS, "The Bookstore." 
See our Garden Books. OTTAWA. 




AH as near as Your Nearest Phone or 
Post Office. 



We make everything we sell and guarantee 

everything we make. 



The Ottawa Gas Co. 
The Ottawa Electric Co. 


Dentist to certain of 
the cognoscenti. 

Phone Queen 2438. 

WANTED Back Numbers of The Ottawa Naturalist. 

The following back numbers of The Ottawa NaTURALIST are wanted to complete sets 
ordered by scientific institutions: 

JANUARY and FEBRUARY, 1895, and MARCH, 1896. 

The Secretary of the Club, MR. C. L. PATCH, Geological Survey, Ottawa, would be 
pleased to hear from anyone having the above numbers to dispose of. 



Hon. President: HoN. DuNCAN MARSHALL. 

Hon. Vice-Presidents: J. J. Gaetz, M.P.P., H. A. Craig. 

President :'F. C. Whoehouse. 

Vice-Presidents: Mrs. Casseus, Dr. Henry George. 

Secretary-Treasurer : MiSS R. E. Fyson, Red Deer. 

Directors: Mrs. George, Red Deer; Mrs. Pamely, Red Deer; Mrs. Root, Wetw- 
kiwin; Miss Goudie, Red Deer; Miss Cole, Calgary; E. Wilton, Red Deer; K. Bowman, 
Eximonton; F. S. Carr, Edmonton; D. Mackie, Edmonton. 
Members qualified to answer enquiries: 

Birds: Mrs. W. A. Cassels, Red Deer; Dr. H. George, Red Deer. 

Mammals : Dr. H. George, Red Deer. 

Fishes: F. C Whitehouse, Red Deer. 

Insects: Coleoptera. Mr. F. S. Carr, 11050 123rd St., Edmonton; Lepidoptera, K. 

Bowman, 9914 IlSth St., Edmonton; Odonata, F. C. Whitehouse, Red Deer. 
The meetings of this Society are held in Red Deer on the last Friday of each month, except 
during July and August, and perhaps September. The aimued meeting is held on the last 
Friday in November, also in Red Deer. 


President: John C. Middleton Secretary: Chas Watson. 

Members qualified to ansV)er enquiries: J. F. CalverT, Tecuraseth Ave., London; E. M. S. 
Dale, Hyman St., London; C. Watson, c/o Elliott, Marr & Co., London; W. E. 
Saunders, 352 Clarence St., London. 


Hon. President: I. GammelL. 

President: L. M. Terrill. 

Vice-Presidents: F. ABRAHAM, Miss Edith Morrow. 

Hen. Corresponding Secretary: Mrs. W. E. E. Dyer, 12 Willow Ave., Westmount. 

Hon. Recording Secretary;: MiSS Jean McConnell. 

Hon. Treasurer: Miss M. Hadrill. 

Directors : Miss Mary Armitage, Miss Louise Murphy, Miss Emily Luke, Mrs. F. 
Abraham, Mr. and Mrs. C F, Dale, Mr. Alex. McSween, Mrs. J. T. Ayers, Mr. W. A. 
Oswald, Miss Harriett Stone, Mr. Napier Smith. 

Members qualified to ansiver questions: L. M. Terrill, 44 Stanley Ave., St. Lambert, 
Que.; W. A. Oswald, 301 Wilson Ave., Notre Dame de Grace, Montreal; Napier Smith, 
Apt 21, 46 Cote des Neiges Road, Montreal ; C. N. ROBERTSON, 4010 Montrose Ave., Montreal; 
Dr. Arthur Willey, McGill University, Montreal; Dr. D. W. HAMILTON, Macdonald 
College, Que.; W. J. Brown, 250 Oliver Ave., Westmount, Que.; MiSS EdiTH Morrow, 
c/o Secretary; Miss Emily Luke, c/o Secretary. 


Hon. President: Dr. F. F. Wesbrook. 

President: John Davidson, University of British Columbia. 

Vice-President: J. S. Gordon. 

Hon. Secretary: H. J. McLatchy, 952 Twenty-first Ave. West, Vancouver, B.C. 

Hon. Treasurer: Jas. Lyall, Bank of Hamiilton, Vancouver, B.C. 

VOL. XXXIII. No. 6. 

DECEMBER, 1919. 




A *' 




f <V i \^ 


Issued February 16, 1920. 
Entered at Ottajva Post Office as second class matter. 


President: M. Y. WiLLIAMS 
Vice-Presidents: L. D. BuRUNG; P. A. Taverner 

Secretary : Treasurer : 

Miss E. B. Crampe 
Clyde L. Patch (Research Station, 

(Geological Survey) Dept. Agriculture, 

Hull, Que.) 

Additional' Members of Council: HoYES Lloyd; W. T. Macoun; G. A. Miller; R. 
M. Anderson; Miss M. E. Cowan; C. B. Hutchings; C. M. Sternberg; H. L 
Smith; H. McGillivray; F. W. Waugh. 



Arthur Gibson, 

Entomological Branch, Department of 

Agriculture, Ottawa. 

Associate Editors: 

E. Sapir - - Anthropology P. A. Taverner - - - Ornithology 

M. O. Malte - - Botany E. M. Kindle - - . Palaeontology 

M. Y. Wiluams - - Geology R. M. Anderson - - - - Zoology 



Champlain's Astrolabe. By Charles Macnamara 103 

Birds of Northern Saskatchewan and Northern Manitoba Collected in 1914 by Capt. 

Angus Buchanan. By J. Hj Fleming 109 

Random Botanical Notes IIL Isle-aux-Coudres, Que. By Bro. M. Victorin 114 

Notes and Observations: 

Breeding of Mourning Dove near Ottawa, Ont. R. M. Anderson 117 

Bachman's Sparrow an Addition to the Canadian Fauna. W. E. Saunders 118 

The Status of Bewick's Wren in Ontario. W. E. Saunders 118 

Index to Volume XXXIII 1 19 

THE CANADIAN FIELD^NATURALIST,, lately The Ottawa Naturaust. etab. 
lished thirty-two years ago, "to publish the results of original research or investigation in aU 
departments of natural history," is issued monthly, excepting for the months of June, July and 

Papers, notes and photographs should be addressed to the Editor. 

Subscriptions should be sent to the Treasurer, Miss E. B. Crampe, Research Station, 
Department of Agriculture, Hull, Que. 



1 32 Sparks Street OTTAWA 


Manufacturers of 




^ \s/ ^ ^ ^ \s/ ^ 

1 47 Albert Street Ottawa, Canada 



Dealers in Fine Diamonds, Sterling Silver, 
Electro Plated Ware and Rich Cut Glass. 

"The Store of MODERATE PRICES." 

208 Sparks St., OTTAWA. Phone Queen 1 430. 




246 Sparks Street, Ottawa Ont. Phone Queen 3993. 


LYMANS, Limited 

(Established 1800) 

344 St. Paul Street West, MONTREAL. 

Manufacturing Chemists 

Importers and Dealers in 



Grow Good Crops Seeds Plants Bulbs 

Our rigorous system of testing eliminates loss 
and disappointment from your garden. 


Seed and Bulb Merchants. 

Market Square, OTTAWA. 





We Have a Modern Repair Department. 

329 Sussex Street, Ottawa. Phone Q. 8028. 


CAPITAL $9,700,000. 


TOTAL ASSETS OVER 220,000,000 





Manufacturers of the genuine Schmitt boxes, exhibition cases and cabinets, also of the 
American Entomological Company's insect pins. 

Riker Mounts and botanical mounts always on hand, also Rilver botanical presses. 
Send for our sup]>ly catalogue and other lists of interest to collectors. 



Memorial Tablets in Brass and Bronze. 

Church Brass Work. 

264 Sparks Street, Ottawa. 


CAPITAL, $1,500,000. RESERVE, $2,000,000. 

Successful administration of ESTATES ranging in value from $500 to $5,000,00 each, is the 
best guarantee that you may confidently name as your ExECUTOR and TRUSTEE this Corporation. 

__JAMES DAVEY. Manager. Ottawa Branch: Cor. SPARKS and ELGIN STS. 


Lithographers, Engravers, Bookbinders, Creators of Advertising Literature. 




fe ^-TDevlin G.felfed 

viv^Home o/the" fur beautiful" 

Mens Hats 







Gold and Silversmiths 
101-105 Sparks Street 



The Membership Committee of the Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club is making a special effort 
to increase the subscription list of The CANADIAN Field-Naturalist. Every member of the 
Club is urged to assist in this campaign by showing this number to a possible subscriber and 
endeavoring to have the attached blank filled in and forwarded to the Treasurer. 

F. W. WAUGH, Treasurer, O.F.-N.C, 

Geological Survey, Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa. 
I enclose herewith One Dollar, subsrription to The Canadian Field-Naturalist for 
one year. 






410-412 Bank St. - Ottawa 

PHONES Queen 1023-1024. 

Fine Builders' Hardware 
Refrigerators and Hammocks. 

Inspected Milk. 
Ice Cream. 


Fresh Butter. 


Booksellers, Stationers, 
Bookbinders, Printers. 


THE 2 MACS, Limited 



THE G. C. RAY Co., Limited 

Best Quality. \^ \J /\ ]_, Lowest Prices. 

46 Sparks St., Ottawa. Phone Q. 461. 


When ordering any Books in the NATURE 
COURSE. Don I send money away! 

A. H. JARVIS, "The Bookstore." 
See our Garden Books. OTTAWA. 




All as near as Your Nearest Phone or 
Post Office. 



We make everything we sell and guarantee 

everything we make. 



The Ottawa Gas Co. 
The Ottawa Electric Co. 


Dentist to certain of 
the cognoscenti. 


Phone Queen 2438. 

WANTED Back Numbers of The Ottawa Naturalist. 

The following back numbers of The Ottawa NATURALIST are wanted to complete sets 
ordered by scientific institutions: 

JANUARY and FEBRUARY, 1895, and MARCH, 1896. 

The Secretary of the Club, MR. C. L. PATCH, Geological Survey, Ottawa, would be 
pleased to hear from anyone having the above numbers to dispose of. 



Hon. President: Hon. Duncan Marshall. 

Hon. Vice-Presidents: J. J. Gaetz, M.P.P., H. A. Craig. 

President: F. C. Whitehouse. 

Vice-Presidents: Mrs. Cassels, Dr. Henry George. 

Secretary-Treasurer : Miss R. E. Fyson, Red Deer, 

Directors: Mrs. George, Red Deer; Mrs Pamely, Red Deer; Mrs. Root, Weta- 
kiwin; Miss GouDiE, Red Deer; Miss Cole, Calgary; E. Wilton, Red Deer; K. Bowman, 
E^dmonton; F. S. Carr, Edmonton; D. Mackie, Edmonton. 
Members qualified to ansy/er enquiries: 

Birds: Mrs. W. A. Cassels, Red Deer; Dr. H. George, Red Deer. , 

Mammals : Dr. H. George, Red Deer. 

Fishes: F. C. Whitehouse, Red Deer. 

Insects : Coleoptera, Mr. F. S. Carr, 1 1 050 1 23rd St., Edmonton ; Lepidoptera, K. 

Bowman, 9914 1 15th St., Edmonton; Odonala, F. C. Whitehouse, Red Deer. 
The meetings of this Society are held in Red Deer on the last Friday of each month, except 
during July and August, and perhaps September. The annual meeting is held on the lat 
Friday in November, also in Red Deer. 


President: JOHN C. MiDDLETON Secretary: Chas Watson. 

Members qualified to ansrver enquiries: J. F. Calvert, Tecumseth Ave., London; E. M. S. 
Dale, Hyman St., London; C. Watson, c/o Elliott, Marr & Co., London; W. E. 
Saunders, 352 Clarence St., London. 


Hon. President: I. Gammell. 

President: L. M. Terrill. 

Vice-Presidents: F. Abraham, Miss EIdith Morrow. 

Hon. Corresponding Secretary: Mrs. W. E. E. Dyer, 12 Willow Ave., Westmount. 

Hon. Recording Secretary : Miss Jean McConnell. 

Hon. Treasurer: Miss M. Hadrill. 

Directors: Miss Mary Armitage, Miss Louise Murphy, Miss Emily Luke, Mrs. F. 
Abraham, Mr. and Mrs. C. F. Dale, Mr. Alex. McSween, Mrs. J. T. Ayers, Mr. W. A. 
Oswald, Miss Harriett Stone, Mr, Napier Smith. 

Members qualified to answer questions: L. M. Terrill, 44 Stanley Ave., St. Lambert, 
Que.; W. A. Oswald, 301 Wilson Ave., Notre Dame de Grace, Montreal; Napier SmiTH, 
Apt 21, 46 Cote de Neige Road, Montreal; C. N. RoBERTSON, 4010 Montrose Ave., Montreal; 
Dr. Arthur Willey, McGiU University, Montreal; Dr. D. W. HAMILTON, Macdonald 
College, Que.; W. J. Brown, 250 Oliver Ave., Westmount, Que.; MiSS Edith Morrow, 
c/o Secretary; Miss Emily Luke, c/o Secretary. 


Hon. President: Dr. F. F. Wesbrook. 

President: John Davidson, University of British Columbia. 

Vice-President: J. S. Gordon. 

Hon. Secreiary: H. J. McLatchy, 952 Twenty-first Ave. West, Vancouver, B.C. 

Hon. Treasurer: Jas. Lyall, Bank of Hamilton, Vancouver, B.C.